Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 72
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
HLA ; 2021 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34802191

RESUMO

The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I region of cattle is both highly polymorphic and, unlike many species, highly variable in gene content between haplotypes. Cattle MHC class I alleles were historically grouped by sequence similarity in the more conserved 3' end of the coding sequence to form phylogenetic allele groups. This has formed the basis of current cattle MHC class I nomenclature. We presently describe and compare five fully assembled MHC class I haplotypes using the latest cattle and yak genome assemblies. Of the five previously described "pseudogenes" in the cattle MHC class I region, Pseudogene 3 is putatively functional in all haplotypes and Pseudogene 6 and Pseudogene 7 are putatively functional in some haplotypes. This was reinforced by evidence of transcription. Based on full gene sequences as well as 3' coding sequence, we identified distinct subgroups of BoLA-3 and BoLA-6 that represent distinct genetic loci. We further examined allele-specific expression using transcriptomic data revealing that certain alleles are consistently weakly expressed compared to others. These observations will help to inform further studies into how MHC class I region variability influences T cell and natural killer cell functions in cattle. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

3.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 125: 104214, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34329647

RESUMO

γδ T cells constitute a major portion of lymphocytes in the blood of both ruminants and swine. Subpopulations of swine γδ T cells have been distinguished by CD2 and CD8α expression. However, it was not clear if they have distinct expression profiles of their T-cell receptor (TCR) or WC1 genes. Identifying receptor expression will contribute to understanding the functional differences between these subpopulations and their contributions to immune protection. Here, we annotated three genomic assemblies of the swine TCRγ gene locus finding four gene cassettes containing C, J and V genes, although some haplotypes carried a null TRGC gene (TRGC4). Genes in the TRGC1 cassette were homologs of bovine TRGC5 cassette while the others were not homologous to bovine genes. Here we evaluated three principal populations of γδ T cells (CD2+/SWC5-, CD2-/SWC5+, and CD2-/SWC5-). Both CD2- subpopulations transcribed WC1 co-receptor genes, albeit with different patterns of gene expression but CD2+ cells did not. All subpopulations transcribed TCR genes from all four cassettes, although there were differences in expression levels. Finally, the CD2+ and CD2- γδ T-cell populations differed in their representation in various organs and tissues, presumably at least partially reflective of different ligand specificities for their receptors.

4.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(3): e1009330, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662023

RESUMO

Pigs are natural hosts for the same subtypes of influenza A viruses as humans and integrally involved in virus evolution with frequent interspecies transmissions in both directions. The emergence of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus illustrates the importance of pigs in evolution of zoonotic strains. Here we generated pig influenza-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from H1N1pdm09 infected pigs. The mAbs recognized the same two major immunodominant haemagglutinin (HA) epitopes targeted by humans, one of which is not recognized by post-infection ferret antisera that are commonly used to monitor virus evolution. Neutralizing activity of the pig mAbs was comparable to that of potent human anti-HA mAbs. Further, prophylactic administration of a selected porcine mAb to pigs abolished lung viral load and greatly reduced lung pathology but did not eliminate nasal shedding of virus after H1N1pdm09 challenge. Hence mAbs from pigs, which target HA can significantly reduce disease severity. These results, together with the comparable sizes of pigs and humans, indicate that the pig is a valuable model for understanding how best to apply mAbs as therapy in humans and for monitoring antigenic drift of influenza viruses in humans, thereby providing information highly relevant to making influenza vaccine recommendations.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/farmacologia , Epitopos/imunologia , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/imunologia , Influenza Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Hemaglutininas/imunologia , Hemaglutininas/farmacologia , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Influenza A/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Suínos
5.
J Mol Biol ; 433(8): 166842, 2021 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539875

