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1.
Nature ; 601(7892): 245-251, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34912119

RESUMO

Pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI) in plants enable them to respond to pathogens by activating the production of defence metabolites that orchestrate immune responses1-4. How the production of defence metabolites is promoted by immune receptors and coordinated with broad-spectrum resistance remains elusive. Here we identify the deubiquitinase PICI1 as an immunity hub for PTI and ETI in rice (Oryza sativa). PICI1 deubiquitinates and stabilizes methionine synthetases to activate methionine-mediated immunity principally through biosynthesis of the phytohormone ethylene. PICI1 is targeted for degradation by blast fungal effectors, including AvrPi9, to dampen PTI. Nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich-repeat-containing receptors (NLRs) in the plant immune system, such as PigmR, protect PICI1 from effector-mediated degradation to reboot the methionine-ethylene cascade. Natural variation in the PICI1 gene contributes to divergence in basal blast resistance between the rice subspecies indica and japonica. Thus, NLRs govern an arms race with effectors, using a competitive mode that hinges on a critical defence metabolic pathway to synchronize PTI with ETI and ensure broad-spectrum resistance.

2.
J Proteomics ; 251: 104413, 2022 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34728424

RESUMO

The honeybee species A. mellifera and A. cerana have evolved substantial differences in olfactory-driven behaviors and in peripheral olfactory systems. Knowledge of the central nervous system regulating these olfaction differences is limited, however. We compared the phosphoproteome of the antennal lobes (ALs, the primary olfactory neuropil) of A. mellifera and A. cerana, and identified a total of 2812 phosphopeptides carrying 2971 phosphosites from 1265 phosphoproteins. Of these, 76% of the phosphoproteins were shared by both species, which were mainly presynapse and cytoskeleton components, and were involved in signal transduction and neurotransmitter secretion. This finding indicates the fundamental role of protein phosphorylation in regulating signal transduction in the ALs. The mTOR signaling pathway, the phagosome pathway, and the autophagy pathway, which are important in protein metabolism, were enriched, suggesting glomeruli plasticity and olfactory processing are intensively modulated by phosphorylation via these pathways. Compared with A. mellifera, 107 phosphoproteins associated with protein metabolism and transport were uniquely expressed in A. cerana, indicating the protein synthesis-dependent synaptic plasticity is enhanced in A. cerana to facilitate the processing of more complex floral odor clues in mountain foraging areas. This finding is further supported by the significantly upregulated key phosphoproteins of the mTOR signaling pathway in A. cerana ALs. These results provide insights into the phosphoproteomic basis of neuroplasticity that is coupled with the divergent evolution of bees in different environments. SIGNIFICANCE: To adapt to their own ecological niche, the two major honeybee species, A. mellifera and A. cerana, have developed significant difference in olfactory-driven behaviors, but our understanding of the underlying regulation of the central nervous system is still limitate. Here we performed the first comprehensive phosphoproteomic comparison of antennal lobes (Als) between A. mellifera and A. cerena. A large proportion of the identified phosphosites and phosphoproteins were shared between the two species to serve as a core network in the regulation of signal transduction and glomeruli plasticity of ALs. However, compared with A. mellifera, 107 phosphoproteins associated with protein metabolism and transport were uniquely identified in A. cerana ALs, and also several key phosphoproteins in mTOR signaling pathway were found upregulated in A. cerana. These findings indicate protein phosphorylation enhanced the protein synthesis-dependent synaptic plasticity in A. cerana to facilitate the processing of more complex floral odor clues in mountain foraging areas. Our data provide a valuable insight into phosphoproteome-driven cerebral regulation of honeybee olfactory behaviors, which is potentially useful for further neurobiological investigation in both honeybees and other insects.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34854009

