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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7960, 2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33846417

RESUMO

Theoretically, panic disorder and agoraphobia pathology can be conceptualized as a cascade of dynamically changing defensive responses to threat cues from inside the body. Guided by this trans-diagnostic model we tested the interaction between defensive activation and vagal control as a marker of prefrontal inhibition of subcortical defensive activation. We investigated ultra-short-term changes of vagally controlled high frequency heart rate variability (HRV) during a standardized threat challenge (entrapment) in n = 232 patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia, and its interaction with various indices of defensive activation. We found a strong inverse relationship between HRV and heart rate during threat, which was stronger at the beginning of exposure. Patients with a strong increase in heart rate showed a deactivation of prefrontal vagal control while patients showing less heart rate acceleration showed an increase in vagal control. Moreover, vagal control collapsed in case of imminent threat, i.e., when body symptoms increase and seem to get out of control. In these cases of defensive action patients either fled from the situation or experienced a panic attack. Active avoidance, panic attacks, and increased sympathetic arousal are associated with an inability to maintain vagal control over the heart suggesting that teaching such regulation strategies during exposure treatment might be helpful to keep prefrontal control, particularly during the transition zone from post-encounter to circa strike defense.Trial Registration Number: ISRCTN80046034.

2.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 177, 2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33731674

RESUMO

Panic disorder (PD) is characterized by a dysfunctional defensive responding to panic-related body symptoms that is assumed to contribute to the persistence of panic symptomatology. The present study aimed at examining whether this dysfunctional defensive reactivity to panic-related body symptoms would no longer be present following successful cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) but would persist when patients show insufficient symptom improvement. Therefore, in the present study, effects of CBT on reported symptoms and defensive response mobilization during interoceptive challenge were investigated using hyperventilation as a respiratory symptom provocation procedure. Changes in defensive mobilization to body symptoms in the course of CBT were investigated in patients with a primary diagnosis of PD with or without agoraphobia by applying a highly standardized hyperventilation task prior to and after a manual-based CBT (n = 38) or a waiting period (wait-list controls: n = 20). Defensive activation was indexed by the potentiation of the amygdala-dependent startle eyeblink response. All patients showed a pronounced defensive response mobilization to body symptoms at baseline. After treatment, no startle reflex potentiation was found in those patients who showed a clinically significant improvement. However, wait-list controls and treatment non-responders continued to show increased defensive responses to actually innocuous body symptoms after the treatment/waiting period. The present results indicate that the elimination of defensive reactivity to actually innocuous body symptoms might be a neurobiological correlate and indicator of successful CBT in patients with PD, which may help to monitor and optimize CBT outcomes.

3.
Psychophysiology ; : e13812, 2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33759212

RESUMO

During fear conditioning, a cue (CS) signals an inevitable distal threat (US) and evokes a conditioned response that can be described as attentive immobility (freezing). The organism remains motionless and monitors the source of danger while startle responses are potentiated, indicating a state of defensive hypervigilance. Although in animals vagally mediated fear bradycardia is also reliably observed under such circumstances, results are mixed in human fear conditioning. Using a single-cue fear conditioning and extinction protocol, we tested cardiac reactivity and startle potentiation indexing low-level defensive strategies in a fear-conditioned (n = 40; paired presentations of CS and US) compared with a non-conditioned control group (n = 40; unpaired presentations of CS and US). Additionally, we assessed shock expectancy ratings on a trial-by-trial basis indexing declarative knowledge of the previous contingencies. Half of each group underwent extinction under sham or active transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS), serving as additional proof of concept. We found stronger cardiac deceleration during CS presentation in the fear learning relative to the control group. This learned fear bradycardia was positively correlated with conditioned startle potentiation but not with declarative knowledge of CS-US contingencies. TVNS abolished differences in heart rate changes between both groups and removed the significant correlation between late cardiac deceleration and startle potentiation in the fear learning group. Results suggest, fear-conditioned cues evoke attentive immobility in humans, characterized by cardiac deceleration and startle potentiation. Such defensive response pattern is elicited by cues predicting inevitable distal threat and resembles conditioned fear responses observed in rodents.

