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1.
Front Plant Sci ; 10: 1548, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31827484

RESUMO

Recently, miniaturization of Raman, mid-infrared (MIR) and near-infrared (NIR) spectrometers have made substantial progress, and marketing companies predict this segment of instrumentation a significant growth rate within the next few years. This increase will be based on a more frequent implementation for industrial quality and process control and a broader adoption of spectrometers for in-the-field testing, on-site measurements, and every-day-life consumer applications. The reduction in size, however, must not lead to compromises in measurement performance and the hand-held instrumentation will only have a real impact if spectra of comparable quality to laboratory spectrometers can be obtained. The present communication will, on the one hand, explain the instrumental reasons why NIR spectroscopy is presently the most advanced technique regarding miniaturization and on the other hand, it will emphasize the impact of NIR spectroscopy for plant analysis by discussing in some detail a qualitative and a quantitative application example.

2.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(6): 1145-1150, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989976

RESUMO

In order to explore endophytes diversity and difference in Dendrobium huoshanense,in this paper,the metagenomics method was used to analyze the endophytic bacteria and fungi community of 5 groups include 30 samples in different growth years. The results indicate that 3 540 bacterial OTUs were identified from D. huoshanense,and there are 138 OTUs in 5 groups simultaneously;2 168 fungal OTUs were identified,and 143 OTUs exist in 5 groups simultaneously. The dominate endophytic bacteria community are Sphingomonas sp.,Acinetobacter sp.,Burkholderia sp.,Methylobacterium sp.,Enterococcus sp.,Bacillus sp.,the difference endophytic bacteria community are Oceanobacillusd sp.,Actinomycetospora sp.,Paenibacillus sp.. The dominate endophytic fungi community are Zasmidium sp.,Zymoseptoria sp.,Alternaria sp.,Cladosporium sp.,Fusarium sp.,the difference endophytic fungi community are Cyphellophore sp.,Fusarium sp.. The results of clustering revealed that both the endophytic bacteria and the endophytic fungi,ⅢY2 and ⅢY3 are complete clustered,and ⅡY1 and ⅢY1 are also cluster completely. These enriched the species and resources of endophytic bacteria and fungi in D. huoshanense,and provided a theoretical reference for the reasonable harvest of D. huoshanense.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Dendrobium , Fusarium , Bactérias , Endófitos , Fungos , Filogenia
3.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 43(21): 4323-4329, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30583636

RESUMO

This study was carried out to investigate the effect of oral administration of Dendrobium huoshanense on the expressions and activities of hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450s in mice, and to provide a reference for the evaluation of drug-drug interactions between D. huoshanense and clinical drugs. The C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into blank control group, D. huoshanense low dose group (crude drug 1.25 g·kg⁻¹), D. huoshanense high dose group (crude drug 7.5 g·kg⁻¹), and phenobarbital positive control group (0.08 g·kg⁻¹). Each group was intragastrically administered with drugs for 2 weeks. The mice were sacrificed and their liver microsomes were prepared. The expressions of major subtypes of P450 enzyme were determined by Western blot and the probe drugs were used to detect the enzyme activities of P450 subtypes with protein expression changes. Western blot analysis showed that the protein expressions of CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP2B in liver tissues were up-regulated in D. huoshanense-treated group. In vitro enzyme activity tests showed that there were no significant difference in metabolism of 7-ethoxyresorufin (a probe drug for CYP1A1) and bupropion (a probe drug for CYP2B) between D. huoshanense group and control group. The metabolism of phenacetin (a probe drug for CYP1A2) showed a statistical difference in rate Vmax, and it was significantly increased by approximately 20% in D. huoshanense group as compared with the blank control group, and the clearance CLint in treated group was also increased by about 32%. Therefore, oral administration of D. huoshanense had no effects on the activities of most hepatic P450 enzymes in mice, with no drug-drug interaction related to the P450 enzyme system in most clinical drugs theoretically. However, oral administration of D. huoshanense may accelerate the metabolism of CYP1A2-catalyzed drugs, which needs to be considered in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Dendrobium/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Microssomos Hepáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Microssomos Hepáticos/enzimologia , Animais , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A2/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Distribuição Aleatória
4.
Carbohydr Polym ; 199: 619-627, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30143170