RESUMO

In this study, sediments from eight sites were collected from hydrothermal areas (e.g., the Tiancheng, Tianzuo, and Longqi hydrothermal areas) and non-hydrothermal area on the Southwest Mid-Indian Ocean Ridge. Using crude oil as the only carbon and energy source, 162 strains of culturable oil-degrading bacteria were isolated and obtained. The rate of oil degradation of the consortia was 39.48-46.00% in hydrothermal and non-hydrothermal areas. High-throughput sequencing found that the alpha diversity indices (e.g., Shannon and Simpson) of the communities in hydrothermal areas were higher than those in non-hydrothermal area. The species diversities of the oil-degrading bacteria were different among different hydrothermal areas. The composition of the oil-degrading bacterial species in the Tianzuo hydrothermal area tended to be more similar to that in the non-hydrothermal area. This similarity is attributed to the changes in the bacterial community that followed the cessation of hydrothermal vent eruptions at this site. The Alphaproteobacteria abundance of the oil-degrading bacteria was significantly different in oil-degrading bacteria between the hydrothermal and non-hydrothermal areas.

4.
BMJ Open ; 11(12): e049160, 2021 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34876421

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Evidence on the associations between short-term and long-term air temperature exposure and cognitive function in older adults, particularly those in Asia, is limited. We explored the relationships of short-term and long-term air temperature exposure with cognitive function in Taiwanese older adults through a repeated measures survey. DESIGN AND SETTING: We used data the ongoing Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging, a multiple-wave nationwide survey. PARTICIPANTS: We identified 1956, 1700, 1248 and 876 older adults in 1996, 1999, 2003 and 2007, respectively. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Participants' cognitive function assessment was based on the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire. We calculated the temperature moving average (TMA) for temperature exposure windows between 1993 and 2007 using data from air quality monitoring stations, depending on the administrative zone of each participant's residence. Generalised linear mixed models were used to examine the effects of short-term and long-term temperature changes on cognitive function. RESULTS: Short-term and long-term temperature exposure was significantly and positively associated with moderate-to-severe cognitive impairment, with the greatest increase in ORs found for 3-year TMAs (OR 1.247; 95% CI 1.107 to 1.404). The higher the quintiles of temperature exposure were, the higher were the ORs. The strongest association found was in long-term TMA exposure (OR 3.674; 95% CI 2.103 to 6.417) after covariates were controlled for. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of mild cognitive impairment increased with ambient temperature in community-dwelling older adults in Taiwan.

5.
Front Nutr ; 8: 766992, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34869535

RESUMO

Background: Phthalates esters are widely used commercially and can leach from a food container or food packaging. Few studies have been conducted in Asia regarding food processed to varying levels and human phthalate exposure. This study aimed to evaluate the association between unprocessed and ultra-processed food intake and urinary phthalate metabolite levels in the Taiwanese adult population. Methods: A total of 516 participant data were extracted from the cross-sectional 1993-1996 and 2005-2008 Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan of those aged over 18 years, where urinary measures and one 24-h dietary recall were collected. Urinary concentrations of dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, butyl benzyl phthalate, and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate metabolites including monomethyl phthalate, monoethyl phthalate (MEP), monobutyl phthalate (MBP), monobenzyl phthalate, mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate, and mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate were measured in spot urine samples. The NOVA food processing classification system was applied to divide all consumed foods into four mutually exclusive groups including unprocessed or minimally processed, processed culinary ingredients, processed and ultra-processed food. Generalized linear models were employed to examine the associations between the percentage quartiles (Qs) of unprocessed and ultra-processed foods in the total weight of food and the urinary phthalate metabolites. Results: Compared with participants in the lowest quartiles (Q1) of ultra-processed food intake, highest ultra-processed food intake (Q4) had 65.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.83, 162) higher urinary concentrations of MEP after adjusted for covariates. In contrast, the higher unprocessed food consumption was inversely associated with urinary concentrations of MEP and MBP (P for trend = 0.03). When compared to the lowest unprocessed food consumers (Q1), higher consumers (Q4) presented 38.6% (95% CI: -61.3, -2.59) lower MEP concentrations and 23.1% (95% CI: -38.5, -3.71) lower MBP concentrations. Conclusion: Ultra-processed food consumption was associated with increased concentrations of urinary MEP. Conversely, consuming unprocessed food was associated with lower concentrations of MEP and MBP in the Asian Taiwanese adult population.

