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1.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 714189, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34616316

RESUMO

Background: Alcohol and cannabis are commonly used by adolescents in the United States. Both alcohol use disorder (AUD) and cannabis use disorder (CUD) have been associated with reduced emotion expression recognition ability. However, this work has primarily occurred in adults and has not considered neuro-cognitive risk factors associated with conduct problems that commonly co-occur with, and precede, substance use. Yet, conduct problems are also associated with reduced emotion expression recognition ability. The current study investigated the extent of negative association between AUD and CUD symptom severity and expression recognition ability over and above any association of expression recognition ability with conduct problems [conduct disorder (CD) diagnostic status]. Methods: In this study, 152 youths aged 12.5-18 years (56 female; 60 diagnosed with CD) completed a rapid presentation morphed intensity facial expression task to investigate the association between relative severity of AUD/CUD and expression recognition ability. Results: Cannabis use disorder identification test (CUDIT) scores were negatively associated with recognition accuracy for higher intensity (particularly sad and fearful) expressions while CD diagnostic status was independently negatively associated with recognition of sad expressions. Alcohol use disorder identification test (AUDIT) scores were not significantly associated with expression recognition ability. Conclusions: These data indicate that relative severity of CUD and CD diagnostic status are statistically independently associated with reduced expression recognition ability. On the basis of these data, we speculate that increased cannabis use during adolescence may exacerbate a neuro-cognitive risk factor for the emergence of aggression and antisocial behavior.

2.
Subst Use Misuse ; 56(13): 2026-2034, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402373

RESUMO

Background: Adolescent cannabis use is an established risk factor for the development of psychosis, but the premorbid vulnerability factors and specificity versus generality of the psychotic symptom domains affected in cannabis-psychosis relationships remain incompletely understood. To improve our understanding of these relationships, we used longitudinal data to examine the individual and interactive effects of preadolescent transmissible liability to substance use disorders (SUD), measured via the transmissible liability index (TLI), and adolescent cannabis use on the development of two distinct psychotic symptom domains, paranoid and schizotypal personality traits in young adulthood. Methods: We performed secondary analysis of data from the Center for Education and Drug Abuse (CEDAR) study, which longitudinally assessed offspring of men with (N = 211) and without (N = 237) lifetime history of SUD at ages 10-12, and across adolescence as they transitioned to young adulthood. TLI scores were calculated at age 10-12, self-reported cannabis use was assessed at age 16, and paranoid and schizotypal symptoms were assessed at age 19. Results: Cannabis use at age 16 and family history of SUD were significantly associated with paranoid and schizotypal symptoms at age 19, but TLI scores were not. The interactive effect of TLI x cannabis use was also not significant. Paranoid and schizotypal symptoms showed different dose-dependent sensitivities to cannabis exposure at age 16. Conclusions: These findings indicate that adolescent cannabis use and family history of SUD differentially contribute to the development of paranoid and schizotypal personality traits through mechanisms that do not include behavioral disinhibition.

3.
BMJ Open Ophthalmol ; 6(1): e000751, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34368462

RESUMO

Objective: An electronegative electroretinogram (ERG) can indicate important ocular or systemic disease. This study explored the prevalence of electronegative responses to dark-adapted stimuli in a largely healthy cohort. Methods and Analysis: 211 participants recruited from the TwinsUK cohort underwent ERG testing incorporating international standard (International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision (ISCEV)) protocols and additional stimuli. Responses were recorded using conductive fibre electrodes, following pupil dilation and 20 min dark adaptation. Responses analysed were to the ISCEV standard and strong flashes (3.0 and 10 cd/m2 s), and to additional white flashes (0.67-67 cd/m2 s). A-wave and b-wave amplitudes were extracted; b:a ratios were calculated and proportions of eyes with ratios<1 were noted. Results: Mean (SD) age was 62.4 (11.4) years (median, 64.3; range 23-86 years). 93% were female. Mean (SD) b:a ratios for right and left eyes, respectively, were 1.86 (0.33) and 1.81 (0.29) for the standard flash, and 1.62 (0.25) and 1.58 (0.23) for the stronger flash; average b:a ratio was lower for the stronger flash (p<0.0001). No waveforms were electronegative. For additional flashes, b:a ratio decreased with increasing flash strength. No electronegative waveforms were seen except in three eyes (0.7%) for the strongest flash; in some cases, drift in the waveform may have artefactually reduced the b:a ratio. Conclusion: For standard dark-adapted stimuli, no participants had electronegative waveforms. The findings support the notion that electronegative waveforms (in response to standard flash strengths) are unusual, and should prompt further investigation.