RESUMO

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of non-starch polysaccharide (NSP) from Pseudostellaria heterophylla in China (Guizhou, Anhui and Fujian) were performed using high performance size exclusion chromatography coupled with multi-angle laser light scattering and refractive index detector (HPSEC-MALLS-RID), saccharide mapping based on polysaccharide analysis by using carbohydrate gel electrophoresis (PACE) and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). Results showed that PACE and HPTLC fingerprints of enzymatic hydrolysates of NSP were similar. Moreover, the results indicated that 1,4-ß-d-Galp, 1,5-α-Araf, 1,4-α-d-GalAp and 1,4-ß-d-Glcp linkages existed in NSP. Based on the results of HPSEC-MALLS/RI, the Mw, Rg, and contents of NSP in P. heterophylla were ranging from 4.37 × 104 to 1.70 × 105 Da, 46.4 to 65.9 nm, and 0.43% to 1.41%, respectively. There were no significant difference (p>0.05) observed among the three main producing areas, which suggested that polysaccharides could be used as marker for quality control of P. heterophylla.

5.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 42(10): 1945-1950, 2017 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29090555

RESUMO

This study aims to investigate the protective effect of Dendrobium huoshanense, D.officinale(Huoshan), D.officinale(Yunnan), D.moniliforme and D. henanense on CCl4-induced hepatic damage in mice. C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into control group, model group, high-dose(7.5 g•kg⁻¹) and low-dose (1.25 g•kg⁻¹) groups of the five Dendrobium. Each group was intragastrically administered with drugs for 2 weeks. The control group was intraperitoneally injected with Olive oil solution, while the other groups were intraperitoneally given 0.5%CCl4combined with Olive oil solution 2 h later after the last administration. Subsequently, ALT and AST activities in serum, SOD activities and MDA contents in liver tissues were determined in all groups 16 h later after administration. The liver index was calculated, and hepatic histopathological examination was performed. The mRNA expressions of IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF-α were analyzed by Real-time PCR. Compared with the CCl4 model group, the activities of ALT and AST in serum decreased significantly in the five different Dendrobium groups. Meanwhile, in liver tissues, the levels of MDA reduced obviously, while the SOD activities markedly increased. Furthermore, liver tissue damage induced by CCl4 was ameliorated according to the histopathological examination. IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA expressions in D.huoshanense-treated liver tissues were significantly decreased. In conclusion, the five different Dendrobium groups showed hepatoprotective effects on CCl4-induced acute liver injury in mice. However, there were differences among Dendrobium of different types and origins. The protect effect of D.huoshanense is the most obvious, and the order of the protective effect of the other Dendrobium from high to low is D.officinale(Yunnan), D. officinale(Huoshan), D.henanense and D.moniliforme. The differences between the different types of Dendrobium might be related to their chemical components.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Dendrobium/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Tetracloreto de Carbono , China , Dendrobium/classificação , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 42(2): 231-238, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28948725

