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1.
Gut ; 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632709

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: An understanding of the etiologic heterogeneity of colorectal cancer (CRC) is critical for improving precision prevention, including individualized screening recommendations and the discovery of novel drug targets and repurposable drug candidates for chemoprevention. Known differences in molecular characteristics and environmental risk factors among tumors arising in different locations of the colorectum suggest partly distinct mechanisms of carcinogenesis. The extent to which the contribution of inherited genetic risk factors for CRC differs by anatomical subsite of the primary tumor has not been examined. DESIGN: To identify new anatomical subsite-specific risk loci, we performed genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analyses including data of 48 214 CRC cases and 64 159 controls of European ancestry. We characterised effect heterogeneity at CRC risk loci using multinomial modelling. RESULTS: We identified 13 loci that reached genome-wide significance (p<5×10-8) and that were not reported by previous GWASs for overall CRC risk. Multiple lines of evidence support candidate genes at several of these loci. We detected substantial heterogeneity between anatomical subsites. Just over half (61) of 109 known and new risk variants showed no evidence for heterogeneity. In contrast, 22 variants showed association with distal CRC (including rectal cancer), but no evidence for association or an attenuated association with proximal CRC. For two loci, there was strong evidence for effects confined to proximal colon cancer. CONCLUSION: Genetic architectures of proximal and distal CRC are partly distinct. Studies of risk factors and mechanisms of carcinogenesis, and precision prevention strategies should take into consideration the anatomical subsite of the tumour.

2.
J Med Genet ; 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622763

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency syndrome (CMMRD) is the most aggressive cancer predisposition syndrome associated with multiorgan cancers, often presenting in childhood. There is variability in age and presentation of cancers and benign manifestations mimicking neurofibromatosis type 1. Genetic testing may not be informative and is complicated by pseudogenes associated with the most commonly associated gene, PMS2. To date, no diagnostic criteria exist. Since surveillance and immune-based therapies are available, establishing a CMMRD diagnosis is key to improve survival. METHODS: In order to establish a robust diagnostic path, a multidisciplinary international working group, with representation from the two largest consortia (International Replication Repair Deficiency (IRRD) consortium and European Consortium Care for CMMRD (C4CMMRD)), was formed to establish diagnostic criteria based on expertise, literature review and consensus. RESULTS: The working group established seven diagnostic criteria for the diagnosis of CMMRD, including four definitive criteria (strong evidence) and three likely diagnostic criteria (moderate evidence). All criteria warrant CMMRD surveillance. The criteria incorporate germline mismatch repair results, ancillary tests and clinical manifestation to determine a diagnosis. Hallmark cancers for CMMRD were defined by the working group after extensive literature review and consultation with the IRRD and C4CMMRD consortia. CONCLUSIONS: This position paper summarises the evidence and rationale to provide specific guidelines for CMMRD diagnosis, which necessitates appropriate surveillance and treatment.

3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(2): 214-216, 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545027
4.
Gynecol Oncol ; 160(1): 161-168, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33393477