RESUMO

HIV-1 Gag and Gag-Pol are responsible for viral assembly and maturation and represent a major paradigm for enveloped virus assembly. Numerous intracellular Gag-containing complexes (GCCs) have been identified in cellular lysates using sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation. While these complexes are universally present in Gag-expressing cells, their roles in virus assembly are not well understood. Here we demonstrate that most GCC species are predominantly comprised of monomeric or dimeric Gag molecules bound to ribosomal complexes, and as such, are not on-pathway intermediates in HIV assembly. Rather, these GCCs represent a population of Gag that is not yet functionally committed for incorporation into a viable virion precursor. We hypothesize that these complexes act as a reservoir of monomeric Gag that can incorporate into assembling viruses, and serve to mitigate non-specific intracellular Gag oligomerization. We have identified a subset of large GCC complexes, comprising more than 20 Gag molecules, that may be equivalent to membrane-associated puncta previously shown to be bona fide assembling-virus intermediates. This work provides a clear rationale for the existence of diverse GCCs, and serves as the foundation for characterizing on-pathway intermediates early in virus assembly.


Assuntos
HIV-1/metabolismo , Montagem de Vírus/fisiologia , Produtos do Gene gag do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/química , Produtos do Gene gag do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Genoma Viral , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Marcação por Isótopo , Vírion/metabolismo , Produtos do Gene gag do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/genética
6.
Nurs Adm Q ; 45(2): 102-108, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33570876

RESUMO

As hospitals across the world realized their surge capacity would not be enough to care for patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) infection, an urgent need to open field hospitals prevailed. In this article the authors describe the implementation process of opening a Boston field hospital including the development of a culture unique to this crisis and the local community needs. Through first-person accounts, readers will learn (1) about Boston Hope, (2) how leaders managed and collaborated, (3) how the close proximity of the care environment impacted decision-making and management style, and (4) the characteristics of leaders under pressure as observed by the team.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Fortalecimento Institucional/organização & administração , Arquitetura Hospitalar/métodos , Unidades Móveis de Saúde/organização & administração , Boston , Feminino , Humanos , Liderança , Masculino , Unidades Móveis de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Incerteza
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 542, 2021 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483491

RESUMO

There is need for effective and affordable vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 to tackle the ongoing pandemic. In this study, we describe a protein nanoparticle vaccine against SARS-CoV-2. The vaccine is based on the display of coronavirus spike glycoprotein receptor-binding domain (RBD) on a synthetic virus-like particle (VLP) platform, SpyCatcher003-mi3, using SpyTag/SpyCatcher technology. Low doses of RBD-SpyVLP in a prime-boost regimen induce a strong neutralising antibody response in mice and pigs that is superior to convalescent human sera. We evaluate antibody quality using ACE2 blocking and neutralisation of cell infection by pseudovirus or wild-type SARS-CoV-2. Using competition assays with a monoclonal antibody panel, we show that RBD-SpyVLP induces a polyclonal antibody response that recognises key epitopes on the RBD, reducing the likelihood of selecting neutralisation-escape mutants. Moreover, RBD-SpyVLP is thermostable and can be lyophilised without losing immunogenicity, to facilitate global distribution and reduce cold-chain dependence. The data suggests that RBD-SpyVLP provides strong potential to address clinical and logistic challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Peptídeos/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Bloqueadores/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Linhagem Celular , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Multimerização Proteica , Suínos
8.
PLoS Biol ; 18(12): e3001016, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347434