4.
Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378302

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of myopia is increasing globally including in Europe and parts of Asia but Australian data are lacking. This study aim described the change in myopia prevalence in middle-aged Australian adults over approximately a 20-year period. METHODS: Two contemporary Western Australian studies (conducted in mid-late 2010s): the coastal-regional Busselton Healthy Ageing Study (BHAS) and the urban Gen1 of the Raine Study (G1RS) were compared to two earlier studies (early-mid 1990s) in Australia: the urban Blue Mountains Eye Study (BMES) and urban/regional Melbourne Visual Impairment Project (MVIP). Refractive error was measured by autorefraction, vertometry, or subjective refraction. Participants (49-70 years) of European descent without self-reported/diagnosed cataract, corneal disease, or refractive or corneal surgery were included. RESULTS: After exclusions, data were available from 2217, 1760, 700, 2987 and 756 participants from BMES, urban MVIP, regional MVIP, BHAS, and G1RS, respectively. The mean age ranged from 57.1 ± 4.6 years in the G1RS to 60.1 ± 6.0 years in the BMES; 44-48% of participants were male. When stratified by location, the contemporary urban G1RS cohort had a higher age-standardised myopia prevalence than the urban MVIP and BMES cohorts (29.2%, 16.4%, and 23.9%, p < 0.001). The contemporary coastal-regional BHAS had a higher age-standardised myopia prevalence than the regional MVIP cohort (19.4% vs. 13.8%, p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: We report an increase in myopia prevalence in older adults in Australia born after World War ll compared to cohorts born before, accounting for urban/regional location. The prevalence of myopia remains relatively low in middle-aged Australian adults.

5.
Clin Pediatr (Phila) ; 60(9-10): 418-426, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342242

RESUMO

Pediatrician Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) practices vary widely, though little is known about the correlates of SBIRT implementation. Using data from a national sample of US pediatricians who treat adolescents (n = 250), we characterized self-reported utilization rates of SBIRT among US pediatricians and identified provider- and practice-level characteristics and barriers associated with SBIRT utilization. All participants completed an electronic survey querying the demographics, practice patterns, and perceived barriers related to SBIRT practices. Our results showed that 88% of respondents reported screening for substance use annually, but only 26% used structured/validated screening instruments. Furthermore, 40% of respondents provided evidence-based brief interventions, and only 11% implemented all core SBIRT practices. Common barriers (eg, confidentiality and insufficient time) and unique provider- and setting-specific barriers to implementation were identified. These findings indicate that although most pediatricians deliver some SBIRT components in their practice, few implement the full SBIRT model, and barriers persist.


Assuntos
Intervenção na Crise/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pediatras/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/diagnóstico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Confidencialidade , Intervenção na Crise/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/prevenção & controle , Tempo , Estados Unidos
6.
Subst Abus ; : 1-7, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children of parents with substance use disorders are at greater risk for mental and physical health co-morbidities. Despite guidelines, pediatricians rarely screen for substance use in the family/household, citing fear of offending parents. The objectives of this study were to examine (1) caregiver acceptance of pediatricians screening for family/household substance use during well-child visits, (2) prevalence of family/household substance use, and (3) the association between family/household substance use and trust in their child's pediatrician. Methods: This cross-sectional study surveyed adult caregivers presenting a child for medical care at two urban pediatric outpatient clinics using a brief anonymous computer-based survey. The primary outcome measured the acceptability of pediatrician screening for family/household substance use. Substance use and concerns about use in the family/household were also assessed. Results: Adult caregivers (n = 271) surveyed were mean age 35 years, 73% mothers, 90% African American, and 85% on Medicaid. Over half (51%) of caregivers reported substance use by someone in the family/household, most commonly cigarettes (38%), followed by alcohol (19%) and marijuana (10%). Sixty-one percent of caregivers who reported family substance use expressed concern about the use of this substance. The majority (87%) agreed it is appropriate for pediatricians to ask caregivers about family/household substance use. No differences were found between caregivers who did and did not report substance use in their family/household. Caregivers with concerning substance use in their family/household were less likely to trust their pediatrician [OR = 0.21, 95%CI: 0.05, 0.85] Conclusions: Caregivers endorsed acceptance of universal screening for substance use, including illicit substances, and substance use disorders in the family/household during well-child visits. Pediatricians are trusted professionals with expertise in communicating with parents to maximize the health of their patients; assessing family history of substance use and substance use disorders is a natural extension of their role.

