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1.
Hepatology ; 2019 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630428

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Carriage of rs738409:G in patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 (PNPLA3) is associated with an increased risk for developing alcohol-related cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recently, rs72613567:TA in hydroxysteroid 17-beta dehydrogenase 13 (HSD17B13) was shown to be associated with a reduced risk for developing alcohol-related liver disease and to attenuate the risk associated with PNPLA3 rs738409:G. This study explores the risk-associations between these two genetic variants and the development of alcohol-related cirrhosis and HCC. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Variants in HSD17B13 and PNPLA3 were genotyped in 6,171 participants, including: 1,031 with alcohol-related cirrhosis and HCC; 1,653 with alcohol-related cirrhosis without HCC; 2,588 alcohol misusers with no liver disease; and 899 healthy controls. Genetic associations with the risks for alcohol-related cirrhosis and HCC were determined using logistic regression analysis. Carriage of HSD17B13 rs72613567:TA was associated with a lower risk for both cirrhosis (OR 0.79 [95% CI 0.72-0.88], p=8.13×10-6) and HCC (OR 0.77 [95% CI 0.68-0.89], p=2.27×10-4), while carriage of PNPLA3 rs738409:G was associated with an increased risk for developing cirrhosis (OR 1.70 [95% CI 1.54-1.88], p=1.52x10-26) and HCC (OR 1.77 [95% CI 1.58-1.98], p=2.31×10-23). These associations remained significant after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, type II diabetes mellitus and country. Carriage of HSD17B13 rs72613567:TA attenuated the risk for developing cirrhosis associated with PNPLA3 rs738409:G in both men and women but the protective effect against the subsequent development of HCC was only observed in men (p=1.72×10-4; ORallelic, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.64-0.87). CONCLUSIONS: Carriage of variants in PNPLA3 and HSD17B13 differentially affect the risk for developing advanced alcohol-related liver disease. A genotypic/phenotypic risk score might facilitate earlier diagnosis of HCC in this population.

2.
J Mol Med (Berl) ; 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637480

RESUMO

The I148M variant of the Patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 (PNPLA3) protein is associated with an increased risk for liver inflammation and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the underlying mechanism is unknown. We hypothesized that enhanced CXC chemokine secretion mediates hepatic inflammation that accelerates development of HCC. Expandable primary human (upcyte®) hepatocytes and human PLC/PRF/5 hepatoma cells were lentivirally transduced with both PNPLA3 I148M variants and stimulated with lipids. Cytokine levels in culture supernatant and patient sera (n = 80) were analyzed by ELISA. Supernatants were assessed in transmigration experiments, tube formation, and proliferation assays. In vitro, lipid stimulation of transduced hepatocytes dose-dependently induced the production of interleukin-8 and CXCL1 in hepatocytes carrying the PNPLA3 148M variant. In line, sera from PNPLA3 148M-positive patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis contained higher levels of interleukin-8 and CXCL1 than patients with wild-type PNPLA3. Supernatants from lipid-stimulated hepatocytes with the PNPLA3 148M variant induced enhanced migration of white blood cells, angiogenesis, and cell proliferation in comparison with supernatants from wild-type hepatocytes via CXC receptors 1 and 2. Increased production of interleukin-8 and CXCL1 by hepatocytes carrying the PNPLA3 148M variant contributes to a pro-inflammatory and tumorigenic milieu in patients with alcoholic liver disease. KEY MESSAGES: The PNPLA3 148M variant is associated with cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Lipid stimulation of hepatocytes with this variant induces IL-8 and CXCL1. Supernatants from hepatocytes with this variant promote migration and angiogenesis. Sera from patients with this variant contained enhanced levels of IL-8 and CXCL1. The PNPLA3 148M variant contributes to a tumorigenic milieu via IL-8 and CXCL1.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31534193

RESUMO

Clostridium difficile (CD) infection is the main cause of nosocomial enterocolitis in western countries and in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHCT). Recipients of alloHCT are at high risk for CD infection but large studies in this population are rare and conflicting results have been reported. We analyzed 727 patients with AML or MDS undergoing alloHCT in our center from 2004 to 2015. Ninety-six patients (13%) had CD infection and 103 patients (14%) were identified as asymptomatic carriers by screening at admission and once a week during aplasia. Patients with CD infection had a shorter median overall survival of 8 months (95% CI, 6-36 months) compared with 25 months (95% CI, 17-35 months) for patients without CD infection, (HR 1.4, p = 0.04). CD positive patients were less likely to develop acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD; HR 0.6, p = 0.004) compared with CD-negative patients, but did not show differences in gastrointestinal aGvHD (HR 0.9, p = 0.5). Symptomatic patients developed gastrointestinal aGvHD (HR 2.5, p = 0.02) more often compared with asymptomatic CD positive patients. This analysis demonstrates a high prevalence for CD infection in patients undergoing alloHCT. A significant lower overall survival for patients with CD infection could be demonstrated.