RESUMO

SARS Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in late 2019, leading to the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic that continues to cause significant global mortality in human populations. Given its sequence similarity to SARS-CoV, as well as related coronaviruses circulating in bats, SARS-CoV-2 is thought to have originated in Chiroptera species in China. However, whether the virus spread directly to humans or through an intermediate host is currently unclear, as is the potential for this virus to infect companion animals, livestock, and wildlife that could act as viral reservoirs. Using a combination of surrogate entry assays and live virus, we demonstrate that, in addition to human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the Spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 has a broad host tropism for mammalian ACE2 receptors, despite divergence in the amino acids at the Spike receptor binding site on these proteins. Of the 22 different hosts we investigated, ACE2 proteins from dog, cat, and cattle were the most permissive to SARS-CoV-2, while bat and bird ACE2 proteins were the least efficiently used receptors. The absence of a significant tropism for any of the 3 genetically distinct bat ACE2 proteins we examined indicates that SARS-CoV-2 receptor usage likely shifted during zoonotic transmission from bats into people, possibly in an intermediate reservoir. Comparison of SARS-CoV-2 receptor usage to the related coronaviruses SARS-CoV and RaTG13 identified distinct tropisms, with the 2 human viruses being more closely aligned. Finally, using bioinformatics, structural data, and targeted mutagenesis, we identified amino acid residues within the Spike-ACE2 interface, which may have played a pivotal role in the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 in humans. The apparently broad tropism of SARS-CoV-2 at the point of viral entry confirms the potential risk of infection to a wide range of companion animals, livestock, and wildlife.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Tropismo Viral , Ligação Viral , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Gatos , Bovinos , Cães , Cobaias , Células HEK293 , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Coelhos , Ratos , Zoonoses Virais/virologia
9.
NPJ Vaccines ; 5(1): 69, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32793398

RESUMO

Clinical development of the COVID-19 vaccine candidate ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, a replication-deficient simian adenoviral vector expressing the full-length SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein was initiated in April 2020 following non-human primate studies using a single immunisation. Here, we compared the immunogenicity of one or two doses of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 in both mice and pigs. Whilst a single dose induced antigen-specific antibody and T cells responses, a booster immunisation enhanced antibody responses, particularly in pigs, with a significant increase in SARS-CoV-2 neutralising titres.

10.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1651, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32849568

RESUMO

It is well-recognized that research capability in veterinary species is restricted by a lack of immunological reagents relative to the extensive toolboxes for small rodent biomedical model species and humans. This creates a barrier to the strategic development of disease control solutions for livestock, companion animals and wildlife that not only affects animal health but can affect human health by increasing the risk of transmission of zoonotic pathogens. There have been a number of projects aimed at reducing the capability gaps in the veterinary immunological toolbox, the majority of these focusing on livestock species. Various approaches have been taken to veterinary immunological reagent development across the globe and technological advances in molecular biology and protein biochemistry have accelerated toolbox development. While short-term funding initiatives can address specific gaps in capability, they do not account for long-term sustainability of reagents and databases that requires a different funding model. We review the past, present and future of the veterinary immunological toolbox with specific reference to recent developments discussed at the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS) Veterinary Immunology Committee (VIC) Immune Toolkit Workshop at the 12th International Veterinary Immunology Symposium (IVIS) in Seattle, USA, 16-19 August 2019. The future availability of these reagents is critical to research for improving animal health, responses to infectious pathogens and vaccine design as well as for important analyses of zoonotic pathogens and the animal /human interface for One Health initiatives.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia/veterinária , Drogas Veterinárias/uso terapêutico , Medicina Veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Congressos como Assunto , Difusão de Inovações , Previsões , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Imunoterapia/história , Imunoterapia/tendências , Vacinas/uso terapêutico , Drogas Veterinárias/história , Medicina Veterinária/história , Medicina Veterinária/tendências
11.
J Gen Virol ; 101(10): 1103-1118, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32720890