RESUMO

The ecological agriculture of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is generally acknowledged as the most advanced agricultural mode. However, it's still a doubt whether ecological agriculture could be widely applied in TCM agriculture. In this study, we first analyze both the differences and relationships between ecological and organic agriculture, which suggesting that ecological agriculture does not need all the inputs as traditional agriculture. After introducing the situation of ecological agriculture from all across the world, we analyze the differences and characteristics between ecological and chemical agricultures. Considered with the big challenge caused by chemical agriculture, we pointed out that ecological agriculture could definitely replace chemical agriculture. Last but not the least, combined with the situation and problems of Chinese agriculture, we analyze the distinctive advantages of TCM ecological agriculture from 3 aspects as its unique quality characteristics, its unique habitat requirements in production and its unique application and market characteristics, respectively. In conclusion, ecological agriculture is the straight way of TCM agriculture.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Ecologia , Materia Medica , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , China , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Ecossistema , Plantas Medicinais/crescimento & desenvolvimento
7.
Pharmacogn Mag ; 13(49): 38-45, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28216881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) Qianhu and Zihuaqianhu are the dried roots of Peucedanum praeruptorum and Angelica decursiva, respectively. Since the plant sources of Qianhu and Zihuaqianhu are more complex, the chemical compositions of P. praeruptorum and A. decursiva are significantly different, and many adulterants exist because of the differences in traditional understanding and medication habits. Therefore, the rapid and accurate identification methods are required. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to study the feasibility of using DNA barcoding to distinguish between Traditional Chinese medicine Qianhu (Peucedanum praeruptorum), Zihuaqianhu (Angelica decursiva), and common adulterants, based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences, as well as specific PCR identification between P. praeruptorum and A. decursiva. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The ITS sequences of P. praeruptorum, A. decursiva, and adulterant were studied, and a phylogenetic tree was constructed. Based on the ITS barcode, the specific PCR primer pairs QH-CP19s/QH-CP19a and ZHQH-CP3s/ZHQH-CP3a were designed for P. praeruptorum and A. decursiva, respectively. The amplification conditions were optimized, and specific PCR products were obtained. RESULTS: The results showed that the phylogenetic trees constructed using the BI and MP methods were consistent, and P. praeruptorum and A. decursiva sequence haplotypes formed their own monophyly. The experimental results showed that in PCR products, the target bands appeared in the genuine drug and not in the adulterant, which suggests the high specificity of the two primer pairs. CONCLUSION: The ITS sequence was ideal DNA barcode to identify P. praeruptorum, A. decursiva, and adulterant. The specific PCR is a quick and effective method to distinguish between P. praeruptorum and A. decursiva. SUMMARY: Peucedanum praeruptorum and Angelica decursiva sequence haplotypes formed their own monophyly.The ITS sequence was ideal DNA barcode to identify P. praeruptorum, A. decursiva, and adulterant.Specific PCR is a quick and effective method to distinguish between P. praeruptorum and A. decursiva. Abbreviations used: TCM: The traditional Chinese medicine, P.: Peucedanum, A.: Angelica, ITS: The internal transcribed spacer, PCR: Polymerase chain reaction, NCBI: National Center for Biotechnology Information, NI: Number of individuals, HN: Haplotype number; GAN: Gen Bank accession numbers, L.: Ligusticum, O.: Ostericum, A.: Angelica, P.: Pimpinella, BI: Bayesian inference, MP: Maximum parsimony, AIC: Akaike Information Criterion, MCMC: Markov Chains Monte Carlo, TBR: Tree bisection-reconnection, LPP: Length of PCR product, PRP: PCR reaction procedure, SNP: Single nucleotide polymorphisms, PP: Posterior probability, BS: Bootstrap.Qun Zhao.

8.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 129: 163-171, 2016 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27424197

RESUMO

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of specific polysaccharides from ten batches of Dendrobium huoshanense were performed using high performance size exclusion chromatography coupled with multi-angle laser light scattering and refractive index detector (HPSEC-MALLS-RID), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and saccharide mapping based on polysaccharides analysis by using carbohydrate gel electrophoresis (PACE) and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). Results showed that molecular weights, the radius of gyrations, and contents of specific polysaccharides in D. huoshanense were ranging from 1.16×10(5) to 2.17×10(5)Da, 38.8 to 52.1nm, and 9.9% to 19.9%, respectively. Furthermore, the main monosaccharide compositions were Man and Glc. Indeed, the main glycosidic linkages were ß-1,4-Manp and ß-1,4-Glcp, and substituted with acetyl groups at O-2 and O-3 of 1,4-linked Manp. Moreover, results showed that PACE and HPTLC fingerprints of partial acidic and enzymatic hydrolysates of specific polysaccharides were similar, which are helpful to better understand the specific polysaccharides in D. huoshanense and beneficial to improve their quality control. These approaches could also be routinely used for quality control of polysaccharides in other medicinal plants.