4.
J Anxiety Disord ; 78: 102361, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33508747

RESUMO

Recent meta-analyses indicated differences in fear acquisition and extinction between patients with anxiety-related disorders and comparison subjects. However, these effects are small and may hold for only a subsample of patients. To investigate individual trajectories in fear acquisition and extinction across patients with anxiety-related disorders (N = 104; before treatment) and comparison subjects (N = 93), data from a previous study (Duits et al., 2017) were re-analyzed using data-driven latent class growth analyses. In this explorative study, subjective fear ratings, shock expectancy ratings and startle responses were used as outcome measures. Fear and expectancy ratings, but not startle data, yielded distinct fear conditioning trajectories across participants. Patients were, compared to controls, overrepresented in two distinct dysfunctional fear conditioning trajectories: impaired safety learning and poor fear extinction to danger cues. The profiling of individual patterns allowed to determine that whereas a subset of patients showed trajectories of dysfunctional fear conditioning, a significant proportion of patients (≥50 %) did not. The strength of trajectory analyses as opposed to group analyses is that it allows the identification of individuals with dysfunctional fear conditioning. Results suggested that dysfunctional fear learning may also be associated with poor treatment outcome, but further research in larger samples is needed to address this question.

5.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 44: 105-120, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483252

RESUMO

There is a recurring debate on the role of the serotonin transporter gene linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) in the moderation of response to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in anxiety disorders. Results, however, are still inconclusive. We here aim to perform a meta-analysis on the role of 5-HTTLPR in the moderation of CBT outcome in anxiety disorders. We investigated both categorical (symptom reduction of at least 50%) and dimensional outcomes from baseline to post-treatment and follow-up. Original data were obtained from ten independent samples (including three unpublished samples) with a total of 2,195 patients with primary anxiety disorder. No significant effects of 5-HTTLPR genotype on categorical or dimensional outcomes at post and follow-up were detected. We conclude that current evidence does not support the hypothesis of 5-HTTLPR as a moderator of treatment outcome for CBT in anxiety disorders. Future research should address whether other factors such as long-term changes or epigenetic processes may explain further variance in these complex gene-environment interactions and molecular-genetic pathways that may confer behavioral change following psychotherapy.

6.
Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci ; 15(8): 849-859, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734299

RESUMO

Cigarette smoking increases the likelihood of developing anxiety disorders, among them panic disorder (PD). While brain structures altered by smoking partly overlap with morphological changes identified in PD, the modulating impact of smoking as a potential confounder on structural alterations in PD has not yet been addressed. In total, 143 PD patients (71 smokers) and 178 healthy controls (62 smokers) participated in a multicenter magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study. T1-weighted images were used to examine brain structural alterations using voxel-based morphometry in a priori defined regions of the defensive system network. PD was associated with gray matter volume reductions in the amygdala and hippocampus. This difference was driven by non-smokers and absent in smoking subjects. Bilateral amygdala volumes were reduced with increasing health burden (neither PD nor smoking > either PD or smoking > both PD and smoking). As smoking can narrow or diminish commonly observed structural abnormalities in PD, the effect of smoking should be considered in MRI studies focusing on patients with pathological forms of fear and anxiety. Future studies are needed to determine if smoking may increase the risk for subsequent psychopathology via brain functional or structural alterations.

7.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 376, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32508683

RESUMO

Much research has been devoted to the development of emotion recognition tests that can be used to investigate how individuals identify and discriminate emotional expressions of other individuals. One of the most prominent emotion recognition tests is the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RME-T). The original RME-T has been widely used to investigate how individuals recognize complex emotional expressions from the eye region of adult faces. However, the RME-T can only be used to investigate inter-individual differences in complex emotion recognition during the processing of adult faces. To extend its usefulness, we developed a modified version of the RME-T, the Reading the Mind in the Eyes of Children Test (RME-C-T). The RME-C-T can be used to investigate how individuals recognize complex emotional expressions from the eye region of child faces. However, the validity of the RME-C-T has not been evaluated yet. We, thus, administered the RME-C-T together with the RME-T to a sample of healthy adult participants (n = 119). The Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS) were also administered. Participants' RME-C-T performance correlated with participants' RME-T performance, implying that the RME-C-T measures similar emotion recognition abilities as the RME-T. Participants' RME-C-T performance also correlated with participants' IRI and TAS scores, indicating that these emotion recognition abilities are affected by empathetic and alexithymic traits. Moreover, participants' RME-C-T performance differed between participants with high and low TAS scores, suggesting that the RME-C-T is sensitive enough to detect impairments in these emotion recognition abilities. The RME-C-T, thus, turned out to be a valid measure of inter-individual differences in complex emotion recognition during the processing of child faces.