RESUMO

Coronavirus sub-genomic mRNA (sgmRNA) synthesis occurs via a process of discontinuous transcription involving complementary transcription regulatory sequences (TRSs), one (TRS-L) encompassing the leader sequence of the 5' untranslated region (UTR), and the other upstream of each structural and accessory gene (TRS-B). Several coronaviruses have an ORF located between the N gene and the 3'-UTR, an area previously thought to be non-coding in the Gammacoronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) due to a lack of a canonical TRS-B. Here, we identify a non-canonical TRS-B allowing for a novel sgmRNA relating to this ORF to be produced in several strains of IBV: Beaudette, CR88, H120, D1466, Italy-02 and QX. Interestingly, the potential protein produced by this ORF is prematurely truncated in the Beaudette strain. A single nucleotide deletion was made in the Beaudette strain allowing for the generation of a recombinant IBV (rIBV) that had the potential to express a full-length protein. Assessment of this rIBV in vitro demonstrated that restoration of the full-length potential protein had no effect on viral replication. Further assessment of the Beaudette-derived RNA identified a second non-canonically transcribed sgmRNA located within gene 2. Deep sequencing analysis of allantoic fluid from Beaudette-infected embryonated eggs confirmed the presence of both the newly identified non-canonically transcribed sgmRNAs and highlighted the potential for further yet unidentified sgmRNAs. This HiSeq data, alongside the confirmation of non-canonically transcribed sgmRNAs, indicates the potential of the coronavirus genome to encode a larger repertoire of genes than has currently been identified.


Assuntos
Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Viral/genética , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico/genética , Transcrição Genética/genética , Regiões 5' não Traduzidas/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Linhagem Celular , Galinhas , Chlorocebus aethiops , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Células Vero , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Replicação Viral/genética
12.
Immunology ; 161(1): 25-27, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32548865

RESUMO

Using the best animal models to study immune responses against specific pathogens or vaccines can dramatically accelerate our understanding. Veterinary species are well studied, particularly livestock, to reduce their disease burden. They have also proven to be powerful models, especially for zoonotic pathogens and novel vaccination strategies. A prerequisite for any model selection is having the right quality and range of species-specific immunological reagents. To help promote the widest possible use of veterinary species, an open access website (https://www.immunologicaltoolbox.co.uk) has been created as a central community annotated hub for veterinary immunological reagents. The website is also the portal into services offered by the UK Immunological Toolbox project that includes antibody generation, sequencing and recombinant expression. The funding for this effort is linked into sustainable sources, but ultimate success relies on community engagement to continually increase the quality and quantity of information. It is hoped that as more users and reagent owners engage, it will become an essential resource for researchers, veterinarians and clinicians alike by removing barriers that prevent the use of the most informative animal models.


Assuntos
Vacinas/imunologia , Medicina Veterinária/métodos , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Animais , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Internet , Modelos Animais , Vacinação , Zoonoses/imunologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia
13.
Viruses ; 12(4)2020 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32325933

RESUMO

Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) is known to replicate in a wide variety of ruminants causing very species-specific clinical symptoms. Small ruminants (goats and sheep) are susceptible to disease while domesticated cattle and buffalo are dead-end hosts and do not display clinical symptoms. Understanding the host factors that influence differential pathogenesis and disease susceptibility could help the development of better diagnostics and control measures. To study this, we generated transcriptome data from goat and cattle peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) experimentally infected with PPRV in-vitro. After identifying differentially expressed genes, we further analyzed these immune related pathway genes using the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins (STRING) and selected candidate genes were validated using in-vitro experiments. Upon PPRV infection, we identified 12 and 22 immune related genes that were differentially expressed in goat and cattle respectively. In both species, this included the interferon stimulated genes (ISGs) IFI44, IFI6, IFIT1, IFIT2, IFIT3, ISG15, Mx1, Mx2, OAS1X, RSAD2, IRF7, DDX58 and DHX58 that were transcribed significantly higher in cattle. PPRV replication in goat PBMCs significantly increased the expression of phosphodiesterase 12 (PDE12), a 2',5'-oligoadenylate degrading enzyme that contributes to the reduced modulation of interferon-regulated gene targets. Finally, a model is proposed for the differential susceptibility between large and small ruminants based on the expression levels of type-I interferons, ISGs and effector molecules.