4.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31485028

RESUMO

Gallstones Disease (GSD) is one of the most common digestive diseases requiring hospitalization and surgical procedures in the world. GSD has a high prevalence in populations with European or Amerindian ancestry (10-20%) and the influence of genetic factors is broadly acknowledged. However, known genetic variants do not entirely explain the disease heritability suggesting that additional genetic variants remain to be identified. Here, we examined the association of copy number variants (CNVs) with GSD in a sample of 4778 individuals (1929 GSD cases and 2849 controls) including two European cohorts from Germany (n = 3702) and one admixed Latin American cohort from Chile (n = 1076). We detected 2936 large and rare CNVs events (size > 100 kb, frequency < 1%). Case-control burden analysis and generalized linear regression models revealed significant association of CNVs with GSD in men, with the strongest effect observed with CNVs overlapping lipid metabolism genes (p-value = 6.54 × 10-4; OR = 2.76; CI 95% = 1.53-4.89). Our results indicate a clear link between CNVs and GSD in men and provides additional evidence that the genetic components of risk for GSD are complex, can be sex specific and include CNVs affecting genes involved in lipid metabolism.

6.
Gastrointest Endosc ; 89(6): 1266, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104755
7.
Strahlenther Onkol ; 195(8): 756-763, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31143995

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To test the detectability of a liquid fiducial marker injected into ex vivo pancreas tumour tissue on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT). Furthermore, its injection performance using different needle sizes and its structural stability after fixation in formaldehyde were investigated. METHODS: Liquid fiducial markers with a volume of 20-100 µl were injected into freshly resected pancreas specimens of three patients with suspected adenocarcinoma. X­ray guided injection was performed using different needle sizes (18 G, 22 G, 25 G). The specimens were scanned on MRI and CT with clinical protocols. The markers were segmented on CT by signal thresholding. Marker detectability in MRI was assessed in the registered segmentations. Marker volume on CT was compared to the injected volume as a measure of backflow. RESULTS: Markers with a volume ≥20 µl were detected as hyperintensity on X­ray and CT. On T1- and T2-weighted 3T MRI, marker sizes ranging from 20-100 µl were visible as hypointensity. Since most markers were non-spherical, MRI detectability was poor and their differentiation from hypointensities caused by air cavities or surgical clips was only feasible with a reference CT. Marker backflow was only observed when using an 18-G needle. A volume decrease of 6.6 ± 13.0% was observed after 24 h in formaldehyde and, with the exception of one instance, no wash-out occurred. CONCLUSIONS: The liquid fiducial marker injected in ex vivo pancreatic resection specimen was visible as hyperintensity on kV X­ray and CT and as hypointensity on MRI. The marker's size was stable in formaldehyde. A marker volume of ≥50 µL is recommended in clinically used MRI sequences. In vivo injection is expected to improve the markers sphericity due to persisting metabolism and thereby enhance detectability on MRI.

8.
Radiother Oncol ; 133: 28-34, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935578

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Oesophageal mobility relative to bony anatomy is a major source of geometrical uncertainty in proton radiotherapy of oesophageal carcinoma. To mitigate this uncertainty we investigated the use of implanted fiducial markers for direct target verification in terms of safety, visibility, and stability. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 19 helical gold markers were endoscopically implanted in ten patients. Their placement at the proximal and distal tumour borders was compared to tumour demarcations derived from [18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, their visibility quantified via the contrast-to-noise ratio on daily orthogonal X-ray imaging, and their mobility relative to bony anatomy analysed by means of retrospective triangulation. RESULTS: Marker implantation proceeded without complications, but the distal tumour border could not be reached in two patients. Marker locations corresponded reasonably well with metabolic tumour edges (mean: 5.4 mm more distally). Marker visibility was limited but mostly sufficient (mean contrast-to-noise ratio: 1.5), and sixteen markers (84%) remained in situ until the end of treatment. Overall, marker excursions from their planned position were larger than 5(10) mm in 59(17)% of all analysed fractions. On one occasion severe target displacement was only identified via markers and was corrected before treatment delivery. CONCLUSION: Implanted helical gold fiducial markers are a safe and reliable method of providing target-centric positioning verification in proton beam therapy of oesophageal carcinoma.