6.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(22)2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34833837

RESUMO

Compared to time-consuming and unreliable manual analysis, intelligent fault diagnosis techniques using deep learning models can improve the accuracy of intelligent fault diagnosis with their multi-layer nonlinear mapping capabilities. This paper proposes a model to perform fault diagnosis and classification by using a time series of vibration sensor data as the input. The model encodes the raw vibration signal into a two-dimensional image and performs feature extraction and classification by a deep convolutional neural network or improved capsule network. A fault diagnosis technique based on the Gramian Angular Field (GAF), the Markov Transition Field (MTF), and the Capsule Network is proposed. Experiments conducted on a bearing failure dataset from Case Western Reserve University investigated the impact of two coding methods and different network structures on the diagnosis accuracy. The results show that the GAF technique retains more complete fault characteristics, while the MTF technique contains a small number of fault characteristics but more dynamic characteristics. Therefore, the proposed method incorporates GAF images and MTF images as a dual-channel image input to the capsule network, enabling the network to obtain a more complete fault signature. Multiple sets of experiments were conducted on the bearing fault dataset at Case Western Reserve University, and the Capsule Network in the proposed model has an advantage over other convolutional neural networks and performs well in the comparison of fault diagnosis methods proposed by other researchers.


Assuntos
Redes Neurais de Computação , Vibração , Humanos , Inteligência , Modalidades de Fisioterapia
7.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(24): 9137-9151, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34821966

RESUMO

A new and efficient purification process for recombinant human insulin production was developed by exploring new resins and optimizing purification steps from E. coli inclusion body washing to insulin polishing. A combined additives inclusion body wash protocol drastically improved efficiency in clarifying ZZ-proinsulin samples. ZZ-proinsulin recovery increased three-fold under optimized solubilization and sulfitolysis incubation temperature and duration. Desalting with Bio-Gel P4 and P6 resulted in higher sample loading and product recovery compared to conventional resins. A higher recovery (96%) and purity (81%) of ZZ-proinsulin were achievable with the Nuvia S cation exchanger for proinsulin purification compared to a reported process using expensive affinity chromatography resin. As the first step for insulin purification, process scale-up is more economical and practical when Nuvia HR-S cation exchanger was used instead of commonly used reversed-phase chromatography. Nuvia HR-S was highly effective in removing ZZ fusion protein (90% removal) after enzymatic cleavage, although ZZ fusion protein has a very close theoretical pI to human insulin, which was supposedly challenging to be removed by cation exchange chromatography. Also, insulin can be eluted at a lower ethanol % using Nuvia HR-S compared to other reported processes and is thus more environmentally sustainable. Recombinant human insulin was obtained with over 98% purity in just a single reversed-phase polishing step, which is comparable to the reference standard. The process workflow presented here can be potentially applied for the development of purification workflow for insulin analogs or other peptide products derived from E. coli inclusion body.Key points• Drastic efficiency improvement for inclusion body wash with combined additives.• High recovery of proinsulin purification with high capacity cation exchange resin.• Effective removal of fusion tag at lower ethanol % with high-resolution resin.

8.
Biomaterials ; 279: 121232, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739983

RESUMO

Despite growing concerns regarding the threat of airborne nanoparticle-mediated brain degeneration, the underlying pathological mechanisms remain unclear. Carbon nanomaterials, the main components of airborne nanoparticles, have multi-dimensional structures. Therefore, the dimensional effect of carbon-based nanomaterials on the regulation of neural function in brain disorders requires additional clarification. Herein, we report the interaction between zero-to three-dimensional carbon nanostructures and the amyloid-beta protein, which can either activate or interrupt neuronal functions, depending on the dimension of the carbon nanostructures. The carbon nanomaterials induced significant cellular activation by short-term exposure, while prolonged exposure eventually caused neuronal cell death. Such dimension-dependent activation or degeneration was more evident in the higher-dimension carbon nanomaterials, as confirmed by the increases in neurotransmitter secretion and synapse-related protein levels to more than five times at 72 h of monitoring and calcium signaling in the neurons. The inclusion of amyloid-beta proteins ameliorated the cytotoxic effects of carbon nanomaterials in higher-dimensional carbon nanomaterials by regulating 333 genes. We found that the ɑ-synuclein gene is the key factor in carbon-induced abnormal neuronal function. Therefore, through biological analyses and in vitro feasibility studies, this new insight may contribute toward understanding the pathological mechanism and finding a new target for therapy in human brain pathologies.