8.
J Neural Transm (Vienna) ; 127(11): 1527-1537, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468273

RESUMO

While DNA methylation patterns have been studied for a role in the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders, the role of the enzymes establishing DNA methylation-DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs)-has yet to be investigated. In an effort to investigate DNMT genotype-specific effects on dimensional anxiety traits in addition to the categorical phenotype of panic disorder, 506 panic disorder patients and 3112 healthy participants were assessed for anxiety related cognition [Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire (ACQ)], anxiety sensitivity [Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI)] as well as pathological worry [Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ)] and genotyped for five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the DNMT3A (rs11683424, rs1465764, rs1465825) and DNMT3B (rs2424932, rs4911259) genes, which have previously been found associated with clinical and trait-related phenotypes. There was no association with the categorical phenotype panic disorder. However, a significant association was discerned between DNMT3A rs1465764 and PSWQ scores in healthy participants, with the minor allele conveying a protective effect. In addition, a marginally significant association between questionnaire scores (PSWQ, ASI) in healthy participants and DNMT3B rs2424932 was detected, again with the minor allele conveying a protective effect. The present results suggest a possible minor role of DNMT3A and DNMT3B gene variation in conveying resilience towards anxiety disorders. As the observed associations indicated a protective effect of two SNPs particularly with pathological worry, future studies are proposed to explore these variants in generalized anxiety disorder rather than panic disorder.

9.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 110, 2020 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32317621

RESUMO

Extinction learning is suggested to be a central mechanism during exposure-based cognitive behavioral psychotherapy. A positive association between the patients' pretreatment extinction learning performance and treatment outcome would corroborate the hypothesis. Indeed, there is first correlational evidence between reduced extinction learning and therapy efficacy. However, the results of these association studies may be hampered by extinction-training protocols that do not match treatment procedures. Therefore, we developed an extinction-training protocol highly tailored to the procedure of exposure therapy and tested it in two samples of 46 subjects in total. By using instructed fear acquisition training, including a consolidation period overnight, we wanted to ensure that the conditioned fear response was well established prior to extinction training, which is the case in patients with anxiety disorders prior to treatment. Moreover, the extinction learning process was analyzed on multiple response levels, comprising unconditioned stimulus (US) expectancy ratings, autonomic responses, defensive brain stem reflexes, and neural activation using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Using this protocol, we found robust fear conditioning and slow-speed extinction learning. We also observed within-group heterogeneity in extinction learning, albeit a stable fear response at the beginning of the extinction training. Finally, we found discordance between different response systems, suggesting that multiple processes are involved in extinction learning. The paradigm presented here might help to ameliorate the association between extinction learning performance assessed in the laboratory and therapy outcomes and thus facilitate translational science in anxiety disorders.

10.
Neuropsychopharmacology ; 45(7): 1242, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32210370

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

11.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1529, 2020 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001763

RESUMO

Inhibiting fear-related thoughts and defensive behaviors when they are no longer appropriate to the situation is a prerequisite for flexible and adaptive responding to changing environments. Such inhibition of defensive systems is mediated by ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), limbic basolateral amygdala (BLA), and brain stem locus-coeruleus noradrenergic system (LC-NAs). Non-invasive, transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS) has shown to activate this circuit. Using a multiple-day single-cue fear conditioning and extinction paradigm, we investigated long-term effects of tVNS on inhibition of low-level amygdala modulated fear potentiated startle and cognitive risk assessments. We found that administration of tVNS during extinction training facilitated inhibition of fear potentiated startle responses and cognitive risk assessments, resulting in facilitated formation, consolidation and long-term recall of extinction memory, and prevention of the return of fear. These findings might indicate new ways to increase the efficacy of exposure-based treatments of anxiety disorders.


