Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 238
Filtrar
1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33565643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cirrhosis develops in <10% of individuals homozygous for the C282Y variant in the homeostatic iron regulator (HFE) gene. Carriage of PCSK7:rs236918 is associated with an increased risk of cirrhosis in this population. AIM: To determine if genetic variants significantly associated with the risk of alcohol- and NAFLD-related cirrhosis also modulate the cirrhosis risk in C282Y homozygotes. METHODS: Variants in PCSK7, PNPLA3, TM6SF2, MBOAT7 and HSD17B13 were genotyped in 1319 C282Y homozygotes, from six European countries, of whom 171 (13.0%) had cirrhosis. Genotypic and allelic associations with the risk for developing cirrhosis were assessed, adjusting for age and sex. Fixed effects meta-analyses of the adjusted summary data for each country were performed. Post hoc association testing was undertaken in the 131 (76.6%) cases and 299 (26.0%) controls with available liver histology. RESULTS: Significant associations were observed between PCSK7:rs236918 (OR = 1.52 [95% CI 1.06-2.19]; P = 0.022; I2  = 0%); PNPLA3:rs738409 (OR = 1.60 [95% CI 1.22-2.11]; P = 7.37 × 10-4 ; I2  = 45.5%) and TM6SF2:rs58542926 (OR = 1.94 [95% CI 1.28-2.95]; P = 1.86 × 10-3 ; I2  = 0%) and the cirrhosis risk in C282Y homozygotes. These findings remained significant in the subpopulation with available liver histology. The population-attributable fractions were 5.6% for PCSK7:rs236918, 13.8% for PNPLA3:rs738409, 6.5% for TM6SF2:rs58542926 and 24.0% for carriage of all three variants combined. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of cirrhosis associated with carriage of PCSK7:rs236918 was confirmed in this much larger population of C282Y homozygotes. In addition, PNPLA3:rs738409 and TM6SF2:rs58542926 were established as significant additional risk factors. More detailed genetic testing of C282Y homozygotes would allow risk stratification and help guide future management.

2.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 396, 2020 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327948

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Higher adiposity increases the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), but whether this relationship varies by anatomical sub-site or by sex is unclear. Further, the metabolic alterations mediating the effects of adiposity on CRC are not fully understood. METHODS: We examined sex- and site-specific associations of adiposity with CRC risk and whether adiposity-associated metabolites explain the associations of adiposity with CRC. Genetic variants from genome-wide association studies of body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, unadjusted for BMI; N = 806,810), and 123 metabolites from targeted nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics (N = 24,925), were used as instruments. Sex-combined and sex-specific Mendelian randomization (MR) was conducted for BMI and WHR with CRC risk (58,221 cases and 67,694 controls in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium, Colorectal Cancer Transdisciplinary Study, and Colon Cancer Family Registry). Sex-combined MR was conducted for BMI and WHR with metabolites, for metabolites with CRC, and for BMI and WHR with CRC adjusted for metabolite classes in multivariable models. RESULTS: In sex-specific MR analyses, higher BMI (per 4.2 kg/m2) was associated with 1.23 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.08, 1.38) times higher CRC odds among men (inverse-variance-weighted (IVW) model); among women, higher BMI (per 5.2 kg/m2) was associated with 1.09 (95% CI = 0.97, 1.22) times higher CRC odds. WHR (per 0.07 higher) was more strongly associated with CRC risk among women (IVW OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.08, 1.43) than men (IVW OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.81, 1.36). BMI or WHR was associated with 104/123 metabolites at false discovery rate-corrected P ≤ 0.05; several metabolites were associated with CRC, but not in directions that were consistent with the mediation of positive adiposity-CRC relations. In multivariable MR analyses, associations of BMI and WHR with CRC were not attenuated following adjustment for representative metabolite classes, e.g., the univariable IVW OR for BMI with CRC was 1.12 (95% CI = 1.00, 1.26), and this became 1.11 (95% CI = 0.99, 1.26) when adjusting for cholesterol in low-density lipoprotein particles. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that higher BMI more greatly raises CRC risk among men, whereas higher WHR more greatly raises CRC risk among women. Adiposity was associated with numerous metabolic alterations, but none of these explained associations between adiposity and CRC. More detailed metabolomic measures are likely needed to clarify the mechanistic pathways.