9.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(21)2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34771932

RESUMO

A fabrication technology of closed-cell copper foams (CCCFs) based on powder metallurgy is proposed, by using the expanded polystyrene foams (EPS) spheres with the prescribed diameter as the space holder before sintering. The material characterization and the quasi-static compressive behaviors of both uniform and graded CCCFs at different temperatures were experimentally studied. A high temperature weakens the initial compressive modulus, plateau stress, and effective energy absorption for both uniform and graded CCCFs; meanwhile, the onset strain of densification and the maximum energy absorption efficiency are less sensitive to temperature, especially for the graded CCCFs. Compared with the uniform CCCF, the graded CCCF with even a small relative density exhibits superiority in terms of the effective energy absorption and the maximum energy absorption efficiency, attributed to the much larger onset strain of densification for the gradient pore arrangement. Finite element simulations based on the ideal sphere foam model can basically mimic the compressive performance of the CCCF samples. It is also found that both the decrease of pore diameter and the increase of cell wall thickness could improve the compressive performance of the CCCFs.

10.
Nanoscale ; 13(45): 18955-18960, 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34779477

RESUMO

Single-element phosphorus has received extensive attention in recent years because of its remarkable photocatalytic properties. In the present experiment, amorphous red phosphorus was controllably transformed into [P12(4)]P2[and Hittorf's phosphorus structures by performing bismuth catalysis. The temperature-controllable chemical vapor transport reaction realized the conversion of more than 90% of amorphous red phosphorus to single-phase crystalline red phosphorus. Under very mild ultrasonic treatment, the high-quality [P12(4)]P2[microbelts and Hittorf's phosphorus microrods were stripped into a few layers of nanobelts and sheet-like structures, respectively. As non-metallic catalysts, their rapid photocatalytic degradations of pollutants (methyl orange) and high hydrogen evolution rates revealed the rapid charge transfer and application potential of the crystalline red phosphorus catalyst. The results of this work could provide new ideas for the development of phosphorus-based crystalline photocatalytic systems.

11.
Nanotechnology ; 33(3)2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614489

RESUMO

This study reported a novel method to obtain rutile TiO2with excellent photocatalytic activity for degradation of organic dyes. In this study, the concentrated HCl was selected as the inhibitor to make TiO2precursor hardly hydrolyzed at room temperature. And a certain amount of urea was added, which results in TiO2precursor hydrolyzed to produce rutile TiO2due to urea thermally decomposed into alkaline substances to neutralize the concentrated HCl. To further explore the mechanism of excellent photocatalytic performance of rutile TiO2, a series of experiments, characterizations, and DFT computations were carried out. Based on DFT computations and experimental results, it could be concluded that the introduction of surface oxygen vacancies was the main reason for the excellent photocatalytic performance of the samples, and the concentration of surface oxygen vacancies would affect the physical and chemical properties of rutile TiO2. Meaningfully, this unique and innovative work broke the traditional preconception of rutile TiO2and provided a theoretical possibility for rutile TiO2to be applied in other research fields.

12.
Appl Opt ; 60(29): 9241-9248, 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624011

RESUMO

Matching the cold shield with the exit pupil of the fringe-imaging system of long-wave infrared (LWIR) spatial heterodyne spectroscopy (SHS) damages illumination uniformity of the interferogram and affects the fringe contrast, which is a significant parameter for LWIR SHS. The optical models of the fringe-imaging system considering and not considering the pupil matching of the cold shield are built to illustrate the effect on the fringe contrast. Simulations based on the optical design software ASAP are conducted to verify the fringe contrast loss for field-widened LWIR SHS. The result shows that the pupil matching of the cold shield decreases the fringe contrast of LWIR SHS and field-widened LWIR SHS by 0.049% and 0.053%, respectively, and the fringe contrast loss increases with the degree of deviation from the telecentric condition of the fringe-imaging system.