Assuntos
Extinção Psicológica/fisiologia , Medo/fisiologia , Estimulação Elétrica Nervosa Transcutânea/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiologia , Condicionamento Clássico/fisiologia , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inibição Psicológica , Masculino , Memória/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Reflexo de Sobressalto/fisiologia , Nervo Vago/metabolismo , Nervo Vago/fisiologia , Estimulação do Nervo Vago/métodos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1202, 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31988311

RESUMO

Instructions given prior to extinction training facilitate the extinction of conditioned skin conductance (SCRs) and fear-potentiated startle responses (FPSs) and serve as laboratory models for cognitive interventions implemented in exposure-based treatments of pathological anxiety. Here, we investigated how instructions given prior to extinction training, with or without the additional removal of the electrode used to deliver the unconditioned stimulus (US), affect the return of fear assessed 24 hours later. We replicated previous instruction effects on extinction and added that the additional removal of the US electrode slightly enhanced facilitating effects on the extinction of conditioned FPSs. In contrast, extinction instructions hardly affected the return of conditioned fear responses. These findings suggest that instruction effects observed during extinction training do not extent to tests of return of fear 24 hours later which serve as laboratory models of relapse and improvement stability of exposure-based treatments.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/terapia , Extinção Psicológica , Medo/psicologia , Reforço Verbal , Adolescente , Adulto , Tornozelo , Eletrocardiografia , Eletrodos , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Resposta Galvânica da Pele , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Física/métodos , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Am J Psychiatry ; 177(3): 254-264, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838872

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has been hypothesized to act by reducing the pathologically enhanced semantic, anxiety-related associations of patients with panic disorder. This study investigated the effects of CBT on the behavioral and neural correlates of the panic-related semantic network in patients with panic disorder. METHODS: An automatic semantic priming paradigm specifically tailored for panic disorder, in which panic symptoms (e.g., "dizziness") were primed by panic triggers (e.g., "elevator") compared with neutral words (e.g., "bottle"), was performed during functional MRI scanning with 118 patients with panic disorder (compared with 150 healthy control subjects) before and 42 patients (compared with 52 healthy control subjects) after an exposure-based CBT. Neural correlates were investigated by comparing 103 pairs of matched patients and control subjects at the baseline (for patients) or T1 (for control subjects) assessment and 39 pairs at the posttreatment or T2 assessment. RESULTS: At baseline or T1, patients rated panic-trigger/panic-symptom word pairs with higher relatedness and higher negative valence compared with healthy control subjects. Patients made faster lexical decisions to the panic-symptom words when they were preceded by panic-trigger words. This panic-priming effect in patients (compared with control subjects) was reflected in suppressed neural activation in the left and right temporal cortices and insulae and enhanced activation in the posterior and anterior cingulate cortices. After CBT, significant clinical improvements in the patient group were observed along with a reduction in relatedness and negative valence rating and attenuation of neural activation in the anterior cingulate cortex for processing of panic-trigger/panic-symptom word pairs. CONCLUSIONS: The findings support a biased semantic network in panic disorder, which is normalized after CBT. Attenuation of anterior cingulate cortex activation for processing of panic-related associations provides a potential mechanism for future therapeutic interventions.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno de Pânico/terapia , Adulto , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Transtorno de Pânico/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno de Pânico/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
14.
Neuropsychopharmacology ; 45(3): 499-506, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634897

RESUMO

D-cycloserine (DCS), a partial NMDA-receptor agonist, seems to be a promising enhancer for exposure therapy in anxiety disorders. It has been tested successfully in animal models of fear extinction, where DCS enhanced extinction learning. Applied in clinical studies, results of DCS-augmented exposure therapy remain ambiguous, calling for a deeper understanding of the underlying mechanisms of DCS and its exact effect on extinction learning and return of fear (ROF) in humans. In the present study, we investigated the effect of DCS-augmented extinction learning on behavioral, psychophysiological, and neural indices of ROF during a 24-h delayed recall test. Thirty-seven participants entered a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, 3-day fear conditioning and delayed extinction fMRI design. One hour before extinction training, participants received an oral dose of 50 mg of DCS or a placebo. Behavioral arousal ratings revealed a generalized ROF during extinction recall in the placebo but not DCS group. Furthermore, participants receiving DCS compared to placebo showed attenuated differential BOLD responses in left posterior hippocampus and amygdala from extinction learning to extinction recall, due to increased hippocampal recruitment in placebo and trendwise decreased amygdala responding in DCS subjects. Our finding that DCS reduces ROF in arousal ratings and neural structures subserving defensive reactions support a role for NMDA receptors in extinction memory consolidation and encourage further translational research.