4.
J Hepatol ; 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33248170

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk stratification in individuals with dysmetabolism is a major unmet need. Genetic predisposition contributes to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We aimed to exploit robust polygenic risk scores (PRS) that can be evaluated in the clinic to gain insight into the causal relationship between NAFLD and HCC, and to improve HCC risk stratification. METHODS: We examined at-risk individuals (NAFLD cohort, n=2,566; 226 with HCC; and a replication cohort of 427 German patients with NAFLD) and the general population (UK Biobank [UKBB] cohort, n=364,048; 202 with HCC). Variants in PNPLA3-TM6SF2-GCKR-MBOAT7 were combined in a hepatic fat PRS (PRS-HFC), and then adjusted for HSD17B13 (PRS-5). RESULTS: In the NAFLD cohort, the adjusted impact of genetic risk variants on HCC was proportional to the predisposition to fatty liver (p=0.002) with some heterogeneity in the effect. PRS predicted HCC more robustly than single variants (p<10-13). The association between PRS and HCC was mainly mediated through severe fibrosis, but was independent of fibrosis in clinically relevant subgroups, and was also observed in those without severe fibrosis (p<0.05). In the UKBB cohort, PRS predicted HCC independently of classical risk factors and cirrhosis (p<10-7). In the NAFLD cohort, we identified high PRS cut-offs (≥0.532/0.495 for PRS-HFC/PRS-5) that in the UKBB cohort detected HCC with ∼90% specificity but limited sensitivity; PRS predicted HCC both in individuals with (p<10-5) and without cirrhosis (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our results are consistent with a causal relationship between hepatic fat and HCC. PRS improved the accuracy to detect HCC and may help stratify HCC risk in individuals with dysmetabolism, including those without severe liver fibrosis. Further studies are needed to validate our findings.

5.
Gastroenterology ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Susceptibility genes and the underlying mechanisms for the majority of risk loci identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for colorectal cancer (CRC) risk remain largely unknown. We conducted a transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) to identify putative susceptibility genes. METHODS: Gene-expression prediction models were built using transcriptome and genetic data from the 284 normal transverse colon tissues of European descendants from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx), and model performance was evaluated using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (n = 355). We applied the gene-expression prediction models and GWAS data to evaluate associations of genetically predicted gene-expression with CRC risk in 58,131 CRC cases and 67,347 controls of European ancestry. Dual-luciferase reporter assays and knockdown experiments in CRC cells and tumor xenografts were conducted. RESULTS: We identified 25 genes associated with CRC risk at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of P < 9.1 × 10-6, including genes in 4 novel loci, PYGL (14q22.1), RPL28 (19q13.42), CAPN12 (19q13.2), MYH7B (20q11.22), and MAP1L3CA (20q11.22). In 9 known GWAS-identified loci, we uncovered 9 genes that have not been reported previously, whereas 4 genes remained statistically significant after adjusting for the lead risk variant of the locus. Through colocalization analysis in GWAS loci, we additionally identified 12 putative susceptibility genes that were supported by TWAS analysis at P < .01. We showed that risk allele of the lead risk variant rs1741640 affected the promoter activity of CABLES2. Knockdown experiments confirmed that CABLES2 plays a vital role in colorectal carcinogenesis. CONCLUSIONS: Our study reveals new putative susceptibility genes and provides new insight into the biological mechanisms underlying CRC development.