Assuntos
Dendrobium/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Cromatografia em Gel/métodos , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada/métodos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Plantas Medicinais/química
9.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 41(7): 1348-1353, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28879754

RESUMO

Shihu is one of the most valuable Chinese medicines in China. The sources of Shihu are complex and the quality evaluation of it mainly depends on morphologic characteristics distinction. In order to understand the Shihu's quality evaluation concept of Chinese herbalists in the past dynasties. This paper summarizes the methods of quality evaluation in ancient bencao systematically. The ancient bencao records that the quality of Shihu is closely related to its germplasm, habitat, processing and character. The concept of germplasm about shihu includes generalized and narrow sense, besides, the clinical applications of Dendrobium huoshanenese, D. officinale and D. nobile are focused on different diseases. D. huoshanenese has been regarded as Dao-di herbs since Qing Dynasty. The main products of Shihu contain fresh goods and dry goods, their clinical applications are also treated differently. Fengdou is one of the commodity specifications in Shihu. Its processing method probably dated from the Qing Dynasty, but now, it has become the mainstream commodityform. There was a common sense that different kinds of Shihu owed different characters and curative effects in ancient bencao, and the quality would enhance with the increasing viscidity. Therefore, the "Germplasm", "Geoherbs", "processing", "characters" were integrated into traditional quality evaluation methods of Shihu. Meanwhile, we should pay attention to the clinical efficacy of shihu with different species and processing methods.


Assuntos
Dendrobium/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , China , Medicina Tradicional do Leste Asiático , Controle de Qualidade , Pesquisa
10.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 39(15): 2873-80, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25423825

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the commodity specification and grade standard of Pseudostellaria Radix, for standardizing market order and achieving industrialization, standardization and modernization of Pseudostellariae Radix. METHOD: The different areas and grade medicinal materials of Pseudostellariae Radix were respectively measured in quantitative characteristics of appearance, and the present grade classification of Pseudostellaria Radix was scientifically verified by the content of polysaccharide. Then the determination data were evaluated by spss correlation analysis, principal component analysis and cluster analysis. So combining with the actual production, the commodity grade standard of Pseudostellariae Radix was formulated. RESULT: Correlation analysis indicated that the present grade classification of Pseudostellaria Radix was reasonable, and the more the grade of Pseudostellariae Radix was high, the more the content of polysaccharide was high. Meanwhile, length as a classification index was not suitable for the commodity grade standard of Pseudostellariae Radix. Using principal component analysis and cluster analysis, combining actual production, the thickest diameter, weight of single root tuber and the number of 50 g root tuber were filtrated and the grade was divided into 5 ranks: big, mid- dle, small selected goods, big ungraded goods and small ungraded goods. CONCLUSION: the commodity specification and grade standard of Pseudostellariae Radix that mainly included the thickest diameter, weight of single root tuber and the number of 50 g root tuber was formulated, the standard was divided into 5 grade. Each grade was not only consistent with the present situation of medicinal materials market, it could also reflected the intrinsic quality of Pseudostellariae Radix. In conclusion, the standard could be used as a classifica- tion basis to the commodity specification and grade.


Assuntos
Caryophyllaceae/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/normas , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Controle de Qualidade , Padrões de Referência
11.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25345177

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To optimize the fermentation conditions of molluscicidal endophyte LL3026 from Buddleia lindleyana. METHOD: The medium composition and cultivation conditions were optimized by orthogonal and single factor experiments. RESULTS: The experiments showed that the conditions of initial pH 3, fermentation temperature 30 degrees C, volume of liquid 100 ml (250 ml Erlenmeyer flask), and 3D-xylitol 0.5 g/L were optimum, and the molluscicidal activity of the fermentation filtrate reached 95%. After three hatches of cultivation, the predicted values were verified by validation experiments. CONCLUSION: Endophyte LL3026 from Buddleia lindleyana has a good molluscicidal activity after the optimization.


Assuntos
Buddleja/metabolismo , Endófitos/fisiologia , Fermentação , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Caramujos/microbiologia , Animais
12.
Z Naturforsch C J Biosci ; 69(5-6): 186-90, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25069156

RESUMO

Buddleja lindleyana is a medicinally important member of the family Loganiaceae distributed in Eastern China. The plant has been used in different traditional medications for the treatment of various diseases. Acacetin-7-rutinoside was isolated from the n-butanol fraction of fresh B. lindleyana leaves and found to be a new molluscicidal agent against the snail Oncomelania hupensis. The structure of acacetin-7-rutinoside was elucidated based on spectral data, including 1H NMR and 13C NMR.