7.
J Subst Abuse Treat ; : 108495, 2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218992

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies indicate that sex-based differences exist in co-occurring psychiatric symptoms and disorders among individuals with opioid use disorders (OUD). Whether these associations are present in adolescent samples and change during OUD treatment is poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: In the current study, we examined sex-based differences in psychiatric symptoms and relationships among sex, psychiatric symptoms, and opioid use outcomes in youth with OUD receiving buprenorphine/naloxone (Bup/Nal) and psychosocial treatment. METHODS: The study randomly assigned one hundred and fifty-two youth (15-21 years old) diagnosed with OUD to either 12 weeks of treatment with Bup/Nal or up to 2 weeks of Bup/Nal detoxification with both treatment arms receiving weekly drug counseling as part of a multisite clinical trial (NIDA-CTN-0010). We compared psychiatric symptoms, assessed via the Youth Self Report (YSR) at baseline and week 12, across male and female OUD participants. The study used logistic regression models to identify sex and psychiatric symptom variables that were predictors of opioid positive urine (OPU) at week 12. RESULTS: Compared to males, females with OUD had higher mean psychiatric symptom scores at baseline across broad-band and narrow-band symptom domains. The study observed significant reductions in psychiatric symptom scores in both males and females during treatment, and by week 12, females only differed from males on anxious-depressive symptom scores. Females, in general, and youth of both sexes presenting to treatment with higher anxious depression scores were less likely to have a week-12 OPU. CONCLUSIONS: Clinically significant sex-based differences in psychiatric symptoms are present at baseline among youth with OUD receiving Bup/Nal-assisted treatment and mostly resolve during treatment.

8.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 45(8): 1563-1577, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34120362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abnormalities of reward sensitivity and impulsivity are known to be correlated with each other and alcohol use disorder (AUD) risk, but the underlying aberrant neural circuitry involved is not clearly defined. We sought to extend the current knowledge of AUD pathophysiology by studying incentive processing in persons with AUD using functional neuroimaging data. METHODS: We utilized functional MRI data from the Human Connectome Project Database obtained during performance of a number-guessing incentive-processing task with win, loss, and neutral feedback conditions in 78 participants with either DSM-IV alcohol abuse or dependence (combined as the AUD group) and 78 age- and sex-matched control (CON) participants. Within a network consisting of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), insula, ventral striatum, and dorsal striatum (DS) in the right hemisphere, we performed dynamic causal modeling analysis to test group-level differences (AUD vs. CON) in effective directional connectivity (EC) as modulated by "win" and "loss" conditions. We used linear regression analyses to characterize the relations between each EC outcome and measures of cumulative alcohol exposure and impulsivity. RESULTS: During wins, AUD participants had lower ECs from ACC to the other four nodes, greater ECs from insula to the other four nodes, greater ECs from DLPFC to the other four nodes, and greater DS to DS self-connection EC than CON participants. In the total sample, EC from the insula to the DLPFC (insula â†’ DLPFC) during wins was positively correlated with both impulsivity (as measured by the delay-discounting task) and cumulative alcohol exposure. The DS to DS self-connection EC during wins was positively correlated with impulsivity. Many of the altered ECs from the ACC and insula to other nodes were correlated with cumulative alcohol exposure. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with AUD have disrupted EC in both instrumentally driven and automatized corticostriatal reward circuits during non-alcohol reward feedback. These results point to disrupted corticostriatal EC in both "top-down" and "bottom-up" pathways among individuals with AUD.