15.
Biol Psychiatry ; 87(6): 548-558, 2020 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The startle eye-blink is the cross-species translational tool to study defensive behavior in affective neuroscience with relevance to a broad range of neuropsychiatric conditions. It makes use of the startle reflex, a defensive response elicited by an immediate, unexpected sensory event, which is potentiated when evoked during threat and inhibited during safety. In contrast to skin conductance responses or pupil dilation, modulation of the startle reflex is valence specific. Rodent models implicate a modulatory pathway centering on the brainstem (i.e., nucleus reticularis pontis caudalis) and the centromedial amygdala as key hubs for flexibly integrating valence information into differential startle magnitude. Technical advances now allow for the investigation of this pathway using combined facial electromyography and functional magnetic resonance imaging in humans. METHODS: We employed a multimethodological approach combining trial-by-trial facial eye-blink startle electromyography and brainstem- and amygdala-specific functional magnetic resonance imaging in humans. Validating the robustness and reproducibility of our findings, we provide evidence from two different paradigms (fear-potentiated startle, affect-modulated startle) in two independent studies (N = 43 and N = 55). RESULTS: We provide key evidence for a conserved neural pathway for acoustic startle modulation between humans and rodents. Furthermore, we provide the crucial direct link between electromyography startle eye-blink magnitude and neural response strength. Finally, we demonstrate a dissociation between arousal-specific amygdala responding and triggered valence-specific amygdala responding. CONCLUSIONS: We provide neurobiologically based evidence for the strong translational value of startle responding and argue that startle-evoked amygdala responding and its affective modulation may hold promise as an important novel tool for affective neuroscience and its clinical translation.

16.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 108: 559-601, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446010

RESUMO

Due to their ability to capture attention, emotional stimuli tend to benefit from enhanced perceptual processing, which can be helpful when such stimuli are task-relevant but hindering when they are task-irrelevant. Altered emotion-attention interactions have been associated with symptoms of affective disturbances, and emerging research focuses on improving emotion-attention interactions to prevent or treat affective disorders. In line with the Human Affectome Project's emphasis on linguistic components, we also analyzed the language used to describe attention-related aspects of emotion, and highlighted terms related to domains such as conscious awareness, motivational effects of attention, social attention, and emotion regulation. These terms were discussed within a broader review of available evidence regarding the neural correlates of (1) Emotion-Attention Interactions in Perception, (2) Emotion-Attention Interactions in Learning and Memory, (3) Individual Differences in Emotion-Attention Interactions, and (4) Training and Interventions to Optimize Emotion-Attention Interactions. This comprehensive approach enabled an integrative overview of the current knowledge regarding the mechanisms of emotion-attention interactions at multiple levels of analysis, and identification of emerging directions for future investigations.

17.
Neuropsychologia ; 145: 106606, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29246488

RESUMO

Recent event-related potential (ERP) data showed that neutral objects encoded in emotional background pictures were better remembered than objects encoded in neutral contexts, when recognition memory was tested one week later. In the present study, we investigated whether this long-term memory advantage for items is also associated with correct memory for contextual source details. Furthermore, we were interested in the possibly dissociable contribution of familiarity and recollection processes (using a Remember/Know procedure). The results revealed that item memory performance was mainly driven by the subjective experience of familiarity, irrespective of whether the objects were previously encoded in emotional or neutral contexts. Correct source memory for the associated background picture, however, was driven by recollection and enhanced when the content was emotional. In ERPs, correctly recognized old objects evoked frontal ERP Old/New effects (300-500 ms), irrespective of context category. As in our previous study (Ventura-Bort et al., 2016b), retrieval for objects from emotional contexts was associated with larger parietal Old/New differences (600-800 ms), indicating stronger involvement of recollection. Thus, the results suggest a stronger contribution of recollection-based retrieval to item and contextual background source memory for neutral information associated with an emotional event.