9.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 4528, 2019 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30872654

RESUMO

The secretion of osmolytes into a lumen and thereby caused osmotic water inflow can drive fluid flows in organs without a mechanical pump. Such fluids include saliva, sweat, pancreatic juice and bile. The effects of elevated fluid pressure and the associated mechanical limitations of organ function remain largely unknown since fluid pressure is difficult to measure inside tiny secretory channels in vivo. We consider the pressure profile of the coupled osmolyte-flow problem in a secretory channel with a closed tip and an open outlet. Importantly, the entire lateral boundary acts as a dynamic fluid source, the strength of which self-organizes through feedback from the emergent pressure solution itself. We derive analytical solutions and compare them to numerical simulations of the problem in three-dimensional space. The theoretical results reveal a phase boundary in a four-dimensional parameter space separating the commonly considered regime with steady flow all along the channel, here termed "wet-tip" regime, from a "dry-tip" regime suffering ceased flow downstream from the closed tip. We propose a relation between the predicted phase boundary and the onset of cholestasis, a pathological liver condition with reduced bile outflow. The phase boundary also sets an intrinsic length scale for the channel which could act as a length sensor during organ growth.

10.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 144(7): 470-474, 2019 04.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30925602

RESUMO

While digital health is changing the way we perform medicine, implementation of novel diagnostic or therapeutic approaches into clinical practice remains challenging. In this paper we discuss strategies and problems that need to be addressed to enable the translation of new technologies. With its broad spectrum of diseases and procedures the field of gastroenterology offers a perfect test bed for digital innovation. Two clusters of excellence funded by the German Research Foundation focus on data driven personalized therapeutic strategies for oncological and autoimmune diseases. On experimental level digital innovations in endoscopy and for ultrasound-guided interventions are being developed. In endoscopy artificial intelligence-driven decision support systems for adenoma detection have been developed that show promising results in clinical trails. However, for future development it will be crucial to follow an interdisciplinary approach with medical professionals and patients guiding the innovation process. Therefore digital health literacy will need to be implemented in medical education. In the academic field a strong cooperation of clinicians, patients, computer scientists and engineers will be essential.


Assuntos
Gastroenterologia , Informática Médica , Telemedicina , Humanos , Medicina de Precisão
11.
Hum Genet ; 138(4): 307-326, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30820706

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies have reported 56 independently associated colorectal cancer (CRC) risk variants, most of which are non-coding and believed to exert their effects by modulating gene expression. The computational method PrediXcan uses cis-regulatory variant predictors to impute expression and perform gene-level association tests in GWAS without directly measured transcriptomes. In this study, we used reference datasets from colon (n = 169) and whole blood (n = 922) transcriptomes to test CRC association with genetically determined expression levels in a genome-wide analysis of 12,186 cases and 14,718 controls. Three novel associations were discovered from colon transverse models at FDR ≤ 0.2 and further evaluated in an independent replication including 32,825 cases and 39,933 controls. After adjusting for multiple comparisons, we found statistically significant associations using colon transcriptome models with TRIM4 (discovery P = 2.2 × 10- 4, replication P = 0.01), and PYGL (discovery P = 2.3 × 10- 4, replication P = 6.7 × 10- 4). Interestingly, both genes encode proteins that influence redox homeostasis and are related to cellular metabolic reprogramming in tumors, implicating a novel CRC pathway linked to cell growth and proliferation. Defining CRC risk regions as one megabase up- and downstream of one of the 56 independent risk variants, we defined 44 non-overlapping CRC-risk regions. Among these risk regions, we identified genes associated with CRC (P < 0.05) in 34/44 CRC-risk regions. Importantly, CRC association was found for two genes in the previously reported 2q25 locus, CXCR1 and CXCR2, which are potential cancer therapeutic targets. These findings provide strong candidate genes to prioritize for subsequent laboratory follow-up of GWAS loci. This study is the first to implement PrediXcan in a large colorectal cancer study and findings highlight the utility of integrating transcriptome data in GWAS for discovery of, and biological insight into, risk loci.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Frequência do Gene , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
12.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 2132, 2019 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30765821