9.
Ocul Surf ; 22: 1-12, 2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34171471

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To date, population-based studies reporting associations between dry eye disease and medications were hypothesis-driven, did not take into account underlying comorbidities, and did not investigate individual drugs. The purpose of this study was to clarify the association of dry eye symptoms with medication classes and individual drugs, using a hypothesis-free approach. METHODS: 79,606 participants (age 20-97 years, 59.2% female) from the population-based Lifelines cohort in the Netherlands were cross-sectionally assessed for dry eye symptoms using the Womens' Health Study dry eye questionnaire. All medications used were coded with the ATC classification system. Logistic regression was used to assess the risk of the 59 most-used therapeutic/pharmacological subgroups and the 99 most-used individual drugs (all n > 200) on dry eye symptoms, correcting for age, sex, body mass index, and 48 comorbidities associated with dry eye. RESULTS: Thirty-eight (64%) medication subgroups and fifty-two (53%) individual drugs were associated with dry eye symptoms (P < 0.05), after correction for age and sex only. A multivariable model correcting for comorbidities revealed highly significant associations between dry eye symptoms and drugs for peptic ulcer (particularly proton pump inhibitors (PPIs)), antiglaucoma and anticholinergic medications. CONCLUSIONS: This study underlines that medication use is highly informative of risk of dry eye symptoms. Correction for underlying comorbidities is critical to avoid confounding effects. This study confirms suggested associations between medications and dry eye symptoms at a population level and shows several new associations. The novel link between PPIs and dry eye symptoms deserves particular attention given how commonly they are prescribed.

10.
Life (Basel) ; 11(5)2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068365

RESUMO

The photopic negative response (PhNR) is a negative component of the photopic flash electroretinogram that follows the b-wave and is thought to arise from the retinal ganglion cells. Reduction in its amplitude in idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) has been previously documented using formal electroretinography. This study explored the use of a handheld device (RETeval, LKC technologies, Gaithersburg, MD, USA) in 72 IIH patients of varying stages and severity (and seven controls) and investigated associations between PhNR parameters and disease severity. PhNR amplitudes at 72 ms (P72) and p-ratio (ratio to b-wave peak value) differed significantly across groups, with a trend towards smaller amplitudes in those with severe IIH, defined as papilloedema with Modified Frisén Scale (MFS) ≥ 3, retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) ≥ 150 µm or atrophic papilloedema (p = 0.0048 and p = 0.018 for P72 and p-ratio, respectively). PhNR parameters did not correlate with MFS, RNFL thickness, standard automated perimetry mean deviation or macular ganglion cell layer volume. This study suggests that PhNR measurement using a handheld device is feasible and could potentially augment the assessment of disease severity in IIH. The clinical utility of PhNR monitoring in IIH patients requires further investigation.

11.
Ocul Surf ; 21: 87-95, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34029755

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the association between dry eye disease (DED) and alcohol consumption using a large population-based cohort. METHODS: 77,145 participants (19-94 years, 59% female) from the Dutch Lifelines cohort were cross-sectionally assessed for DED using the Women's Health Study (WHS) dry eye questionnaire. Alcohol intake was assessed using self-reported food frequency questionnaires. The relationship between DED and alcohol use was analyzed using logistic regression, corrected for age, sex, BMI, smoking status, education, income, and 55 potentially confounding comorbidities. RESULTS: Overall, 30.0% of participants had symptomatic dry eye. Alcohol use significantly increased the risk of symptomatic dry eye in females (odds ratio [OR] 1.095, 95%CI 1.045-1.148), but not in males (OR 0.988, 95%CI 0.900-1.084). Contrarily, in male drinkers, increasing alcohol intake (in 10 g/day) had a protective effect on symptomatic dry eye (OR 0.962, 95%CI 0.934-0.992), which was not seen in females (OR 0.986, 95%CI 0.950-1.023). Alcohol use and intake had a sex-specific effect on all outcomes of DED assessed: symptomatic dry eye, highly symptomatic dry eye, clinical diagnosis, and WHS definition dry eye. CONCLUSIONS: This large population-based study found alcohol use to have a clear sex-specific effect on DED, presenting as a risk-factor only in females. This adds to the evidence of sex-specific pathophysiological mechanisms of dry eye and illustrates the importance of sex stratification in studies investigating DED. The mild protective effect of increased alcohol intake in male drinkers is advised to be interpreted with caution, as alcohol's other health effects might be of greater clinical significance.