6.
J Hepatol ; 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: A common genetic variant near MBOAT7 (rs641738C>T) has been previously associated with hepatic fat and advanced histology in NAFLD; however, these findings have not been consistently replicated in the literature. We aimed to establish whether rs641738C>T is a risk factor across the spectrum of NAFLD and to characterise its role in the regulation of related metabolic phenotypes through a meta-analysis. METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis of studies with data on the association between rs641738C>T genotype and liver fat, NAFLD histology, and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lipids or insulin. These included directly genotyped studies and population-level data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We performed a random effects meta-analysis using recessive, additive and dominant genetic models. RESULTS: Data from 1,066,175 participants (9,688 with liver biopsies) across 42 studies were included in the meta-analysis. rs641738C>T was associated with higher liver fat on CT/MRI (+0.03 standard deviations [95% CI 0.02-0.05], pz = 4.8×10-5) and diagnosis of NAFLD (odds ratio [OR] 1.17 [95% CI 1.05-1.3], pz = 0.003) in Caucasian adults. The variant was also positively associated with presence of advanced fibrosis (OR 1.22 [95% CI 1.03-1.45], pz = 0.021) in Caucasian adults using a recessive model of inheritance (CC + CT vs. TT). Meta-analysis of data from previous GWAS found the variant to be associated with higher ALT (pz = 0.002) and lower serum triglycerides (pz = 1.5×10-4). rs641738C>T was not associated with fasting insulin and no effect was observed in children with NAFLD. CONCLUSIONS: Our study validates rs641738C>T near MBOAT7 as a risk factor for the presence and severity of NAFLD in individuals of European descent. LAY SUMMARY: Fatty liver disease is a common condition where fat builds up in the liver, which can cause liver inflammation and scarring (including 'cirrhosis'). It is closely linked to obesity and diabetes, but some genes are also thought to be important. We did this study to see whether one specific change ('variant') in one gene ('MBOAT7') was linked to fatty liver disease. We took data from over 40 published studies and found that this variant near MBOAT7 is linked to more severe fatty liver disease. This means that drugs designed to work on MBOAT7 could be useful for treating fatty liver disease.

7.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(3): 432-444, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758450

RESUMO

Accurate colorectal cancer (CRC) risk prediction models are critical for identifying individuals at low and high risk of developing CRC, as they can then be offered targeted screening and interventions to address their risks of developing disease (if they are in a high-risk group) and avoid unnecessary screening and interventions (if they are in a low-risk group). As it is likely that thousands of genetic variants contribute to CRC risk, it is clinically important to investigate whether these genetic variants can be used jointly for CRC risk prediction. In this paper, we derived and compared different approaches to generating predictive polygenic risk scores (PRS) from genome-wide association studies (GWASs) including 55,105 CRC-affected case subjects and 65,079 control subjects of European ancestry. We built the PRS in three ways, using (1) 140 previously identified and validated CRC loci; (2) SNP selection based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) clumping followed by machine-learning approaches; and (3) LDpred, a Bayesian approach for genome-wide risk prediction. We tested the PRS in an independent cohort of 101,987 individuals with 1,699 CRC-affected case subjects. The discriminatory accuracy, calculated by the age- and sex-adjusted area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC), was highest for the LDpred-derived PRS (AUC = 0.654) including nearly 1.2 M genetic variants (the proportion of causal genetic variants for CRC assumed to be 0.003), whereas the PRS of the 140 known variants identified from GWASs had the lowest AUC (AUC = 0.629). Based on the LDpred-derived PRS, we are able to identify 30% of individuals without a family history as having risk for CRC similar to those with a family history of CRC, whereas the PRS based on known GWAS variants identified only top 10% as having a similar relative risk. About 90% of these individuals have no family history and would have been considered average risk under current screening guidelines, but might benefit from earlier screening. The developed PRS offers a way for risk-stratified CRC screening and other targeted interventions.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genoma Humano/genética , Medição de Risco , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Teorema de Bayes , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco
8.
Gut ; 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503845