Assuntos
Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/genética , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/genética , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/virologia , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/genética , Replicação Viral , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Ontologia Genética , Doenças das Cabras , Cabras , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/microbiologia , Transcriptoma
14.
Gigascience ; 9(3)2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major advances in selection progress for cattle have been made following the introduction of genomic tools over the past 10-12 years. These tools depend upon the Bos taurus reference genome (UMD3.1.1), which was created using now-outdated technologies and is hindered by a variety of deficiencies and inaccuracies. RESULTS: We present the new reference genome for cattle, ARS-UCD1.2, based on the same animal as the original to facilitate transfer and interpretation of results obtained from the earlier version, but applying a combination of modern technologies in a de novo assembly to increase continuity, accuracy, and completeness. The assembly includes 2.7 Gb and is >250× more continuous than the original assembly, with contig N50 >25 Mb and L50 of 32. We also greatly expanded supporting RNA-based data for annotation that identifies 30,396 total genes (21,039 protein coding). The new reference assembly is accessible in annotated form for public use. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that improved continuity of assembled sequence warrants the adoption of ARS-UCD1.2 as the new cattle reference genome and that increased assembly accuracy will benefit future research on this species.


Assuntos
Cruzamento/normas , Bovinos/genética , Genoma , Genômica/normas , Polimorfismo Genético , Animais , Cruzamento/métodos , Genômica/métodos , RNA-Seq/métodos , RNA-Seq/normas , Padrões de Referência , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/normas
15.
J Immunol ; 204(9): 2455-2463, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32213565

RESUMO

Cattle possess the most diverse repertoire of NK cell receptor genes among all mammals studied to date. Killer cell receptor genes encoded within the NK complex and killer cell Ig-like receptor genes encoded within the leukocyte receptor complex have both been expanded and diversified. Our previous studies identified two divergent and polymorphic KLRA alleles within the NK complex in the Holstein-Friesian breed of dairy cattle. By examining a much larger cohort and other ruminant species, we demonstrate the emergence and fixation of two KLRA allele lineages (KLRA*01 and -*02) at a single locus during ruminant speciation. Subsequent recombination events between these allele lineages have increased the frequency of KLRA*02 extracellular domains. KLRA*01 and KLRA*02 transcription levels contrasted in response to cytokine stimulation, whereas homozygous animals consistently transcribed higher levels of KLRA, regardless of the allele lineage. KLRA*02 mRNA levels were also generally higher than KLRA*01 Collectively, these data point toward alternative functional roles governed by KLRA genotype and allele lineage. On a background of high genetic diversity of NK cell receptor genes, this KLRA allele fixation points to fundamental and potentially differential function roles.


Assuntos
Subfamília A de Receptores Semelhantes a Lectina de Células NK/genética , Ruminantes/genética , Transcrição Genética/genética , Alelos , Animais , Bovinos , Frequência do Gene/genética , Frequência do Gene/imunologia , Genótipo , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Subfamília A de Receptores Semelhantes a Lectina de Células NK/imunologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/imunologia , Ruminantes/imunologia , Transcrição Genética/imunologia
16.
Immunogenetics ; 72(1-2): 131-132, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31745605

RESUMO

The original version of this article contained a spelling error in the Acknowledgments regarding the name of the funding organisation supporting GM and JAH. UKRI-BBSCR should have been UKRI-BBSRC, as is now indicated correctly below.

17.
Immunogenetics ; 72(1-2): 49-55, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31641782

RESUMO

The Immuno Polymorphism Database (IPD), https://www.ebi.ac.uk/ipd/, is a set of specialist databases that enable the study of polymorphic genes which function as part of the vertebrate immune system. The major focus is on the hyperpolymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes and the killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genes, by providing the official repository and primary source of sequence data. Databases are centred around humans as well as animals important for food security, for companionship and as disease models. The IPD project works with specialist groups or nomenclature committees who provide and manually curate individual sections before they are submitted for online publication. To reflect the recent advance of allele sequencing technologies and the increasing demands of novel tools for the analysis of genomic variation, the IPD project is undergoing a progressive redesign and reorganisation. In this review, recent updates and future developments are discussed, with a focus on the core concepts to better future-proof the project.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Plaquetas Humanas/genética , Complexo Principal de Histocompatibilidade/genética , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Bases de Dados como Assunto , Bases de Dados Factuais , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Epitopos de Linfócito T/genética , Antígenos HLA/genética , Humanos , Imunidade/genética , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
Immunogenetics ; 72(1-2): 25-36, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31624862