Assuntos
Síndromes do Olho Seco , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Síndromes do Olho Seco/epidemiologia , Síndromes do Olho Seco/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Ocul Surf ; 21: 107-117, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34044135

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This large cross-sectional population-based study investigated the relationship between dry eye disease (DED) and health-related quality of life (HR-QoL). METHODS: Dry eye and HR-QoL were assessed in 78,165 participants (19-94 yrs, 59.2% female) from the Dutch population-based Lifelines cohort, using the WHS and the SF36 questionnaire, respectively. Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between DED and below median Physical Component Summary (PCS) and Mental Component Summary (MCS) score, corrected for age, sex, education, BMI, and 52 comorbidities. RESULTS: Overall, 8.9% of participants had DED. Participants with DED had an increased risk of low PCS (OR 1.54 (95% CI 1.46-1.62)) and MCS scores (OR 1.39 (95% CI 1.32-1.46)), corrected for age and sex. This risk remained significant after correction for comorbidities (P < 0.0005). Increasing DED symptom frequency was associated with decreasing HR-QoL (P < 0.0005). Undiagnosed DED subjects had a significantly increased risk of low mental HR-QoL with increasing dry eye symptoms compared to diagnosed subjects (P < 0.0005). Compared to allergic conjunctivitis, glaucoma, macular degeneration and retinal detachment, DED showed the highest risk of low HR-QoL. Compared to other common systemic and chronic disorders, such as depression, rheumatoid arthritis, and COPD, DED was distinctive by having a substantial reduction in both PCS and MCS. CONCLUSION: DED is associated with substantial reductions in both physical and mental HR-QoL, also after correction for associated comorbidities. Not having a diagnosis is associated with worse mental HR-QoL in subjects with severe DED. Our results underline the importance of recognizing dry eye as a serious disorder.


Assuntos
Síndromes do Olho Seco , Glaucoma , Estudos Transversais , Síndromes do Olho Seco/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
J Addict Med ; 2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33973923

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence-based interventions for treating opioid use disorder (OUD) in youth are limited and little is known about specific and general mechanisms of OUD treatments and how they promote abstinence. METHODS: The present study used data from the NIDA-CTN-0010 trial to evaluate the mediating effects of psychosocial treatment-related variables (therapy dose and therapeutic alliance) on end-of-treatment opioid abstinence in a sample of youth with OUD (n = 152, 40% female, mean age = 19.7 years) randomized to receive either 12-weeks of treatment with Bup/Nal ("Bup-Nal") or up to 2 weeks of Bup/Nal detoxification ("Detox") with both treatment arms receiving weekly individual and group drug counseling ± family therapy. RESULTS: Participants in the Bup-Nal group attended more therapy sessions (16 vs 6 sessions), had increased therapeutic alliance at week-4, and had less opioid use by week-12 compared to those in the Detox group. In both treatment arms, youth who attended more therapy sessions were less likely to have a week-12 opioid positive urine. In a multiple mediator model, therapy dose mediated the association between treatment arm and opioid abstinence. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide preliminary support for a "dose-response" effect of addiction-focused therapy on abstinence in youth OUD. Further, the results identified a mediating effect of therapy dose on the relationship between treatment assignment and opioid treatment outcomes, suggesting that extended Bup-Nal treatment may enhance abstinence, in part, through a mechanism of therapy facilitation, by increasing therapy dose during treatment.