RESUMO

Whole human genome sequencing initiatives help us understand population history and the basis of genetic diseases. Current data mostly focuses on Old World populations, and the information of the genomic structure of Native Americans, especially those from the Southern Cone is scant. Here we present annotation and variant discovery from high-quality complete genome sequences of a cohort of 11 Mapuche-Huilliche individuals (HUI) from Southern Chile. We found approximately 3.1 × 106 single nucleotide variants (SNVs) per individual and identified 403,383 (6.9%) of novel SNVs events. Analyses of large-scale genomic events detected 680 copy number variants (CNVs) and 4,514 structural variants (SVs), including 398 and 1,910 novel events, respectively. Global ancestry composition of HUI genomes revealed that the cohort represents a sample from a marginally admixed population from the Southern Cone, whose main genetic component derives from Native American ancestors. Additionally, we found that HUI genomes contain variants in genes associated with 5 of the 6 leading causes of noncommunicable diseases in Chile, which may have an impact on the risk of prevalent diseases in Chilean and Amerindian populations. Our data represents a useful resource that can contribute to population-based studies and for the design of early diagnostics or prevention tools for Native and admixed Latin American populations.

13.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 772, 2019 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30692554

RESUMO

Latin Americans and Chilean Amerindians have the highest prevalence of gallstone disease (GSD) and gallbladder cancer (GBC) in the world. A handful of loci have been associated with GSD in populations of predominantly European ancestry, however, they only explain a small portion of the genetic component of the disease. Here, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for GSD in 1,095 admixed Chilean Latinos with Mapuche Native American ancestry. Disease status was assessed by cholecystectomy or abdominal ultrasonography. Top-10 candidate variants surpassing the suggestive cutoff of P < 1 × 10-5 in the discovery cohort were genotyped in an independent replication sample composed of 1,643 individuals. Variants with positive replication were further examined in two European GSD populations and a Chilean GBC cohort. We consistently replicated the association of ABCG8 gene with GSD (rs11887534, P = 3.24 × 10-8, OR = 1.74) and identified TRAF3 (rs12882491, P = 1.11 × 10-7, OR = 1.40) as a novel candidate gene for the disease in admixed Chilean Latinos. ABCG8 and TRAF3 variants also conferred risk to GBC. Gene expression analyses indicated that TRAF3 was significantly decreased in gallbladder (P = 0.015) and duodenal mucosa (P = 0.001) of GSD individuals compared to healthy controls, where according to GTEx data in the small intestine, the presence of the risk allele contributes to the observed effect. We conclude that ABCG8 and TRAF3 genes are associated with GSD and GBC in admixed Latinos and that decreased TRAF3 levels could enhance gallbladder inflammation as is observed in GSD and GSD-associated GBC.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30503966

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Little is know about the effects of endoscopic balloon dilation (EBD) for strictures of the upper gastrointestinal (UGI) tract in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). We performed a pooled analysis of the efficacy and safety of EBD for UGI CD-associated strictures. METHODS: We searched the EMBASE, Medline and Cochrane library, as well as bibliographies of relevant articles, for cohort studies of adults with CD and strictures of the stomach, or duodenum (up to the ligament of Treitz) who underwent EBD through December 2016. We obtained data from 7 international referral centers on 94 patients who underwent 141 EBD. We performed a patient-level meta-analysis of data from published and unpublished cohort studies to determine mechanical and clinical success. We performed time to event analysis to assess symptom recurrence and need for re-dilation or surgery. The patients analyzed had strictures of the duodenum (n=107), stomach (n=30), or spanning both (n=4). RESULTS: The rate of technical success for EBD was 100%, with 87% short term clinical efficacy; major complications arose from 2.9% of all procedures. During median follow up of 23.1 months, 70.5% patients had recurrence of symptoms, 59.6% required re-dilation, and 30.8% required surgical intervention. Patients whose disease was located in the small bowel had a higher risk for symptom recurrence (hazard ratio [HR], 2.1; P=.003). Asian race (HR, 2.8; P<.001) and location of disease in the small bowel (HR, 1.9; P=.004) increased the need for re-dilation. Prestenotic dilation was a risk factor for earlier need for surgery (HR, 1.9; P=.001). CONCLUSIONS: In a meta-analysis, we found EBD for CD-associated strictures of the UGI to be a effective alternative to surgery, with a high rate of short-term technical and clinical success, moderate long-term efficacy, and an acceptable rate of complications.