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The intestinal epithelium is a rapidly renewing tissue which plays central roles in nutrient uptake, barrier function and the prevention of intestinal inflammation. Control of epithelial differentiation is essential to these processes and is dependent on cell type-specific activity of transcription factors which bind to accessible chromatin. Here, we studied the role of SET Domain Bifurcated Histone Lysine Methyltransferase 1, also known as ESET (SETDB1), a histone H3K9 methyltransferase, in intestinal epithelial homeostasis and IBD. DESIGN: We investigated mice with constitutive and inducible intestinal epithelial deletion of Setdb1, studied the expression of SETDB1 in patients with IBD and mouse models of IBD, and investigated the abundance of SETDB1 variants in healthy individuals and patients with IBD. RESULTS: Deletion of intestinal epithelial Setdb1 in mice was associated with defects in intestinal epithelial differentiation, barrier disruption, inflammation and mortality. Mechanistic studies showed that loss of SETDB1 leads to de-silencing of endogenous retroviruses, DNA damage and intestinal epithelial cell death. Predicted loss-of-function variants in human SETDB1 were considerably less frequently observed than expected, consistent with a critical role of SETDB1 in human biology. While the vast majority of patients with IBD showed unimpaired mucosal SETDB1 expression, comparison of IBD and non-IBD exomes revealed over-representation of individual rare missense variants in SETDB1 in IBD, some of which are predicted to be associated with loss of function and may contribute to the pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation. CONCLUSION: SETDB1 plays an essential role in intestinal epithelial homeostasis. Future work is required to investigate whether rare variants in SETDB1 contribute to the pathogenesis of IBD.

9.
Gut ; 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32591434

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The rs641738C>T variant located near the membrane-bound O-acyltransferase domain containing 7 (MBOAT7) locus is associated with fibrosis in liver diseases, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), alcohol-related liver disease, hepatitis B and C. We aim to understand the mechanism by which the rs641738C>T variant contributes to pathogenesis of NAFLD. DESIGN: Mice with hepatocyte-specific deletion of MBOAT7 (Mboat7Δhep) were generated and livers were characterised by histology, flow cytometry, qPCR, RNA sequencing and lipidomics. We analysed the association of rs641738C>T genotype with liver inflammation and fibrosis in 846 NAFLD patients and obtained genotype-specific liver lipidomes from 280 human biopsies. RESULTS: Allelic imbalance analysis of heterozygous human liver samples pointed to lower expression of the MBOAT7 transcript on the rs641738C>T haplotype. Mboat7Δhep mice showed spontaneous steatosis characterised by increased hepatic cholesterol ester content after 10 weeks. After 6 weeks on a high fat, methionine-low, choline-deficient diet, mice developed increased hepatic fibrosis as measured by picrosirius staining (p<0.05), hydroxyproline content (p<0.05) and transcriptomics, while the inflammatory cell populations and inflammatory mediators were minimally affected. In a human biopsied NAFLD cohort, MBOAT7 rs641738C>T was associated with fibrosis (p=0.004) independent of the presence of histological inflammation. Liver lipidomes of Mboat7Δhep mice and human rs641738TT carriers with fibrosis showed increased total lysophosphatidylinositol levels. The altered lysophosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol subspecies in MBOAT7Δhep livers and human rs641738TT carriers were similar. CONCLUSION: Mboat7 deficiency in mice and human points to an inflammation-independent pathway of liver fibrosis that may be mediated by lipid signalling and a potentially targetable treatment option in NAFLD.