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Lynch syndrome is the most common cause of inherited endometrial cancer, attributable to germline pathogenic variants (PV) in mismatch repair (MMR) genes. Tumor microsatellite instability (MSI-high) and MMR IHC abnormalities are characteristics of Lynch syndrome. Double somatic MMR gene PV also cause MSI-high endometrial cancers. The aim of this study was to determine the relative frequency of Lynch syndrome and double somatic MMR PV. METHODS: 341 endometrial cancer patients enrolled in the Ohio Colorectal Cancer Prevention Initiative at The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center from 1/1/13-12/31/16. All tumors underwent immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for the four MMR proteins, MSI testing, and MLH1 methylation testing if the tumor was MMR-deficient (dMMR). Germline genetic testing for Lynch syndrome was undertaken for all cases with dMMR tumors lacking MLH1 methylation. Tumor sequencing followed if a germline MMR gene PV was not identified. RESULTS: Twenty-seven percent (91/341) of tumors were either MSI-high or had abnormal IHC indicating dMMR. As expected, most dMMR tumors had MLH1 methylation; (69, 75.8% of the dMMR cases; 20.2% of total). Among the 22 (6.5%) cases with dMMR not explained by methylation, 10 (2.9% of total) were found to have Lynch syndrome (6 MSH6, 3 MSH2, 1 PMS2). Double somatic MMR PV accounted for the remaining 12 dMMR cases (3.5% of total). CONCLUSIONS: Since double somatic MMR gene PV are as common as Lynch syndrome among endometrial cancer patients, paired tumor and germline testing for patients with non-methylated dMMR tumor may be the most efficient approach for LS screening.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33318029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence for aspirin's chemopreventative properties on colorectal cancer (CRC) is substantial, but its mechanism of action is not well-understood. We combined a proteomic approach with Mendelian randomization (MR) to identify possible new aspirin targets that decrease CRC risk. METHODS: Human colorectal adenoma cells (RG/C2) were treated with aspirin (24 hours) and a stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) based proteomics approach identified altered protein expression. Protein quantitative trait loci (pQTLs) from INTERVAL (N = 3,301) and expression QTLs (eQTLs) from the eQTLGen Consortium (N = 31,684) were used as genetic proxies for protein and mRNA expression levels. Two-sample MR of mRNA/protein expression on CRC risk was performed using eQTL/pQTL data combined with CRC genetic summary data from the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR), Colorectal Transdisciplinary (CORECT), Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer (GECCO) consortia and UK Biobank (55,168 cases and 65,160 controls). RESULTS: Altered expression was detected for 125/5886 proteins. Of these, aspirin decreased MCM6, RRM2, and ARFIP2 expression, and MR analysis showed that a standard deviation increase in mRNA/protein expression was associated with increased CRC risk (OR: 1.08, 95% CI, 1.03-1.13; OR: 3.33, 95% CI, 2.46-4.50; and OR: 1.15, 95% CI, 1.02-1.29, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: MCM6 and RRM2 are involved in DNA repair whereby reduced expression may lead to increased DNA aberrations and ultimately cancer cell death, whereas ARFIP2 is involved in actin cytoskeletal regulation, indicating a possible role in aspirin's reduction of metastasis. IMPACT: Our approach has shown how laboratory experiments and population-based approaches can combine to identify aspirin-targeted proteins possibly affecting CRC risk.

6.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 396, 2020 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327948

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Higher adiposity increases the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), but whether this relationship varies by anatomical sub-site or by sex is unclear. Further, the metabolic alterations mediating the effects of adiposity on CRC are not fully understood. METHODS: We examined sex- and site-specific associations of adiposity with CRC risk and whether adiposity-associated metabolites explain the associations of adiposity with CRC. Genetic variants from genome-wide association studies of body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, unadjusted for BMI; N = 806,810), and 123 metabolites from targeted nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics (N = 24,925), were used as instruments. Sex-combined and sex-specific Mendelian randomization (MR) was conducted for BMI and WHR with CRC risk (58,221 cases and 67,694 controls in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium, Colorectal Cancer Transdisciplinary Study, and Colon Cancer Family Registry). Sex-combined MR was conducted for BMI and WHR with metabolites, for metabolites with CRC, and for BMI and WHR with CRC adjusted for metabolite classes in multivariable models. RESULTS: In sex-specific MR analyses, higher BMI (per 4.2 kg/m2) was associated with 1.23 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.08, 1.38) times higher CRC odds among men (inverse-variance-weighted (IVW) model); among women, higher BMI (per 5.2 kg/m2) was associated with 1.09 (95% CI = 0.97, 1.22) times higher CRC odds. WHR (per 0.07 higher) was more strongly associated with CRC risk among women (IVW OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.08, 1.43) than men (IVW OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.81, 1.36). BMI or WHR was associated with 104/123 metabolites at false discovery rate-corrected P ≤ 0.05; several metabolites were associated with CRC, but not in directions that were consistent with the mediation of positive adiposity-CRC relations. In multivariable MR analyses, associations of BMI and WHR with CRC were not attenuated following adjustment for representative metabolite classes, e.g., the univariable IVW OR for BMI with CRC was 1.12 (95% CI = 1.00, 1.26), and this became 1.11 (95% CI = 0.99, 1.26) when adjusting for cholesterol in low-density lipoprotein particles. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that higher BMI more greatly raises CRC risk among men, whereas higher WHR more greatly raises CRC risk among women. Adiposity was associated with numerous metabolic alterations, but none of these explained associations between adiposity and CRC. More detailed metabolomic measures are likely needed to clarify the mechanistic pathways.