18.
Psychophysiology ; 57(2): e13474, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529522

RESUMO

Psychophysiology is a central hub connecting neurobiological and behavioral domains with clinical science, thus providing ideal tools for increasing the understanding of mental disorders beyond the level of symptom reports. The present article provides an overview of how psychophysiological research can contribute toward efforts directed at an improved understanding of anxiety disorders. Starting with the behavioral domain, it is demonstrated that defensive behaviors are fundamental to anxiety disorders and that these behaviors are dynamically organized depending upon the proximity of a specific threat. The next section reviews neural networks that are activated during the encoding of threat-relevant information and during the organization of the cascade of defensive responses, including how passive avoidance might be conceptualized within a neurobehavioral framework. The last section addresses the translation of these behavioral and neuronal findings from experimental psychopathology research to clinical populations. Finally, evidence is presented to support how behavioral approaches may be helpful in predicting treatment outcomes.

19.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712720

RESUMO

Panic disorder (PD) has a lifetime prevalence of 2-4% and heritability estimates of 40%. The contributory genetic variants remain largely unknown, with few and inconsistent loci having been reported. The present report describes the largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) of PD to date comprising genome-wide genotype data of 2248 clinically well-characterized PD patients and 7992 ethnically matched controls. The samples originated from four European countries (Denmark, Estonia, Germany, and Sweden). Standard GWAS quality control procedures were conducted on each individual dataset, and imputation was performed using the 1000 Genomes Project reference panel. A meta-analysis was then performed using the Ricopili pipeline. No genome-wide significant locus was identified. Leave-one-out analyses generated highly significant polygenic risk scores (PRS) (explained variance of up to 2.6%). Linkage disequilibrium (LD) score regression analysis of the GWAS data showed that the estimated heritability for PD was 28.0-34.2%. After correction for multiple testing, a significant genetic correlation was found between PD and major depressive disorder, depressive symptoms, and neuroticism. A total of 255 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with p < 1 × 10-4 were followed up in an independent sample of 2408 PD patients and 228,470 controls from Denmark, Iceland and the Netherlands. In the combined analysis, SNP rs144783209 showed the strongest association with PD (pcomb = 3.10 × 10-7). Sign tests revealed a significant enrichment of SNPs with a discovery p-value of <0.0001 in the combined follow up cohort (p = 0.048). The present integrative analysis represents a major step towards the elucidation of the genetic susceptibility to PD.

20.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 29(10): 1138-1151, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444036

RESUMO

The gene coding for glycine receptor ß subunits (GLRB) has been found to be related to panic disorder and agoraphobia (PD/AG) and to be associated with altered insular BOLD activation during fear conditioning, as an intermediate phenotype of defensive system reactivity in healthy subjects. In a multicenter clinical trial on PD/AG patients we investigated in three sub-samples whether GLRB allelic variation (A/G; A-allele identified as «risk¼) in the single nucleotide polymorphism rs7688285 was associated with autonomic (behavioral avoidance test BAT; n = 267 patients) and neural (differential fear conditioning; n = 49 patients, n = 38 controls) measures, and furthermore with responding towards exposure-based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT, n = 184 patients). An interaction of genotype with current PD/AG diagnosis (PD/AG vs. controls; fMRI data only) and their modification after CBT was tested as well. Exploratory fMRI results prior to CBT, revealed A-allele carriers irrespective of diagnostic status to show overall higher BOLD activation in the hippocampus, motor cortex (MC) and insula. Differential activation in the MC, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and insula was found in the interaction genotype X diagnosis. Differential activation in ACC and hippocampus was present in differential fear learning. ACC activation was modified after treatment, while no overall rs7688285 dependent effect on clinical outcomes was found. On the behavioral level, A-allele carriers showed pronounced fear reactivity prior to CBT which partially normalized afterwards. In sum, rs7688285 variation interacts in a complex manner with PD/AG on a functional systems level and might be involved in the development of PD/AG but not in their treatment.


Assuntos
Agorafobia/fisiopatologia , Alelos , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Medo/fisiologia , Transtorno de Pânico/fisiopatologia , Receptores da Glicina/genética , Agorafobia/complicações , Agorafobia/genética , Agorafobia/terapia , Aprendizagem da Esquiva/fisiologia , Condicionamento Psicológico/fisiologia , Neuroimagem Funcional , Genótipo , Humanos , Terapia Implosiva , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Transtorno de Pânico/complicações , Transtorno de Pânico/genética , Transtorno de Pânico/terapia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
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