RESUMO

The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is central to the innate and adaptive immune responses of jawed vertebrates. Characteristic of the MHC are high gene density, gene copy number variation, and allelic polymorphism. Because apes and monkeys are the closest living relatives of humans, the MHCs of these non-human primates (NHP) are studied in depth in the context of evolution, biomedicine, and conservation biology. The Immuno Polymorphism Database (IPD)-MHC NHP Database (IPD-MHC NHP), which curates MHC data of great and small apes, as well as Old and New World monkeys, has been upgraded. The curators of the database are responsible for providing official designations for newly discovered alleles. This nomenclature report updates the 2012 report, and summarizes important nomenclature issues and relevant novel features of the IPD-MHC NHP Database.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Genéticas , Complexo Principal de Histocompatibilidade/genética , Primatas/genética , Primatas/imunologia , Alelos , Animais , Cercopithecidae/genética , Hominidae/genética , Complexo Principal de Histocompatibilidade/fisiologia , Filogenia , Platirrinos/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Terminologia como Assunto
19.
Immunogenetics ; 72(1-2): 37-47, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31781789

RESUMO

The Killer-cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptors (KIR) are encoded by a diverse group of genes, which are characterized by allelic polymorphism, gene duplications, and recombinations, which may generate recombinant entities. The number of reported macaque KIR sequences is steadily increasing, and these data illustrate a gene system that may match or exceed the complexity of the human KIR cluster. This report lists the names of quality controlled and annotated KIR genes/alleles with all the relevant references for two different macaque species: rhesus and cynomolgus macaques. Numerous recombinant KIR genes in these species necessitate a revision of some of the earlier-published nomenclature guidelines. In addition, this report summarizes the latest information on the Immuno Polymorphism Database (IPD)-NHKIR Database, which contains annotated KIR sequences from four non-human primate species.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais , Imunogenética , Macaca mulatta/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Receptores KIR/genética , Receptores KIR/imunologia , Terminologia como Assunto , Animais
20.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 105: 103575, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846687

RESUMO

Recent data suggest that porcine γδ T cells exhibit a similar degree of functional plasticity as human and murine γδ T cells. Due to the high frequency of TCR-γδ+ cells in blood and secondary lymphatic organs, the pig is an attractive model to study these cells, especially their combined features of the innate and the adaptive immune system. Using a 5' RACE-like approach, we translated a human/murine NGS library preparation strategy to capture full-length V-(D)-J TRG and TRD clonotypes in swine. After oligo(dT) primed conversion of input RNA, the cDNA population was enriched for full-length V(D)J TCR transcripts with porcine-specific primers including Illumina adaptor sequences as overhangs for Illumina MiSeq analysis. After quality control and processing by FastQC and ea-utils, porcine TRG and TRD sequences were mapped against the human IMGT reference directory. Porcine blood-derived CD2+ and CD2‾ TCR-γδ+ cells exhibited two distinct clonotypes Vγ11JγP1 (74.6%) and Vγ10JγP1 (57.7%), respectively. Despite the high TCR-δ diversity among CD2+ cells (39 clonotypes), both subsets shared the same abundant Vδ1DδxJδ4 clonotype at approximately identically frequencies (CD2+: 31.2%; CD2‾: 37.0%). The flexible nature of this approach will facilitate the assessment of organ-specific phenotypes of γδ T cell subsets alongside with their respective TCR diversity at single cell resolution.


Assuntos
Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T gama-delta/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Suínos/imunologia , Linfócitos T/fisiologia , Imunidade Adaptativa , Animais , Antígenos CD2/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Variação Genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Camundongos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...