10.
Gastroenterology ; 159(4): 1276-1289.e7, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32561361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Little is known about genetic factors that affect development of alcohol-related cirrhosis. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of samples from the United Kingdom Biobank (UKB) to identify polymorphisms associated with risk of alcohol-related liver disease. METHODS: We performed a GWAS of 35,839 participants in the UKB with high intake of alcohol against markers of hepatic fibrosis (FIB-4, APRI, and Forns index scores) and hepatocellular injury (levels of aminotransferases). Loci identified in the discovery analysis were tested for their association with alcohol-related cirrhosis in 3 separate European cohorts (phase 1 validation cohort; n=2545). Variants associated with alcohol-related cirrhosis in the validation at a false discovery rate of less than 20% were then directly genotyped in 2 additional European validation cohorts (phase 2 validation, n=2068). RESULTS: In the GWAS of the discovery cohort, we identified 50 independent risk loci with genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10-8). Nine of these loci were significantly associated with alcohol-related cirrhosis in the phase 1 validation cohort; 6 of these 9 loci were significantly associated with alcohol-related cirrhosis in phase 2 validation cohort, at a false discovery rate below 5%. The loci included variants in the mitochondrial amidoxime reducing component 1 gene (MARC1) and the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U like 1 gene (HNRNPUL1). After we adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, and type-2 diabetes in the phase 2 validation cohort, the minor A allele of MARC1:rs2642438 was associated with reduced risk of alcohol-related cirrhosis (adjusted odds ratio, 0.76; P=.0027); conversely, the minor C allele of HNRNPUL1:rs15052 was associated with an increased risk of alcohol-related cirrhosis (adjusted odds ratio, 1.30; P=.020). CONCLUSIONS: In a GWAS of samples from the UKB, we identified and validated (in 5 European cohorts) single-nucleotide polymorphisms that affect risk of alcohol-related cirrhosis in opposite directions: the minor A allele in MARC1:rs2642438 decreases risk, whereas the minor C allele in HNRNPUL1:rs15052 increases risk.

11.
Surg Endosc ; 2020 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32323015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lumen apposing metal stent (LAMS) allows an easy access to peripancreatic fluid collections (PPFCs) and the possibility of performing direct endoscopic necrosectomy (DEN). The aim of our study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a new 20-mm LAMS in the management of PPFCs. This novel stent represents the largest diameter LAMS available on the market to date. METHODS: This is an international, multicenter retrospective study involving 20 centers. Consecutive patients who underwent EUS-guided PPFC drainage using a 20-mm LAMS were included. Primary outcomes were technical and clinical success. Secondary outcomes were rate and the severity of adverse events. RESULTS: A total 105 patients underwent PPFC drainage using the new 20-mm LAMS and 106 LAMS were placed. Technical success was 100% (106/106). 7/105 patients died due to causes not related to the stent. Clinical success was achieved in 92/98 patients (93.9%). Significant adverse events occurred in 8/98 patients (8.16%): 4 cases (4.08%) of bleeding, 3 cases (3.06%) of suprainfection, 1 case of gastric outlet obstruction. CONCLUSIONS: This multicenter study demonstrated acceptable rates of technical and clinical success using a new 20-mm LAMS for PPFC, including walled-off pancreatic necrosis (WOPN). The results of our study suggest that a new 20-mm LAMS is non-inferior in terms of safety, efficacy, and adverse events as compared to smaller diameter LAMS in the management of PPFCs, including pancreatic psuedocysts (PP) and WOPN. Randomized controlled studies will be needed to determine the ideal size of LAMS need to achieve the greatest clinical benefit with the minimized risk exposure for this high-risk patient population.

12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 597, 2020 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001714