Assuntos
Buddleja/química , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Gastrópodes/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Moluscocidas/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Animais , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Glicosídeos/química , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Moluscocidas/química , Moluscocidas/farmacologia
13.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 39(7): 1143-51, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25011244

RESUMO

This paper aims to summarize the achievements during the implementation process of good agricultural practice (GAP) in Chinese Materia Medica (CMM), and on basis of analyzing the existing problems of GAP, to propose further implementation of GAP in TCM growing. Since the launch of GAP in CMM growing ten years ago, it has acquired great achievements, including: (1) The promulgation of a series of measures for the administration of the GAP approval in the CMM growing; (2) The expanded planting area of CMM; (3) The increased awareness of standardized CMM growing among farmers and enterprises; (4) The establishment of GAP implementation bases for CMM growing; (5) The improvement of theory and methodology for CMM growing; (6) The development of a large group of experts and scholars in GAP approval for CMM production. The problems existing in the production include: (1) A deep understanding of GAP and its certification is still needed; (2) The distribution of the certification base is not reasonable; (3) The geo-economics effect and the backward farming practices are thought to be the bottlenecks in the standardization of CMM growing and the scale production of CMM; (4) Low comparative effectiveness limits the development of the GAP; (5) The base of breeding improved variety is blank; (6) The immature of the cultivation technique lead to the risk of production process; (7) The degradation of soil microbial and the continuous cropping obstacle restrict the sustainable development of the GAP base. To further promote the health and orderly GAP in the CMM growing, the authors propose: (1) To change the mode of production; (2) To establish a sound standard system so as to ensure quality products for fair prices; (3) To fully consider the geo-economic culture and vigorously promote the definite cultivating of traditional Chinese medicinal materials; (4) To strengthen the transformation and generalization of basic researches and achievements, in order to provide technical support for the CMM production; (5) To deepen the understanding of GAP, to vigorously promote ecological planting and precision agriculture, in order to overcome the continuous cropping obstacle. The authors think that despite the fact that we are still facing with a huge array of management and technological problems, the GAP in the CMM growing has already enjoyed widespread support and showed great potential. In the future, with people's deeper understanding of GAP and the great progress of the science and technology, the GAP will constantly be fused with the theory, methodology and technology in the modern agriculture like precision agriculture, eco-agriculture and etc.


Assuntos
Agricultura/normas , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/normas , Materia Medica/normas , Plantas Medicinais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agricultura/economia , Agricultura/métodos , Agricultura/tendências , China , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/análise , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/economia , Humanos , Materia Medica/química , Materia Medica/economia , Plantas Medicinais/química
14.
Rev. bras. farmacogn ; 24(1): 33-37, Jan-Feb/2014. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-710150

RESUMO

A total of 139 batches of Chrysanthemum samples were randomly divided into calibration set (92 batches) and prediction set (47 batches). The near infrared diffuses reflectance spectra of Chrysanthemum varieties were preprocessed by a first order derivative (D1) and autoscaling, and a modelwas built using partial least squares analysis. In this study, three Chrysanthemum varieties were identified, the accuracy rates in calibration sets of Dabaiju, Huju, and Xiaobaiju are 97.60, 96.65, and 94.70%, respectively; And 95.16, 86.11, and 93.46% accuracy rate in prediction sets was obtained. The research results demonstrate that the qualitative analysis can be conducted by machine learning combined with Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, which provides a new method for rapid and non-invasive identification of Chrysanthemum varieties.