14.
Front Neurol ; 12: 651755, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34012416

RESUMO

Purpose: A classic twin study to evaluate the relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors to resting pupil size and reactivity. Methods: Pupillometry was performed on 326 female twins (mean age 64 years) from the TwinsUK Adult Twin Registry, assessing resting pupil diameter in darkness and increasing levels of ambient light, alongside dynamic pupillary characteristics. Maximum-likelihood structural equation models estimated the proportion of trait variance attributable to genetic factors. Results: Mean (SD) pupil diameter in darkness was 5.29 mm (0.81), decreasing to 3.24 mm (0.57) in bright light. Pupil light reaction (PLR) had a mean (SD) amplitude of 1.38 mm (0.27) and latency of 250.34 milliseconds (28.58). Pupil size and PLR were not associated with iris colour, intraocular pressure or refractive error, but were associated with age (diameter ß = -0.02, p = 0.016, constriction amplitude ß = -0.01, p < 0.001, velocity ß = 0.03, p < 0.001, and latency ß = 0.98, p < 0.001). In darkness the resting pupil size showed a MZ intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.85, almost double that of DZ (0.44), suggesting strong additive genetic effects, with the most parsimonious model estimating a heritability of 86% [95% confidence interval (CI) 79-90%] with 14% (95% CI 10-21%) explained by unique environmental factors. PLR amplitude, latency and constriction velocity had estimated heritabilities of 69% (95% CI 54-79%), 40% (95% CI 21-56%), and 64% (95% CI 48-75%), respectively. Conclusion: Genetic effects are key determinants of resting pupil size and reactivity. Future studies to identify these genetic factors could improve our understanding of variation in pupil size and pupillary reactions in health and disease.

15.
J Psychiatr Res ; 139: 82-90, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34052575

RESUMO

Impairments in feedback processing, often associated with risk-taking behavior, may have implications for development of substance abuse in adolescents. The most commonly used substances by adolescents include tobacco and cannabis, with some individuals using both substances, potentially heightening risk. Our objective was to examine feedback processing and impulsivity in adolescents who smoke cigarettes and use cannabis daily (N = 21), comparing them with adolescents who smoke cigarettes daily and use cannabis occasionally (N = 18) and non-smoking (N = 27) adolescents. To do this, the Balloon Analog Risk Task (BART) with concurrent EEG was used to measure risk-related feedback processing, and impulsivity was measured using the Barratt's impulsiveness scale (BIS-11). It was found that adolescent daily tobacco/cannabis smoking was associated with higher BIS-11 scores, shortened feedback-related-negativity (FRN) latencies and reduced P300 amplitudes. In addition, FRN latencies during win conditions were inversely associated with tobacco-use severity, indicated by scores on the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND), and with BIS-11 scores. Adolescents with concurrent tobacco and cannabis use show altered feedback processing and higher impulsivity. Future work should disentangle whether the effect reflects risk, consequences of use or both.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Fumar Maconha , Produtos do Tabaco , Adolescente , Retroalimentação , Humanos , Tabaco
16.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 62(5): 7, 2021 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33909031

RESUMO

Purpose: The International Myopia Institute (IMI) Yearly Digest highlights new research considered to be of importance since the publication of the first series of IMI white papers. Methods: A literature search was conducted for articles on myopia between 2019 and mid-2020 to inform definitions and classifications, experimental models, genetics, interventions, clinical trials, and clinical management. Conference abstracts from key meetings in the same period were also considered. Results: One thousand articles on myopia have been published between 2019 and mid-2020. Key advances include the use of the definition of premyopia in studies currently under way to test interventions in myopia, new definitions in the field of pathologic myopia, the role of new pharmacologic treatments in experimental models such as intraocular pressure-lowering latanoprost, a large meta-analysis of refractive error identifying 336 new genetic loci, new clinical interventions such as the defocus incorporated multisegment spectacles and combination therapy with low-dose atropine and orthokeratology (OK), normative standards in refractive error, the ethical dilemma of a placebo control group when myopia control treatments are established, reporting the physical metric of myopia reduction versus a percentage reduction, comparison of the risk of pediatric OK wear with risk of vision impairment in myopia, the justification of preventing myopic and axial length increase versus quality of life, and future vision loss. Conclusions: Large amounts of research in myopia have been published since the IMI 2019 white papers were released. The yearly digest serves to highlight the latest research and advances in myopia.