13.
World Neurosurg ; 2021 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662658

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the association between early neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (ENLR) and prognosis of anterior circulation large-vessel occlusion stroke (LVOS) after patients undergo endovascular treatment (EVT) with successful revascularization. METHODS: Patients who experienced acute anterior circulation LVOS and underwent EVT at Changzhou Second People's Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University between May 2017 and May 2020 were included in this retrospective study. We collected information about patients' baseline characteristics, medical history, laboratory test results, imaging data, and endovascular treatment outcomes, as well as data from follow-up at 3 months. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between ENLR and functional disease prognosis. A piecewise linear regression model was also applied to compute the threshold effect of ENLR on poor prognosis (defined as modified Rankin Scale score 3-6) at 3 months using a smoothing plot. RESULTS: Of 224 patients who received EVT during the study period, 160 patients were included in the analysis. After adjustments were made for potential confounders, multivariate analysis demonstrated a significant association between ENLR and poor prognosis at 3 months (odds radio 1.19; 95% confidence interval 1.07-1.32; P = 0.0016). An ENLR ≥9.75 was found to be significantly associated with poor prognosis at 3 months (odds ratio 1.54; 95% confidence interval 1.19-2.00; P = 0.0119). CONCLUSIONS: Increased ENLR after successful revascularization is independently associated with poor prognosis. These findings suggest that ENLR could be used to inform treatment strategies for patients who experience anterior circulation LVOS.

14.
Med Phys ; 48(11): 7450-7460, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628666

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The RefleXion™ X1 is a novel radiotherapy system that is designed for image-guided radiotherapy, and eventually, biology-guided radiotherapy (BgRT). BgRT is a treatment paradigm that tracks tumor motion using real-time positron emission signals. This study reports the small-field measurement results and the validation of a Monte Carlo (MC) model of the first clinical RefleXion unit. METHODS: The RefleXion linear accelerator (linac) produces a 6 MV flattening filter free (FFF) photon beam and consists of a binary multileaf collimator (MLC) system with 64 leaves and two pairs of y-jaws. The maximum clinical field size achievable is 400 × 20 mm2 . The y-jaws provide either a 10 or 20 mm opening at source-to-axis distance (SAD) of 850 mm. The width of each MLC leaf at SAD is 6.25 mm. Percentage depth doses (PDDs) and relative beam profiles were acquired using an Edge diode detector in a water tank for field sizes from 12.5 × 10 to 100 × 20 mm2 . Beam profiles were also measured using films. Output factors of fields ranging from 6.25 × 10 to 100 × 20 mm2 were measured using W2 scintillator detector, Edge detector, and films. Output correction factors k of the Edge detector for RefleXion were calculated. An MC model of the linac including pre-MLC beam sources and detailed structures of MLC and lower y-jaws was validated against the measurements. Simulation codes BEAMnrc and GATE were utilized. RESULTS: The diode measured PDD at 10 cm depth (PDD10) increases from 53.6% to 56.9% as the field opens from 12.5 × 10 to 100 × 20 mm2 . The W2-measured output factor increases from 0.706 to 1 as the field opens from 6.25 × 10 to 100 × 20 mm2 (reference field size). The output factors acquired by diode and film differ from the W2 results by 1.65% (std = 1.49%) and 2.09% (std = 1.41%) on average, respectively. The profile penumbra and full-width half-maximum (FWHM) measured by diode agree well with the film results with a deviation of 0.60 mm and 0.73% on average, respectively. The averaged beam profile consistency calculated between the diode- and film-measured profiles among different depths is within 1.72%. By taking the W2 measurements as the ground truth, the output correction factors k for Edge detector ranging from 0.958 to 1 were reported. For the MC model validation, the simulated PDD10 agreed within 0.6% to the diode measurement. The MC-simulated output factor differed from the W2 results by 2.3% on average (std = 3.7%), while the MC simulated beam penumbra differed from the diode results by 0.67 mm on average (std = 0.42 mm). The MC FWHM agreed with the diode results to within 1.40% on average. The averaged beam profile consistency calculated between the diode and MC profiles among different depths is less than 1.29%. CONCLUSIONS: This study represents the first small-field dosimetry of a clinical RefleXion system. A complete and accurate MC model of the RefleXion linac has been validated.