8.
JCO Glob Oncol ; 6: 1647-1655, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33141623

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence rates are increasing among individuals < 50 years of age (early-onset CRC) globally with causes unknown. Racial/ethnic disparities in early-onset CRC have also grown more pronounced, because Black individuals have higher early-onset CRC incidence and poorer survival compared with White individuals. We describe the prevalence and burden of early-onset CRC among Africans in Nigeria and African Americans (AAs) in the United States. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We identified Black individuals diagnosed with a first primary CRC ages 18 to 49 years between 1989 and 2017 at Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital in Zaria, Nigeria (Nigerians), and in the United States (AAs) using the National Institutes of Health/National Cancer Institute's SEER program of cancer registries. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to investigate clinical and demographic differences between Nigerians and AAs with early-onset CRC, adjusted for age, sex, tumor site, and histology. RESULTS: A total of 5,019 Black individuals were diagnosed with early-onset CRC over the study period (379 Nigerians; 4,640 AAs). Overall, approximately one third of young Black patients were diagnosed with rectal tumors (35.8%). Nigerian individuals with early-onset CRC were eight-fold more likely to be diagnosed with rectal tumors (odds ratio [OR], 8.14; 95% CI, 6.23 to 10.62; P < .0001) and more likely to be diagnosed at younger ages (OR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.86 to 0.89; P < .0001) compared with young African Americans in adjusted models. CONCLUSION: Compared with AA individuals diagnosed with early-onset CRC, Nigerian individuals harbor distinct features of early-onset CRC. Additional investigation of the histopathologic and biologic heterogeneity of early-onset CRCs among Black individuals is critical for understanding racial disparities in susceptibility and outcomes, which may have implications for tailored early-onset CRC prevention, detection, and treatment strategies.

9.
Gastroenterology ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Susceptibility genes and the underlying mechanisms for the majority of risk loci identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for colorectal cancer (CRC) risk remain largely unknown. We conducted a transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) to identify putative susceptibility genes. METHODS: Gene-expression prediction models were built using transcriptome and genetic data from the 284 normal transverse colon tissues of European descendants from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx), and model performance was evaluated using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (n = 355). We applied the gene-expression prediction models and GWAS data to evaluate associations of genetically predicted gene-expression with CRC risk in 58,131 CRC cases and 67,347 controls of European ancestry. Dual-luciferase reporter assays and knockdown experiments in CRC cells and tumor xenografts were conducted. RESULTS: We identified 25 genes associated with CRC risk at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of P < 9.1 × 10-6, including genes in 4 novel loci, PYGL (14q22.1), RPL28 (19q13.42), CAPN12 (19q13.2), MYH7B (20q11.22), and MAP1L3CA (20q11.22). In 9 known GWAS-identified loci, we uncovered 9 genes that have not been reported previously, whereas 4 genes remained statistically significant after adjusting for the lead risk variant of the locus. Through colocalization analysis in GWAS loci, we additionally identified 12 putative susceptibility genes that were supported by TWAS analysis at P < .01. We showed that risk allele of the lead risk variant rs1741640 affected the promoter activity of CABLES2. Knockdown experiments confirmed that CABLES2 plays a vital role in colorectal carcinogenesis. CONCLUSIONS: Our study reveals new putative susceptibility genes and provides new insight into the biological mechanisms underlying CRC development.