15.
Dis Colon Rectum ; 61(12): 1435-1441, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30399049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment of supra- and transsphincteric anal fistulas remains a clinical challenge because current treatment results are variable and potentially endanger sphincter function. OBJECTIVE: Based on positive results of endoluminal polyurethane-sponge vacuum therapy in the upper and lower GI tract, a new system for endofistular vacuum therapy was developed for anal fistulas to utilize vacuum therapy to remove the endofistular pseudoepithelium and to induce granulation in the fistula tract. DESIGN: This study is based on a prospective case series. PATIENTS: Seven patients with complicated anal fistulas (3 associated with Crohn's disease and 4 of cryptoglandular origin) longer than 4 cm were treated. Initially, the fistula was curettaged and the first endofistular vacuum therapy sponge was positioned in the fistula tract. The inner fistula opening was closed by suture. A 125 mm Hg constant vacuum was applied to the sponge, and the endofistular vacuum therapy sponge was changed a median of 3 (3-5) times after each 48 to 72 hours of constant vacuum therapy. After final removal, the fistulas were reevaluated every other week for 3 months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The main outcome measured was the closure of the fistula. RESULTS: All patients tolerated the therapy well and no adverse events were observed. Fistula tract closure was demonstrated within 4 weeks after the termination of vacuum therapy. One patient with cryptoglandular fistula developed a recurrence within the follow-up of 3 months. LIMITATIONS: This was an observational study that had no control arm. CONCLUSION: In this pilot case series, the results are encouraging. Because endoluminal vacuum therapy would be a new and sphincter-sparing therapy, this concept warrants further investigation in controlled trials.

16.
BMC Cancer ; 18(1): 1156, 2018 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30466408

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The group of colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors continues to grow worldwide. Understanding health-related quality of life (HRQOL) determinants and consequences of HRQOL impairments in long-term CRC survivors may help to individualize survivorship care plans. We aimed to i) examine the HRQOL status of CRC long-term survivors, ii) identify cross-sectional sociodemographic and clinical correlates of HRQOL, and iii) investigate the prospective association of HRQOL after CRC diagnosis with all-cause mortality. METHODS: We assessed HRQOL within a Northern German cohort of 1294 CRC survivors at a median of 6 years after CRC diagnosis using the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30). Cross-sectional correlates of different HRQOL dimensions were analyzed using multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models with HRQOL as a binary variable. With multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models, hazard ratios (HR) of all-cause mortality were estimated per 10-point-increments of an HRQOL summary score, a global quality of life scale, and HRQOL functioning and symptom domains. RESULTS: The median HRQOL summary score was 87 (interquartile range: 75-94). Sex, age, education, tumor location, metastases, other cancers, type of therapy, and current stoma were identified as correlates of different HRQOL scales. After a median follow-up time of 7 years after HRQOL assessment, 175 participants had died. Nearly all HRQOL domains, except for cognitive functioning and diarrhea, were significantly associated with all-cause mortality. A 10-point-increment in the summary score decreased the risk of death by 24% (HR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.70-0.82). CONCLUSIONS: HRQOL in CRC survivors appeared to be relatively high in the long term. Various clinical and sociodemographic factors were cross-sectionally associated with HRQOL in long-term CRC survivors. Lower HRQOL was associated with increased all-cause mortality. Individualized healthcare programs for CRC survivors (including psychosocial screening and interventions) are needed to detect decreased HRQOL and to further improve long-term HRQOL and survival.

17.
J Gastroenterol ; 2018 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30327875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) positive stage I gastric low-grade MALT lymphoma, eradication is the accepted first-line therapy. The role of eradication therapy in lymphoma > stage IE is still unclear. However, about 20% of patients show persistent lymphoma following successful eradication or primary H. pylori-negative lymphoma. A prospective study for salvage radiation therapy with standard 36 Gy in comparison to a reduced dose of 25.2 Gy is still missing. METHODS: A prospective, multicentre study investigated the efficacy of eradication in H. pylori-positive gastric low-grade MALT lymphoma stages IE and II1E (HELYX I). Refractory lymphoma or H. pylori-negative patients were treated in a prospective, randomised, multicentre, phase II study to receive either 25.2 Gy or 36 Gy radiotherapy (HELYX II). RESULTS: 102 patients (3 drop outs) were included in HELYX I: 75/99 (75.8%) showed complete remission after a median of 2.8 months. 18 (18.2%) had partial remission (PR) and 6 (6.0%) no change (NC). 29 patients (7 drop outs) were randomized in HELYX II (7 primarily H. pylori-negative, 15 patients from HELYX I with refractory disease after eradication). All patients achieved stable CR irrespective of radiation dose. Both presence of the t(11,18) translocation (OR 9.0, p = 0.01) and monoclonality of the tumour cells (OR 6.3, p = 0.006) were predictors for persistant lymphoma after eradication therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Most H. pylori-positive low grade gastric MALT lymphoma stage IE and II1E respond with stable CR after eradication therapy. In patients with refractory disease or H. pylori negative low grade gastric MALT lymphoma a dosage-reduced radiation therapy with 25.2 Gy is an effective standard dose in stage IE and II1E. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00154440.

18.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 143(20): 1477-1480, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30286498

RESUMO

Genetic testing has become increasingly relevant in daily clinical practice due to the identification of susceptibility genes for several diseases. This article focuses on genetic testing for hereditary pancreatitis, inflammatory bowel disease and fatty liver disease. Several genetic variants that contribute to chronic pancreatitis development have been identified. If the individual aetiology of chronic pancreatitis is unclear, genetic testing for common predisposing variants should be offered. Inflammatory bowel diseases are complex and multifactorial disorders. However, rare mono- or oligogenic forms of disease exist and should be screened for, as personalized therapies can be offered to subsets of these patients. Genetic risk factors also promote the manifestation and progression of fatty liver disease, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In conclusion, genetic testing plays an increasing role in delineating the pathogenesis of gastroenterological and hepatic diseases, in the stratification of patients at risk for severe disease complications, and in the optimization of patient care.

19.
Int J Cancer ; 2018 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30303515

RESUMO

Pro-inflammatory dietary factors have been shown to be associated with the incidence of a range of cancers. However, there are many fewer studies on the association between the inflammatory potential of diet and survival after cancer diagnosis. We examined the association between post-diagnosis dietary inflammatory index (DII®) scores and all-cause mortality in long-term survivors of colorectal cancer (CRC). DII scores were calculated from dietary data of 1,404 CRC survivors collected at a median of 6 years after CRC diagnosis. Using multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models, hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated for the association of DII scores, modeled continuous and in quartiles, with all-cause mortality. After a median follow-up time of 7 years (after dietary assessment), 204 study participants had died. Overall, in the fully adjusted model there was a suggestion of a positive association between DII score and all-cause mortality (HRDIIquartile4vs1 : 1.36; 95% CI: 0.88-2.09 and HRDIIcontinuous : 1.08; 95% CI: 0.97-1.20). However, in subgroup analyses, we found significant differences in individuals with metastatic disease (HRDIIcontinuous : 1.34; 95% CI: 1.07-1.67) and the absence of stoma (HRDIIcontinuous : 1.15; 95% CI: 1.02-1.29). Overall, the post-diagnosis DII was not statistically significantly associated with all-cause mortality in CRC long-term survivors; however, there was suggestive evidence of an association in select subgroups.

20.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4150, 2018 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30297808

RESUMO

A deeper epigenomic understanding of spatial organization of cells in human tissues is an important challenge. Here we report the first combined positional analysis of transcriptomes and methylomes across three micro-dissected zones (pericentral, intermediate and periportal) of human liver. We identify pronounced anti-correlated transcriptional and methylation gradients including a core of 271 genes controlling zonated metabolic and morphogen networks and observe a prominent porto-central gradient of DNA methylation at binding sites of 46 transcription factors. The gradient includes an epigenetic and transcriptional Wnt signature supporting the concept of a pericentral hepatocyte regeneration pathway under steady-state conditions. While donors with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease show consistent gene expression differences corresponding to the severity of the disease across all zones, the relative zonated gene expression and DNA methylation patterns remain unchanged. Overall our data provide a wealth of new positional insights into zonal networks controlled by epigenetic and transcriptional gradients in human liver.

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