Assuntos
Radioterapia Guiada por Imagem , Método de Monte Carlo , Aceleradores de Partículas , Radiometria , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador
15.
Neoplasma ; 68(6): 1301-1309, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648299

RESUMO

This study aimed to measure the expression of SAA2 in plasma and to assess its diagnostic efficacy as a biomarker for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The gene expression of SAA2 in NSCLC was analyzed based on a database. Then, SAA2 expression was detected by immunohistochemistry in lung tissue and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 90 patients with NSCLC and 61 normal controls. Finally, the diagnostic performance was assessed in terms of accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. At the gene and protein levels, the SAA2 expression was significantly higher in the NSCLC group than in the control group (p<0.01). It was higher in lung squamous carcinoma than in lung adenocarcinoma and in males than in females, and this trend was also observed in the lung squamous carcinoma group. Of note, the expression of SAA2 increased with increasing disease stage. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed that the sensitivity of SAA2 was 83.61%, the specificity was 91.11%, and the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.9252. Its accuracy was 68.89%, which was higher than that of other conventional diagnostic biomarkers, and the combined application can effectively improve the diagnostic efficiency. Based on the results, SAA2 expression was positively correlated with the disease stage of NSCLC. Notably, SAA2 is more concerning in male patients with lung squamous carcinoma, and it can help in the screening and diagnosis of NSCLC. SAA2 may represent a novel diagnostic biomarker in NSCLC.

16.
Mol Med Rep ; 24(6)2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34651666

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common degenerative disease that can lead to severe joint pain and loss of function, seriously threatening the health and normal life of patients. At present, the pathogenesis of OA remains to be clarified. Recent studies have shown that fatty acid­binding protein 4 (FABP4) is increased in the plasma and synovial fluid of patients with OA. However, the effect of FABP4 on OA is unclear. The present study established IL­1ß­induced ATDC5 cells with FABP4 knockdown. Next, cell viability was detected with Cell Counting Kit­8 assay. The content of inflammatory factors, prostaglandin E2 and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) was detected via ELISA. The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in cells were detected by using ROS and SOD kits, respectively. TUNEL staining was used to detect the apoptosis level. Western blotting was used to detect the expression levels of proteins. The results revealed that FABP4 was upregulated in IL­1ß­induced ATDC5 cells. Knockdown of FABP4 increased cell viability, reduced inflammatory damage, oxidative stress and apoptosis in IL­1ß­induced ATDC5 cells. Following FABP4 knockdown, the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP3, MMP9 and MMP13) of IL­1ß­induced ATDC5 cells was reduced, and the expression of GAG was promoted. FABP4 knockdown also inhibited the expression of NF­κB p65 and enhanced peroxisome proliferator­activated receptor (PPAR)γ expression. However, the presence of PPARγ inhibitor blocked the aforementioned effects of FABP4 on IL­1ß­induced ATDC5 cells. In conclusion, FABP4 knockdown suppressed the inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis and extracellular matrix degradation of IL­1ß­induced chondrocytes by activating PPARγ to inhibit the NF­κB signaling pathway.