10.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(3): 432-444, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758450

RESUMO

Accurate colorectal cancer (CRC) risk prediction models are critical for identifying individuals at low and high risk of developing CRC, as they can then be offered targeted screening and interventions to address their risks of developing disease (if they are in a high-risk group) and avoid unnecessary screening and interventions (if they are in a low-risk group). As it is likely that thousands of genetic variants contribute to CRC risk, it is clinically important to investigate whether these genetic variants can be used jointly for CRC risk prediction. In this paper, we derived and compared different approaches to generating predictive polygenic risk scores (PRS) from genome-wide association studies (GWASs) including 55,105 CRC-affected case subjects and 65,079 control subjects of European ancestry. We built the PRS in three ways, using (1) 140 previously identified and validated CRC loci; (2) SNP selection based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) clumping followed by machine-learning approaches; and (3) LDpred, a Bayesian approach for genome-wide risk prediction. We tested the PRS in an independent cohort of 101,987 individuals with 1,699 CRC-affected case subjects. The discriminatory accuracy, calculated by the age- and sex-adjusted area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC), was highest for the LDpred-derived PRS (AUC = 0.654) including nearly 1.2 M genetic variants (the proportion of causal genetic variants for CRC assumed to be 0.003), whereas the PRS of the 140 known variants identified from GWASs had the lowest AUC (AUC = 0.629). Based on the LDpred-derived PRS, we are able to identify 30% of individuals without a family history as having risk for CRC similar to those with a family history of CRC, whereas the PRS based on known GWAS variants identified only top 10% as having a similar relative risk. About 90% of these individuals have no family history and would have been considered average risk under current screening guidelines, but might benefit from earlier screening. The developed PRS offers a way for risk-stratified CRC screening and other targeted interventions.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genoma Humano/genética , Medição de Risco , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Teorema de Bayes , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco
11.
Cancer Res ; 80(20): 4578-4590, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816852

RESUMO

Protective associations of fruits, vegetables, and fiber intake with colorectal cancer risk have been shown in many, but not all epidemiologic studies. One possible reason for study heterogeneity is that dietary factors may have distinct effects by colorectal cancer molecular subtypes. Here, we investigate the association of fruit, vegetables, and fiber intake with four well-established colorectal cancer molecular subtypes separately and in combination. Nine observational studies including 9,592 cases with molecular subtypes for microsatellite instability (MSI), CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), and somatic mutations in BRAF and KRAS genes, and 7,869 controls were analyzed. Both case-only logistic regression analyses and polytomous logistic regression analyses (with one control set and multiple case groups) were used. Higher fruit intake was associated with a trend toward decreased risk of BRAF-mutated tumors [OR 4th vs. 1st quartile = 0.82 (95% confidence interval, 0.65-1.04)] but not BRAF-wildtype tumors [1.09 (0.97-1.22); P difference as shown in case-only analysis = 0.02]. This difference was observed in case-control studies and not in cohort studies. Compared with controls, higher fiber intake showed negative association with colorectal cancer risk for cases with microsatellite stable/MSI-low, CIMP-negative, BRAF-wildtype, and KRAS-wildtype tumors (P trend range from 0.03 to 3.4e-03), which is consistent with the traditional adenoma-colorectal cancer pathway. These negative associations were stronger compared with MSI-high, CIMP-positive, BRAF-mutated, or KRAS-mutated tumors, but the differences were not statistically significant. These inverse associations for fruit and fiber intake may explain, in part, inconsistent findings between fruit or fiber intake and colorectal cancer risk that have previously been reported. SIGNIFICANCE: These analyses by colorectal cancer molecular subtypes potentially explain the inconsistent findings between dietary fruit or fiber intake and overall colorectal cancer risk that have previously been reported.