15.
Asian Pac J Trop Med ; 5(12): 966-9, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23199715

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of AIBL on Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate snail host of Schistosoma japonicum. METHODS: The enzyme histochemical profiles of cholinesterase, cytochrome oxidase, lactate dehydrogenase, nitric oxide synthase, and succinate dehydrogenase in the soft tissues of Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate host snail of Schistosoma japonicum, were analyzed before and after treatment with the active ingredient of Buddleia lindleyana (AIBL), a potent and safe plant molluscicide. RESULTS: Treatment with AIBL induced a notable decrease in the activities of the five enzymes (P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that AIBL impairs the activities of the enzymes, thereby influencing the transfer of neurotransmitter and energy supply in Oncomelania hupensis and ultimately harming their various physiological functions, which are considered to cause death of the species.


Assuntos
Buddleja/química , Oxirredutases/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Caramujos/efeitos dos fármacos , Caramujos/enzimologia , Animais , Reservatórios de Doenças , Gânglios/química , Gânglios/enzimologia , Histocitoquímica , Fígado/química , Fígado/enzimologia , Músculos/química , Músculos/enzimologia , Oxirredutases/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Esquistossomose Japônica
16.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22164865

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the molluscicidal activity, the influence on glycogen content of Oncomelania hupensis and the acute toxicity to zebra fish of the extract from Phytolacca americana Linn leaf. METHODS: The different polar factions of the extract of Phytolacca americana Linn leaf were separated by using the systemic solvent segregation method, and then the molluscicidal activity of the fractions was detected according to the Laboratory Final Milluscicides Screening Method issued by WHO. The glycogen content of soft tissues of Oncomelania hupensis treated by the ethyl acetate polar fraction was determined by the anthrone method. Finally, the acute toxicity of the ethyl acetate polar fraction to non-targets was studied with zebra fish. RESULTS: The ethyl acetate polar fraction was the best active components against the snails. Its 48 h LC50 and LC90 were 6.0 mg/100 ml and 26.1 mg/ 100 ml, respectively. The glycogen content of soft tissues of the snails decreased by 20% after treated with the fraction. The fish treated by the concentration of LC50 (48 h) of the ethyl acetate polar fraction survived for 12 h. CONCLUSION: The Phytolacca americana Linn leaf possesses an adequate molluscicidal activity and a significant acute toxicity to the zebra fish.


Assuntos
Glicogênio/toxicidade , Moluscocidas/toxicidade , Phytolacca americana/química , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Folhas de Planta/química , Caramujos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Dose Letal Mediana , Controle de Pragas , Caramujos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peixe-Zebra
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21420354

RESUMO

A method of rapid detecting Rosa laevigata polysaccharide content on the basis of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was established to achieve the purpose of controlling quality of R. laevigata. A total of 129 batches of R. laevigata samples were randomly divided into calibration set and prediction set, number of which were 65 and 64 respectively. The polysaccharide content was measured according to the method provided by Chinese pharmacopoeia, and was 26.05±5.44(%). The Near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectra of R. laevigata were preprocessed by first-order derivative and autoscaling, and was built model with PLS. When 6 Latent variables (LVs) were used in model, the smallest root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) was 1.18%, and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) was 1.21%. The uninformative variables in spectrum were eliminated by UVE-PLS, and 383 variables were obtained. The prediction accuracy was improved, and RMSECV and RMSEP were 0.90% and 0.99% respectively. Then, 383 variables were further optimized by genetic algorithm (UVE-GA-PLS), and 179 variables were obtained; under this condition, the RMSECV and RMSEP were 0.93% and 1.07% respectively. In this work, result of UVE-PLS was the best. Analyzing variables VIP score in PLS, variable selected by UVE-PLS and UVE-GA-PLS, spectrum region from 7200 cm(-1) to 6700 cm(-1) of the combinations of first and second overtone of C-H and from 5300 cm(-1) to 5000 cm(-1) related to the first overtone of O-H could play an important role in the detection R. laevigata polysaccharide by NIR. Therefore, it was feasible of rapid detection of R. laevigata polysaccharide content by NIRS.