RESUMO

Physical activity has been associated with lower risks of breast and colorectal cancer in epidemiological studies; however, it is unknown if these associations are causal or confounded. In two-sample Mendelian randomisation analyses, using summary genetic data from the UK Biobank and GWA consortia, we found that a one standard deviation increment in average acceleration was associated with lower risks of breast cancer (odds ratio [OR]: 0.51, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.27 to 0.98, P-value = 0.04) and colorectal cancer (OR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.48 to 0.90, P-value = 0.01). We found similar magnitude inverse associations for estrogen positive (ER+ve) breast cancer and for colon cancer. Our results support a potentially causal relationship between higher physical activity levels and lower risks of breast cancer and colorectal cancer. Based on these data, the promotion of physical activity is probably an effective strategy in the primary prevention of these commonly diagnosed cancers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Exercício Físico , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Acelerometria , Feminino , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco
13.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(4): 860-870, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Results from epidemiologic studies examining polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and colorectal cancer risk are inconsistent. Mendelian randomization may strengthen causal inference from observational studies. Given their shared metabolic pathway, examining the combined effects of aspirin/NSAID use with PUFAs could help elucidate an association between PUFAs and colorectal cancer risk. METHODS: Information was leveraged from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) regarding PUFA-associated SNPs to create weighted genetic scores (wGS) representing genetically predicted circulating blood PUFAs for 11,016 non-Hispanic white colorectal cancer cases and 13,732 controls in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO). Associations per SD increase in the wGS were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. Interactions between PUFA wGSs and aspirin/NSAID use on colorectal cancer risk were also examined. RESULTS: Modest colorectal cancer risk reductions were observed per SD increase in circulating linoleic acid [ORLA = 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.93-0.98; P = 5.2 × 10-4] and α-linolenic acid (ORALA = 0.95; 95% CI = 0.92-0.97; P = 5.4 × 10-5), whereas modest increased risks were observed for arachidonic (ORAA = 1.06; 95% CI = 1.03-1.08; P = 3.3 × 10-5), eicosapentaenoic (OREPA = 1.04; 95% CI = 1.01-1.07; P = 2.5 × 10-3), and docosapentaenoic acids (ORDPA = 1.03; 95% CI = 1.01-1.06; P = 1.2 × 10-2). Each of these effects was stronger among aspirin/NSAID nonusers in the stratified analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that higher circulating shorter-chain PUFAs (i.e., LA and ALA) were associated with reduced colorectal cancer risk, whereas longer-chain PUFAs (i.e., AA, EPA, and DPA) were associated with an increased colorectal cancer risk. IMPACT: The interaction of PUFAs with aspirin/NSAID use indicates a shared colorectal cancer inflammatory pathway. Future research should continue to improve PUFA genetic instruments to elucidate the independent effects of PUFAs on colorectal cancer.

14.
VideoGIE ; 5(1): 37-40, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31922082

RESUMO

Background and Aims: Lumen-apposing metal stents (LAMSs) play an increasing role in transgastric and transduodenal drainage of pancreatic fluid collections and allow novel EUS-guided interventions. Alongside the main adverse events of bleeding and occlusion, LAMSs can be overgrown by mucosa, which leads to the inability to visualize the stent in endoscopy. Methods: We describe a series of 4 cases of buried LAMSs that were removed under EUS guidance for identification of the stent followed by removal with rat-tooth forceps. Results: The median in situ time of the LAMSs in the reported 4 cases was 53 days. All stents could no longer be visualized endoscopically when drainage of necrosis was complete. All 4 buried LAMSs could be identified by EUS and were removed successfully with forceps. In 1 case, balloon dilation of the stent tract was performed before stent removal. No adverse events were observed after the procedure. Conclusions: Buried stent syndrome is a rare adverse event of LAMSs. Here we describe a safe and effective approach for stent identification and removal without prior mucosal dissection.

15.
Endoscopy ; 52(3): 211-219, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000275

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS: Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided placement of lumen-apposing metal stents (LAMSs) has gained popularity for the treatment of pancreatic walled-off necrosis (WON). We compared the 20-mm and 15-mm LAMSs for the treatment of symptomatic WON in terms of clinical success and adverse events. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, case-matched study of 306 adults at 22 tertiary centers from 04/2014 to 10/2018. A total of 102 patients with symptomatic WON who underwent drainage with 20-mm LAMS (cases) and 204 patients who underwent drainage with 15-mm LAMS (controls) were matched by age, sex, and drainage approach. Conditional logistic regression analysis was performed to compare clinical success (resolution of WON on follow-up imaging without reintervention) and adverse events (according to American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy criteria). RESULTS: Clinical success was achieved in 92.2 % of patients with 20-mm LAMS and 91.7 % of patients with 15-mm LAMS (odds ratio 0.92; P = 0.91). Patients with 20-mm LAMS underwent fewer direct endoscopic necrosectomy (DEN) sessions (mean 1.3 vs. 2.1; P < 0.001), despite having larger WON collections (transverse axis 118.2 vs. 101.9 mm, P = 0.003; anteroposterior axis 95.9 vs. 80.1 mm, P = 0.01). There was no difference in overall adverse events (21.6 % vs. 15.2 %; P = 0.72) and bleeding events (4.9 % vs. 3.4 %; P = 0.54) between the 20-mm and 15-mm LAMS groups, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The 20-mm LAMS showed comparable clinical success and safety profile to the 15-mm LAMS, with the need for fewer DEN sessions for WON resolution.