Assuntos
Miopia/terapia , Procedimentos Ortoceratológicos/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Refração Ocular/fisiologia , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Miopia/classificação , Miopia/fisiopatologia
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 6337, 2021 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33737652

RESUMO

Myopia (near-sightedness) is an important public health issue. Spending more time outdoors can prevent myopia but the long-term association between this exposure and myopia has not been well characterised. We investigated the relationship between time spent outdoors in childhood, adolescence and young adulthood and risk of myopia in young adulthood. The Kidskin Young Adult Myopia Study (KYAMS) was a follow-up of the Kidskin Study, a sun exposure-intervention study of 1776 children aged 6-12 years. Myopia status was assessed in 303 (17.6%) KYAMS participants (aged 25-30 years) and several subjective and objective measures of time spent outdoors were collected in childhood (8-12 years) and adulthood. Index measures of total, childhood and recent time spent outdoors were developed using confirmatory factor analysis. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between a 0.1-unit change in the time outdoor indices and risk of myopia after adjusting for sex, education, outdoor occupation, parental myopia, parental education, ancestry and Kidskin Study intervention group. Spending more time outdoors during childhood was associated with reduced risk of myopia in young adulthood (multivariable odds ratio [OR] 0.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.69, 0.98). Spending more time outdoors in later adolescence and young adulthood was associated with reduced risk of late-onset myopia (≥ 15 years of age, multivariable OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.64, 0.98). Spending more time outdoors in both childhood and adolescence was associated with less myopia in young adulthood.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Atividades de Lazer , Miopia/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Miopia/epidemiologia , Miopia/fisiopatologia , Miopia/terapia , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
Sci Adv ; 7(11)2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33692100

RESUMO

Human eye color is highly heritable, but its genetic architecture is not yet fully understood. We report the results of the largest genome-wide association study for eye color to date, involving up to 192,986 European participants from 10 populations. We identify 124 independent associations arising from 61 discrete genomic regions, including 50 previously unidentified. We find evidence for genes involved in melanin pigmentation, but we also find associations with genes involved in iris morphology and structure. Further analyses in 1636 Asian participants from two populations suggest that iris pigmentation variation in Asians is genetically similar to Europeans, albeit with smaller effect sizes. Our findings collectively explain 53.2% (95% confidence interval, 45.4 to 61.0%) of eye color variation using common single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Overall, our study outcomes demonstrate that the genetic complexity of human eye color considerably exceeds previous knowledge and expectations, highlighting eye color as a genetically highly complex human trait.

20.
Neuroimage Clin ; 30: 102592, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667977

RESUMO

Differences in corticostriatal neural activity during feedback processing of rewards and losses have been separately related to cannabis and tobacco use but remain understudied relative to co-use in adolescents. Using high-density EEG (128 electrode system, 1000 Hz sampling), we examined event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by monetary reward, neutral, and loss feedback during performance on a non-learning four-choice guessing task in a sample of non-deprived daily-cigarette-smoking adolescents (n = 36) who used tobacco and cannabis regularly (TC adolescents), and non-smoking healthy control adolescents (HCs) (n = 29). Peak amplitudes and latencies of mediofrontal ERPs indexing feedback-related negativities (FRNs) were used as outcomes in repeated-measures ANOVAs. No differences in FRNs were observed between TC and HC adolescents. Within TC adolescents, cannabis-use and tobacco-use variables had distinct relationships with the FRN, with cannabis-related problem severity being positively correlated with FRN amplitude during reward feedback and tobacco-related problem severity being negatively correlated with FRN latency during non-loss feedback (i.e., reward and neutral). These findings suggest that co-occurring cannabis and tobacco use may have dissociable relationships with feedback processing relating to each drug and support an incentive salience model of addiction severity related to cannabis use in adolescents.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Produtos do Tabaco , Adolescente , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Retroalimentação , Retroalimentação Psicológica , Humanos , Recompensa , Tabaco , Uso de Tabaco
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