17.
Front Neurol ; 12: 739213, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34659098

RESUMO

Background and Purpose: Studies on rescue therapy for acute posterior circulation stroke due to basilar artery occlusion (BAO) are limited in the modern era of mechanical thrombectomy (MT). The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of rescue stenting (RS) following MT failure in patients with BAO. Methods: Data were collected from the Endovascular Treatment Key Technique and Emergency Work Flow Improvement of Acute Ischemic Stroke (ANGEL-ACT) prospective registry in China. Patients who underwent MT for BAO with failure of recanalization were enrolled in this study. The patients were divided into the RS and non-RS groups. Clinical and laboratory findings, procedural details, and clinical outcomes were compared between the two groups. Results: Overall, 93 patients with acute BAO were analyzed. The RS group included 81 (87.1%) patients, and the non-RS group included 12 patients. A modified treatment in cerebral infarction (mTICI) score of 2b/3 was achieved in 75 (92.6%) patients in the RS group. Compared with the non-RS group, the RS group had a significantly higher rate of successful recanalization and favorable clinical outcomes (modified Rankin Scale score at 90 days post-procedure, 0-3: 16.7 vs. 51.9%, respectively; P = 0.023) without an increase in the rate of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage and a significantly lower mortality rate (58.3 vs. 18.5%, respectively; P = 0.006). Furthermore, the use of a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor improved the rate of recanalization of the target artery without increasing the rate of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage. Conclusions: Permanent stenting appears to be a feasible rescue modality when MT fails and might provide functional benefits in patients with acute ischemic stroke due to BAO.

19.
Pain Physician ; 24(7): E955-E971, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34704707

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several minimally invasive nonsurgical treatments have been widely applied for plantar fasciitis (PF). To date, controversy still exists regarding the effectiveness of these approaches for treating PF. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to perform a comprehensive comparison of the currently available invasive nonsurgical treatments for PF regarding short- and mid-term reductions in pain using a network meta-analysis (NMA). STUDY DESIGN: NMA of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for minimally invasive nonsurgical treatments of PF. METHODS: The EMBASE, PubMed, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) databases were searched for eligible studies. Patients were adults age >= 18 years with PF. The outcome measures were the visual analog scale (VAS) scores at 3-6 weeks and 4-6 months. Pairwise meta-analysis and NMA based on a Bayesian analysis were performed, and all potential comparisons and rank of probabilities were calculated. RESULTS: Thirty RCTs were included in the NMA. The trials investigated 20 treatments or combined treatments, including autologous whole blood, botulinum toxin A (BTA), ultrasound-guided gastrocnemius injection of botulinum toxin (BTA in the gastrocnemius), corticosteroid (CS), miniscalpel-needle (MSN), placebo, platelet-rich plasma (PRP), and the ultrasound-guided technique and peppering technique (PEP). The MSN treatment may be the best choice. LIMITATIONS: Some treatments were investigated in only one study or at one follow-up period and were separated from the network at 4-6 months. Other limitations include the inconformity of the treatment schedule and dose. CONCLUSIONS: The MSN treatment should be recommended as the best therapy, followed by BTA in the gastrocnemius and BTA. CS and PRP are common medications that remain valuable in clinical practice. PEP can be performed after the injection of medication.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34716743

RESUMO

Synthesis of functional 3D COFs with irreversible bond is challenging. Herein, 3D imide-bonded COFs were constructed via the imidization reaction between phthalocyanine-based tetraanhydride and 1,3,5,7-tetra(4-aminophenyl)adamantine. These two 3D COFs are made up of interpenetrated pts networks according to powder X-ray diffraction and gas adsorption analyses. CoPc-PI-COF-3 doped with carbon black has been employed to fabricate the electrocatalytic cathode towards CO2 reduction reaction within KHCO3 aqueous solution, displaying the Faradaic efficiency of 88-96 % for the CO2 -to-CO conversion at the voltage range of ca. -0.60 to -1.00 V (vs. RHE). In particular, the 3D porous structure of CoPc-PI-COF-3 enables the active electrocatalytic centers occupying 32.7 % of total cobalt-phthalocyanine subunits, thus giving a large current density (jCO ) of -31.7 mA cm-2 at -0.90 V. These two parameters are significantly improved than the excellent 2D COF analogue (CoPc-PI-COF-1, 5.1 % and -21.2 mA cm-2 ).

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