16.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 55(2): 367-375, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31534193

RESUMO

Clostridium difficile (CD) infection is the main cause of nosocomial enterocolitis in western countries and in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHCT). Recipients of alloHCT are at high risk for CD infection but large studies in this population are rare and conflicting results have been reported. We analyzed 727 patients with AML or MDS undergoing alloHCT in our center from 2004 to 2015. Ninety-six patients (13%) had CD infection and 103 patients (14%) were identified as asymptomatic carriers by screening at admission and once a week during aplasia. Patients with CD infection had a shorter median overall survival of 8 months (95% CI, 6-36 months) compared with 25 months (95% CI, 17-35 months) for patients without CD infection, (HR 1.4, p = 0.04). CD positive patients were less likely to develop acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD; HR 0.6, p = 0.004) compared with CD-negative patients, but did not show differences in gastrointestinal aGvHD (HR 0.9, p = 0.5). Symptomatic patients developed gastrointestinal aGvHD (HR 2.5, p = 0.02) more often compared with asymptomatic CD positive patients. This analysis demonstrates a high prevalence for CD infection in patients undergoing alloHCT. A significant lower overall survival for patients with CD infection could be demonstrated.

17.
Hepatology ; 72(1): 88-102, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630428

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Carriage of rs738409:G in patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3 (PNPLA3) is associated with an increased risk for developing alcohol-related cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recently, rs72613567:TA in hydroxysteroid 17-beta dehydrogenase 13 (HSD17B13) was shown to be associated with a reduced risk for developing alcohol-related liver disease and to attenuate the risk associated with carriage of PNPLA3 rs738409:G. This study explores the risk associations between these two genetic variants and the development of alcohol-related cirrhosis and HCC. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Variants in HSD17B13 and PNPLA3 were genotyped in 6,171 participants, including 1,031 with alcohol-related cirrhosis and HCC, 1,653 with alcohol-related cirrhosis without HCC, 2,588 alcohol misusers with no liver disease, and 899 healthy controls. Genetic associations with the risks for developing alcohol-related cirrhosis and HCC were determined using logistic regression analysis. Carriage of HSD17B13 rs72613567:TA was associated with a lower risk for developing both cirrhosis (odds ratio [OR], 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72-0.88; P = 8.13 × 10-6 ) and HCC (OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.68-0.89; P = 2.27 × 10-4 ), whereas carriage of PNPLA3 rs738409:G was associated with an increased risk for developing cirrhosis (OR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.54-1.88; P = 1.52 × 10-26 ) and HCC (OR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.58-1.98; P = 2.31 × 10-23 ). These associations remained significant after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, type 2 diabetes, and country. Carriage of HSD17B13 rs72613567:TA attenuated the risk for developing cirrhosis associated with PNPLA3 rs738409:G in both men and women, but the protective effect against the subsequent development of HCC was only observed in men (ORallelic , 0.75; 95% CI, 0.64-0.87; P = 1.72 × 10-4 ). CONCLUSIONS: Carriage of variants in PNPLA3 and HSD17B13 differentially affect the risk for developing advanced alcohol-related liver disease. A genotypic/phenotypic risk score might facilitate earlier diagnosis of HCC in this population.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794862