Assuntos
Polissacarídeos/análise , Rosa/química , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos , Algoritmos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Modelos Químicos
18.
Rev. bras. farmacogn ; 20(5): 712-718, Oct.-Nov. 2010. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-567419

RESUMO

In a search for natural products that could be used to control schistosomiasis, nineteen extracts of eleven medicinal plants from eastern China have been tested for molluscicidal activity against snail Oncomelania hupensis. The n-butanol fraction of the fresh leaf from Buddleja lindleyana Fortune, Buddlejaceae, showed significant activity against the snails. Statistical analysis revealed that the LC50 and LC90 values for the n-butanol fraction were 39.91 mg L-1 and 59.28 mg L-1 for 48 h, respectively. Otherwise, the LC50 values for the n-butanol fraction to zebrafish was 403.24 mg L-1 for 48 h. Therefore, the n-butanol fraction of the fresh leaf from B. lindleyana may be a potent and safe molluscicides.


Na busca por produtos naturais que podem ser utilizados para controle da esquistossomose, dezenove extratos de onze plantas medicinais do leste da China foram testados para atividade moluscicida contra o caramujo Oncomelania hupensis. A fração n-butanol das folhas frescas de Buddleja lindleyana Fortune, Buddlejaceae, mostrou atividade significativa contra os caracóis. A análise estatística revelou que os valores de CL50 e CL90 para a fração n-butanol foram 39,91 mg L-1 e 59,28 mg L-1 por 48 h, respectivamente. Por outro lado, a CL50 para a fração n-butanol para peixe-zebra foi 403,24 mg L-1 por 48 h. Portanto, a fração n-butanol das folhas frescas de B. lindleyana poderá vir a ser um moluscicidas potente e seguro.

19.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20806507

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To research the molluscicidal effect, active components, thermal stability and light stability of endophyte LL3026 (Colletotrichum sp.) from Buddleia lindleyana METHODS: The molluscicidal effect of LL3026 against Oncomelania hupensis was determined as referring to the WHO guidelines for laboratory molluscicidal test, and the control experiments were performed with 1 mg/L niclosamide or dechlorinated tap water. The active components from LL3026 were extracted by different polar solvents. The thermal stability and light stability of its extracellular moiety was examined at different temperature (30-100 degrees C), different time (30-150 min) and different illumination time (1-9 d). RESULTS: Immersion test showed that the LC50 values for the LL3026 broth were 50.11, 3.43, and 1.55 mg/L for 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. The ether extract of LL3026 broth showed the best molluscicidal activity compared with other fractions. Treated with 25 mg/L ether extract for 24, 48, and 72 h, the mortality of O. hupensis was 100%. The molluscicidal activity of LL3026 broth had no change at 80 degrees C for 120 min, and the snail mortality was 100%. A 48-h exposure to LL3026 broth which placed in an artificial climate box with 3 600 1x illumination for 9 d resulted in 86.7% snail mortality. CONCLUSION: The fractions extracted from endophyte LL3026 isolated from B. lindleyana shows molluscicidal effect to O. hupensis.


Assuntos
Colletotrichum/química , Moluscocidas/farmacologia , Caramujos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Buddleja/microbiologia
20.
Zhong Yao Cai ; 33(4): 503-6, 2010 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20845774

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To appraise rationally the quality between wild and cultivated Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae. METHODS: Evaporability composition of Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae was sampled from headspace of emanating, and then response values was obtained. Principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant factor analysis (DFA) are used to combine the optimum feature parameters, and statistical quality control analysis (SQC). RESULTS: The odor of wild Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma was diffenrent from that of the cultivated. The odor of Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma cultivated in Zhejiang was similar to the cultivated in Anhui which transplanted from Zhejiang and wild Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma which cultivated in the environment with full of sunlight. The odor of Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma cultivated in Hubei and Jiangxi were diffenrent to the odor of others. CONCLUSION: The quality of semiwild cultivated Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma was the similarest to the wild. The electronic nose combined with PCA, DFA and SQC can be applied to identify the quality of Traditional Chinese Medicine.


Assuntos
Atractylodes/química , Técnicas de Química Analítica/métodos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/análise , Eletrônica/métodos , Odorantes/análise , Algoritmos , Atractylodes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Análise Discriminante , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Eletrônica/instrumentação , Plantas Medicinais/química , Plantas Medicinais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Análise de Componente Principal , Controle de Qualidade , Rizoma/química , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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