12.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 13(12): 1037-1046, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727822

RESUMO

Cascade testing (i.e., genetic testing of family members of individuals with disease) among families affected by hereditary cancer disorders, such as Lynch syndrome, is suboptimal and thus represents a missed opportunity in cancer prevention. We aimed to fill a gap in the literature by exploring multilevel barriers and facilitators to the implementation of cascade testing for Lynch syndrome. We conducted semistructured, in-depth interviews guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research and the Integrated Behavioral Model among key stakeholders (n = 60): Patients with Lynch syndrome and relatives (n = 20), providers (n = 20), and administrators (n = 20). Transcripts were double-coded (20% sample) using template analysis in ATLAS.ti. Barriers identified included (i) low awareness about Lynch syndrome, (ii) psychosocial barriers, (iii) lack of provider follow-up, (iv) accessibility to genetic counseling, and (v) fear of discrimination. Facilitators included (i) motivation to engage in cascade testing and (ii) free genetic testing offered to relatives. Stakeholders also recommended strategies to overcome implementation barriers in the short-term (increasing education, preparing patients for communicating with relatives), medium-term (optimizing clinical workflow and staffing resources), and long-term (nationwide standardization). These findings indicate that modifiable, multilevel barriers to the implementation of cascade testing in Lynch syndrome are experienced across stakeholders. Understanding and targeting implementation barriers is imperative to achieving public health impact of precision health interventions such as cascade testing.

13.
Hum Pathol ; 103: 34-41, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652087

RESUMO

It has been observed that some patients with colorectal cancer due to germline or double somatic pathogenic variants in the mismatch repair (MMR) genes may have intact protein expression in their tumors as assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC). This has been speculated to occur more frequently in Lynch syndrome (LS) cases due to pathogenic missense mutations, leading to expression of a full-length but nonfunctional protein with retained antigenicity. Our goals were to study the frequency of unexpected MMR expression in colorectal cancers among LS cases with missense mutations, LS cases with truncating mutations, as well as cases with double somatic MMR mutations and evaluate if the unexpected MMR expression is more common in certain categories. IHC slides were available for 82 patients with MMR deficiency without methylation, which included 56 LS cases and 26 double somatic MMR mutation cases. Sixteen of 82 MMR-defective cases showed unexpected MMR expression, with 10 cases showing tumor staining weaker than the control and 6 cases (7%) showing intact staining. Unexpected MMR expression was most commonly seen with LS cases with missense mutations (4 of 9, 44%), followed by MMR double somatic mutation cases (7 of 26, 27%), and finally by LS cases with truncating mutations (5 of 47, 11%). Cautious interpretation of MMR IHC is advised when dealing with tumor staining that is weaker than the control regardless of the percentage of tumor staining as these cases may harbor pathogenic MMR gene mutations. Missense mutations may account for some LS cases that may be missed by IHC alone. Strict adherence to proper interpretation of IHC with attention to staining intensity and the status of heterodimer partner protein will prevent many potential misses.

14.
Fam Cancer ; 19(3): 223-239, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172433

RESUMO

Multigene panel tests for hereditary cancer syndromes are increasingly utilized in the care of colorectal cancer (CRC) and polyposis patients. However, widespread availability of panels raises a number of questions including which patients should undergo testing, which genes should be included on panels, and the settings in which panels should be ordered and interpreted. To address this knowledge gap, key questions regarding the major issues encountered in clinical evaluation of hereditary CRC and polyposis were designed by the Collaborative Group of the Americas on Inherited Gastrointestinal Cancer Position Statement Committee and leadership. A literature search was conducted to address these questions. Recommendations were based on the best available evidence and expert opinion. This position statement addresses which genes should be included on a multigene panel for a patient with a suspected hereditary CRC or polyposis syndrome, proposes updated genetic testing criteria, discusses testing approaches for patients with mismatch repair proficient or deficient CRC, and outlines the essential elements for ordering and disclosing multigene panel test results. We acknowledge that critical gaps in access, insurance coverage, resources, and education remain barriers to high-quality, equitable care for individuals and their families at increased risk of hereditary CRC.

15.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 597, 2020 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001714

RESUMO

Physical activity has been associated with lower risks of breast and colorectal cancer in epidemiological studies; however, it is unknown if these associations are causal or confounded. In two-sample Mendelian randomisation analyses, using summary genetic data from the UK Biobank and GWA consortia, we found that a one standard deviation increment in average acceleration was associated with lower risks of breast cancer (odds ratio [OR]: 0.51, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.27 to 0.98, P-value = 0.04) and colorectal cancer (OR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.48 to 0.90, P-value = 0.01). We found similar magnitude inverse associations for estrogen positive (ER+ve) breast cancer and for colon cancer. Our results support a potentially causal relationship between higher physical activity levels and lower risks of breast cancer and colorectal cancer. Based on these data, the promotion of physical activity is probably an effective strategy in the primary prevention of these commonly diagnosed cancers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Exercício Físico , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Acelerometria , Feminino , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco
16.
Hum Pathol ; 96: 104-111, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783044

RESUMO

Mismatch repair protein (MMR) immunohistochemistry is an important tool in screening for Lynch syndrome in colorectal cancer patients. Unusual staining patterns such as heterogeneous MSH6 staining have been reported in colorectal and endometrial cancers. We aim to better understand MSH6 staining heterogeneity in colorectal cancer by comparative sequencing of different tumor areas for MMR and DNA polymerase mutations. Whole-section slides of 1754 colorectal cancers were reviewed for heterogeneous MSH6 staining, defined as discrete tumor areas with abrupt loss of staining juxtaposed to tumor areas with retained staining. Nine cases (0.05%) demonstrated heterogeneous MSH6 staining; none received neoadjuvant therapy prior to the specimen collection. The area of tumor with loss of MSH6 expression ranged from 5% to 60% (average 22%). Four cases had enough tissue remaining in both retained and lost MSH6 areas to perform tumor sequencing on both areas. All 9 cases were negative for MSH6 germline mutation; MSH6 heterogeneous staining was seen in tumors with MLH1 or PMS2 abnormalities (6 cases of MLH1 methylation, 2 PMS2 germline mutation, 1 MLH1 germline mutation). In addition, case 1 also had a somatic POLD1 exonuclease domain mutation (p.Y405C) in the MSH6 loss area but not in the intact area. We recommend reporting MSH6 heterogeneous pattern as MSH6 staining is present with a comment stating that the heterogeneous pattern typically does not indicate germline mutation in MSH6 but is commonly associated with abnormality in another MMR gene such as MLH1 or PMS2, or even other DNA repair genes such as DNA polymerase.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Neoplasias Colorretais/química , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/análise , Imuno-Histoquímica , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Metilação de DNA , Análise Mutacional de DNA , DNA Polimerase III/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Feminino , Heterogeneidade Genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Gastroenterology ; 158(5): 1300-1312.e20, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884074

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Human studies examining associations between circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) and colorectal cancer risk have reported inconsistent results. We conducted complementary serologic and Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses to determine whether alterations in circulating levels of IGF1 or IGFBP3 are associated with colorectal cancer development. METHODS: Serum levels of IGF1 were measured in blood samples collected from 397,380 participants from the UK Biobank, from 2006 through 2010. Incident cancer cases and cancer cases recorded first in death certificates were identified through linkage to national cancer and death registries. Complete follow-up was available through March 31, 2016. For the MR analyses, we identified genetic variants associated with circulating levels of IGF1 and IGFBP3. The association of these genetic variants with colorectal cancer was examined with 2-sample MR methods using genome-wide association study consortia data (52,865 cases with colorectal cancer and 46,287 individuals without [controls]) RESULTS: After a median follow-up period of 7.1 years, 2665 cases of colorectal cancer were recorded. In a multivariable-adjusted model, circulating level of IGF1 associated with colorectal cancer risk (hazard ratio per 1 standard deviation increment of IGF1, 1.11; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.17). Similar associations were found by sex, follow-up time, and tumor subsite. In the MR analyses, a 1 standard deviation increment in IGF1 level, predicted based on genetic factors, was associated with a higher risk of colorectal cancer risk (odds ratio 1.08; 95% CI 1.03-1.12; P = 3.3 × 10-4). Level of IGFBP3, predicted based on genetic factors, was associated with colorectal cancer risk (odds ratio per 1 standard deviation increment, 1.12; 95% CI 1.06-1.18; P = 4.2 × 10-5). Colorectal cancer risk was associated with only 1 variant in the IGFBP3 gene region (rs11977526), which also associated with anthropometric traits and circulating level of IGF2. CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of blood samples from almost 400,000 participants in the UK Biobank, we found an association between circulating level of IGF1 and colorectal cancer. Using genetic data from 52,865 cases with colorectal cancer and 46,287 controls, a higher level of IGF1, determined by genetic factors, was associated with colorectal cancer. Further studies are needed to determine how this signaling pathway might contribute to colorectal carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Proteína 3 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina/sangue , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/análise , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Proteína 3 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina/genética , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/genética , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like II/análise , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
19.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(1): 3-9, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666284

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: First-degree relatives (FDR) of patients with colorectal cancer are at risk for colorectal cancer, but may not be up to date with colorectal cancer screening. We sought to determine whether a one-time recommendation about needing colorectal cancer screening using patient navigation (PN) was better than just receiving the recommendation only. METHODS: Participants were FDRs of patients with Lynch syndrome-negative colorectal cancer from participating Ohio hospitals. FDRs from 259 families were randomized to a website intervention (528 individuals), which included a survey and personal colorectal cancer screening recommendation, while those from 254 families were randomized to the website plus telephonic PN intervention (515 individuals). Primary outcome was adherence to the personal screening recommendation (to get screened or not to get screened) received from the website. Secondary outcomes examined who benefited from adding PN. RESULTS: At the end of the 14-month follow-up, 78.6% of participants were adherent to their recommendation for colorectal cancer screening with adherence similar between arms (P = 0.14). Among those who received a recommendation to have a colonoscopy immediately, the website plus PN intervention significantly increased the odds of receiving screening, compared with the website intervention (OR: 2.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.68-5.28). CONCLUSIONS: Addition of PN to a website intervention did not improve adherence to a colorectal cancer screening recommendation overall; however, the addition of PN was more effective in increasing adherence among FDRs who needed screening immediately. IMPACT: These findings provide important information as to when the additional costs of PN are needed to assure colorectal cancer screening among those at high risk for colorectal cancer.

20.
J Med Syst ; 44(2): 38, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31853654

RESUMO

Tumor budding is defined as the presence of single tumor cells or small tumor clusters (less than five cells) that 'bud' from the invasive front of the main tumor. Tumor budding (TB) has recently emerged as an important adverse prognostic factor for many different cancer types. In colorectal carcinoma (CRC), tumor budding has been independently associated with lymph node metastasis and poor outcome. Pathologic assessment of tumor budding by light microscopy requires close evaluation of tumor invasive front on intermediate to high power magnification, entailing locating the 'hotspot' of tumor budding, counting all TB in one high power field, and generating a tumor budding score. By automating these time-consuming tasks, computer-assisted image analysis tools can be helpful for daily pathology practice, since tumor budding reporting is now recommended on select cases. In this paper, we report our work on the development of a tumor budding detection system in CRC from whole-slide Cytokeratin AE1/3 images, based on de novo computer algorithm that automates morphometric analysis of tumor budding.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Microscopia/métodos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/métodos , Patologia Cirúrgica/métodos , Algoritmos , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Humanos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Linfonodos/patologia , Metástase Linfática/patologia , Prognóstico
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