RESUMO

Solid tumors are characterized by global metabolic alterations which contribute to their growth and progression. Altered gene expression profiles and plasma lipid composition suggested a role for metabolic reprogramming in colorectal cancer (CRC) development. However, a conclusive picture of CRC-associated lipidome alterations in the tumor tissue has not emerged. Here, we determined molar abundances of 342 species from 20 lipid classes in matched biopsies of CRC and adjacent normal mucosa. We demonstrate that in contrast to previous reports, CRC shows a largely preserved lipidome composition that resembles that of normal colonic mucosa. Important exceptions include increased levels of lyso-phosphatidylinositols in CRC and reduced abundance of ether phospholipids in advanced stages of CRC. As such, our observations challenge the concept of widespread alterations in lipid metabolism in CRC and rather suggest changes in the cellular lipid profile that are limited to selected lipids involved in signaling and the scavenging of reactive oxygen species.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Lipidômica/métodos , Masculino , Metaboloma , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos
19.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 18(11): 2535-2543.e3, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31809916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: People with a first-degree relative with colorectal cancer (CRC) are recommended to start CRC screening at age 40. However, there is limited information on how many people in different age groups have a known family history of CRC and how many of them have had a colonoscopy. METHODS: We set up a multicenter, cross-sectional, population-based study in Germany to determine what proportions of persons in age groups from 40 to 54 years old have a known family history of CRC. We invited 160,000 persons to participate in an online survey from 2015 through 2016. We investigated what proportions of persons in each age group reported a family history of CRC and what proportions of persons underwent a colonoscopy examination using descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression models. RESULTS: Of 28,711 responders to the online questionnaire (8428 were age 40-44 years, 9879 were age 45-49 years, and 10,404 were age 50-54 years), 2705 stated that they had a first-degree relative with CRC (9.4%). The prevalence of a first-degree relative with CRC increased with age: 7.5%, 9.6%, and 10.9% for people 40 to 44 years old, 45 to 49 years old, and 50 to 54 years old, respectively. The prevalence of a first-degree relative who received a diagnosis of CRC at age 70 years or older increased steadily with each age group. Although a greater proportion of people with a family history of CRC had undergone a colonoscopy examination (54.5%) than people without a family history of CRC (25.7%; P < .0001), large proportions of people within this risk group were not in compliance with the guidelines (54.8%, 47.6%, and 38.6% for ages 40-44 y, 45-49 y, and 50-54 y, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: One in 10 persons in Germany age 40 to 54 years old has a first-degree relative with CRC. Guidelines recommend initiation of screening at ages 40 to 45 years for people with a family history, yet at this age many people do not have a family history of CRC yet, and almost half of persons 40 to 54 years old with a family history of CRC have not yet received a screening colonoscopy.

20.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(2): 477-486, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Risk variants identified so far for colorectal cancer explain only a small proportion of familial risk of this cancer, particularly in Asians. METHODS: We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of colorectal cancer in East Asians, including 23,572 colorectal cancer cases and 48,700 controls. To identify novel risk loci, we selected 60 promising risk variants for replication using data from 58,131 colorectal cancer cases and 67,347 controls of European descent. To identify additional risk variants in known colorectal cancer loci, we performed conditional analyses in East Asians. RESULTS: An indel variant, rs67052019 at 1p13.3, was found to be associated with colorectal cancer risk at P = 3.9 × 10-8 in Asians (OR per allele deletion = 1.13, 95% confidence interval = 1.08-1.18). This association was replicated in European descendants using a variant (rs2938616) in complete linkage disequilibrium with rs67052019 (P = 7.7 × 10-3). Of the remaining 59 variants, 12 showed an association at P < 0.05 in the European-ancestry study, including rs11108175 and rs9634162 at P < 5 × 10-8 and two variants with an association near the genome-wide significance level (rs60911071, P = 5.8 × 10-8; rs62558833, P = 7.5 × 10-8) in the combined analyses of Asian- and European-ancestry data. In addition, using data from East Asians, we identified 13 new risk variants at 11 loci reported from previous GWAS. CONCLUSIONS: In this large GWAS, we identified three novel risk loci and two highly suggestive loci for colorectal cancer risk and provided evidence for potential roles of multiple genes and pathways in the etiology of colorectal cancer. In addition, we showed that additional risk variants exist in many colorectal cancer risk loci identified previously. IMPACT: Our study provides novel data to improve the understanding of the genetic basis for colorectal cancer risk.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA