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1.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 18(2): 567-575, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35645129

RESUMO

This study analyzed the role of vasohibin-1 (VASH1) in human cancer outcomes. Relevant original studies on VASH1 expression in cancers were searched from PubMed, ClinicalKey, and Cochrane Library databases. A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the role of VASH1 in clinicopathological characteristics and overall survival (OS) of patients with tumors. Statistical analysis was performed using the RevMan v. 5.3 software. Our meta-analysis results showed that patients with high VASH1 expression experienced a significantly poor prognosis with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.69 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16- 2.46, P = 0.006) for OS, and an HR of 2.21 (95% CI, 1.32-3.68, P = 0.003) for progression-free survival. Furthermore, the high expression of VASH1 was significantly relevant to advanced tumor node metastasis stages. Thus, VASH1 is a potential biomarker to predict unfavorable clinical outcomes, serving as a potential tumor treatment target.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular , Neoplasias , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias/patologia , Prognóstico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
3.
J Oncol ; 2022: 3778623, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35656338

RESUMO

To investigate more potential targets for the treatment of human bladder cancer, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and high-content screening (HCS) analysis were performed, and microtubule-associated protein 9 (MAP9), which had the strongest proliferation inhibition from 809 downregulated genes, has been selected. MAP9 is responsible for bipolar spindle assembly and is involved in the progression of many types of tumors; however, its role in bladder cancer (BC) remains unknown. Expressive levels of MAP9 in BC tissues were determined through immunohistochemistry, and the clinical significance of MAP9 in BC was analyzed. Short hairpin ribonucleic acid- (ShRNA-) MAP9 was used to construct stable MAP9 knockdown BC cell lines. The proliferative abilities of MAP9 were measured through assays in vivo and in vitro, and the migrated and invasive abilities of MAP9 were analyzed via in vitro experiments. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR, western blotting, coimmunoprecipitation (Co-IP), and rescue assays were used to identify downstream targets of MAP9. MAP9 expression increased in the tumor tissues, and its increased level was negatively correlated with prognosis. Further, the loss of MAP9 caused decreased BC cell proliferation via inducing the growth 1/synthesis (G1/S) cell cycle arrest in vitro and slowed tumor growth in vivo. In addition, MAP9 silencing attenuated BC cell migration and invasion. Moreover, we found that the growth 1/synthesis (G1/S) cell cycle-related genes and the epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) marker levels decreased after silencing MAP9. Finally, we found that the transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-ß1) pathway is activated as a mediator for MAP9 to regulate genes related to the G1/S cell cycle and EMT. MAP9 promotes BC progression and immune escape activity through the TGF-ß1 pathway and is a potential novel target for therapies of BC.

4.
Clin Transl Med ; 12(6): e850, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35652821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is the major cause of life-threatening infections. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and NOD-like receptors (NLRs) could recognise S. pneumoniae and regulate the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. UGRP1, highly expressed in lung, is predominantly secreted in airways. However, the function of UGRP1 in pneumonia is mainly unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: We showed that upon TLR2/TLR4/NOD2 agonists stimulation or S. pneumoniae infection, treatment with UGRP1 could promote phosphorylation of p65 and enhance IL-6, IL-1ß and TNFα production in macrophages. We further elucidated that after binding with cell-surface receptor PDPN, UGRP1 could activate RhoA to enhance interaction of IKKγ and IKKß, which slightly activated NF-κB to improve expression of TLR2, MyD88, NOD2 and NLRP3. Deletion of UGRP1 or blocking UGRP1 interaction with PDPN protected mice against S. pneumoniae-induced severe pneumococcal pneumonia, and activating RhoA with agonist in UGRP1-deficient mice restored the reduced IL-6 production. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that UGRP1-PDPN-RhoA signaling could activate NF-κB to promote expression of TLR2, MyD88, NOD2 and NLRP3, which enhanced inflammatory cytokines secretion during S. pneumoniae infection. Antibodies, which could interrupt interaction of UGRP1 and PDPN, are potential therapeutics against S. pneumoniae.


Assuntos
Globulinas , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Infecções Pneumocócicas , Secretoglobinas/metabolismo , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Globulinas/metabolismo , Inflamação , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Camundongos , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Infecções Pneumocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Streptococcus pneumoniae/metabolismo , Sinapsinas/metabolismo , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/agonistas , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/genética , Útero/metabolismo
5.
Front Surg ; 9: 916014, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35722537

RESUMO

Background: Robotic pancreatoduodenectomy (RPD) technology is developing rapidly, but there is still a lack of a specific and objective difficulty evaluation system in the field of application and training of RPD surgery. Methods: The clinical data of patients who underwent RPD in our hospital from November 2014 to October 2020 were analyzed retrospectively. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to determine the predictors of operation difficulty and convert into a scoring system. Results: A total of 72 patients were enrolled in the group. According to the operation time (25%), intraoperative blood loss (25%), conversion to laparotomy, and major complications, the difficulty of operation was divided into low difficulty (0-2 points) and high difficulty (3-4 points). The multivariate logistic regression model included the thickness of mesenteric tissue (P1) (P = 0.035), the thickness of the abdominal wall (B1) (P = 0.017), and the preoperative albumin (P = 0.032), and the nomogram was established. AUC = 0.773 (0.645-0.901). Conclusions: The RPD difficulty evaluation system based on the specific anatomical relationship between da Vinci's laparoscopic robotic arm and tissues/organs in the operation area can be used as a predictive tool to evaluate the surgical difficulty of patients before operation and guide clinical practice.

6.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 7102500, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35720901

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a complex and refractory malignant tumor, ranking the third cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Lenvatinib is currently employed to treat advanced, unresectable HCC as a first-line drug. The purpose of this study was to explore the pharmacological mechanisms of lenvatinib acting on HCC through the analysis of differential expressed genes based on network pharmacology. The target genes of lenvatinib were collected from PubChem, SwissTargetPrediction, PharmMapper, and BATMAN-TCM online public databases. In addition, related gene targets for HCC were obtained using NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (NCBI-GEO) database. Afterward, the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was established to visualize and understand the interaction relationships of overlapping gene targets from both lenvatinib and HCC. Furthermore, according to the data obtained, Gene Ontology (GO) analysis indicated that these intersectant genes were mainly enriched in response to xenobiotic stimulus, gland development, ion channel complex, membrane raft, and steroid binding. Besides, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis suggested that the therapeutic effects of lenvatinib on HCC probably involved bile secretion, MAPK signaling pathway, cGMP-PKG signaling pathway, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, and Ras signaling pathway. Moreover, a total of six key differential genes, namely, ALB, CCND1, ESR1, AR, CCNA2, and AURKA, were identified as most significant targets associated with lenvatinib treating HCC and further verified by molecular docking, which demonstrated that lenvatinib had a strong binding efficiency with these six key gene-encoded proteins. Taken together, this study systematically provided new insights for researchers to determine the intervention mechanisms of lenvatinib in HCC therapy.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Biologia Computacional , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Compostos de Fenilureia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Quinolinas
7.
Elife ; 112022 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35731090

RESUMO

Previous studies, including our own, have demonstrated that transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) is expressed in hearts and implicated in cardiac remodeling and dysfunction. However, the effects of TRPV4 on pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy remain unclear. In this study, we found that TRPV4 expression was significantly increased in mouse hypertrophic hearts, human failing hearts, and neurohormone-induced hypertrophic cardiomyocytes. Deletion of TRPV4 attenuated transverse aortic constriction (TAC)-induced cardiac hypertrophy, cardiac dysfunction, fibrosis, inflammation, and the activation of NFκB - NOD - like receptor pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) in mice. Furthermore, the TRPV4 antagonist GSK2193874 (GSK3874) inhibited cardiac remodeling and dysfunction induced by TAC. In vitro, pretreatment with GSK3874 reduced the neurohormone-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and intracellular Ca2+ concentration elevation. The specific TRPV4 agonist GSK1016790A (GSK790A) triggered Ca2+ influx and evoked the phosphorylation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). But these effects were abolished by removing extracellular Ca2+ or GSK3874. More importantly, TAC or neurohormone stimulation-induced CaMKII phosphorylation was significantly blocked by TRPV4 inhibition. Finally, we show that CaMKII inhibition significantly prevented the phosphorylation of NFκB induced by GSK790A. Our results suggest that TRPV4 activation contributes to pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction. This effect is associated with upregulated Ca2+/CaMKII mediated activation of NFκB-NLRP3. Thus, TRPV4 may represent a potential therapeutic drug target for cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction after pressure overload.

8.
Front Plant Sci ; 13: 898969, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35712553

RESUMO

The majority of terrestrial plants can form symbiotic associations on their roots with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the soil to stimulate the growth and nutrient uptake of the host plant and to improve plant resistance to insects and disease. However, the use of AMF for insect control on gramineous forages requires further study. Here, we evaluated the effects of AMF (Funneliformis mosseae) inoculation on the defense against Locusta migratoria attack in Elymus nutans. Inoculation assays showed that mycorrhizal plants had a higher resistance than non-inoculated plants, as evidenced by plants having more plant biomass, a higher nitrogen and phosphorus content, and greater lipoxygenase (LOX) activity. The results of insect damage showed that in addition to a decrease in the enzyme phenylalanine-ammonia-lyase, the activities of other plant defense-related enzymes (including polyphenol oxidase and ß-1,3-glucanase) were increased. A key enzyme, LOX, belonging to the jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway was notably increased in mycorrhizal treatment. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were identified using gas chromatography mass spectrometry and the results showed that several metabolites with insect-resistant properties, including D-Limonene, p-Xylene, 1,3-Diethylbenzene were detected in mycorrhizal plants. These findings suggest that mycorrhizal inoculation has potential applications in insect management on forage grasses and demonstrates that the JA signaling pathway is essential for insect resistance in Elymus nutans.

9.
Holist Nurs Pract ; 36(4): E27-E37, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35708563

RESUMO

This meta-analysis was conducted to systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of auricular acupressure on sleep quality in patients with lung cancer. Nine articles with a total of 802 patients were retrieved after searching on 11 electronic databases. Results of the meta-analysis showed that auricular acupressure improved sleep score (standard mean difference: -0.80, 95% confidence intervals: -1.30 to -0.30, P = .002) and reduced sleep disturbance rate (risk ratio: 0.65, 95% confidence intervals: 0.51-0.84, P = .001) and sleep medicine usage (risk ratio: 0.26, 95% confidence intervals: 0.11-0.65, P = .004) significantly. Our review suggests that auricular acupressure is effective and relatively safe in improving sleep quality among patients with lung cancer.


Assuntos
Acupressão , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Acupressão/métodos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/complicações , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/etiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/terapia
10.
Front Immunol ; 13: 901784, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35720327

RESUMO

F-box protein 5 (FBXO5), an essential subunit of the ubiquitin protein ligase complex, is increasingly recognized to exhibit important biological effects in regulating tumor occurrence and progression. The present research was intended to systematically investigate the latent roles of FBXO5 in prognosis and immunological function across cancers. Pan-cancer analyses of FBXO5 were performed based upon publicly available online databases, mainly including the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx), UCSC Xena, cBioPortal, and ImmuCellAI, revealing the possible relationships between FBXO5 and prognosis, DNA methylation, tumor microenvironment (TME), infiltration of immune cells, immune-related genes, immune checkpoints, tumor mutation burden (TMB), and microsatellite instability (MSI). The results suggested that FBXO5 was expressed at a high level in numerous tumor cell lines with significant upregulation in most cancers as opposed to normal tissues. Of note, elevated expression of FBXO5 was significantly related to an unfavorable prognosis in many cancer types. Furthermore, DNA methylation and TME were confirmed to display evident correlation with the expression of FBXO5 in several malignancies. Moreover, FBXO5 expression was remarkably positively correlated with the levels of infiltrating Treg cells and Tcm cells in most tumors, but negatively correlated with tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T cells, NK/NKT cells, and Th2 cells. Meanwhile, FBXO5 was demonstrated to be co-expressed with the genes encoding immune activating and suppressive factors, chemokines, chemokine receptors, and major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Immune checkpoints, TMB, and MSI were also overtly associated with FBXO5 dysregulation among diverse kinds of cancers. Additionally, the enrichment analyses showed close relationships between FBXO5 expression and the processes related to cell cycle and immune inflammatory response. These findings provided a detailed comprehension of the oncogenic function of FBXO5. Because of its crucial roles in cancer immunity and tumorigenesis, FBXO5 may serve as a novel prognostic indicator and immunotherapeutic target for various malignancies.


Assuntos
Proteínas F-Box , Neoplasias , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Proteínas F-Box/genética , Proteínas F-Box/metabolismo , Genes cdc , Humanos , Neoplasias/genética , Prognóstico
11.
Environ Toxicol ; 2022 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35716027

RESUMO

Imidacloprid (IMI) is a kind of widely used neonicotinoid insecticide. However, the toxicity of IMI is not only applied to target pests but also causes serious negative effects on birds and other creatures. Our previous studies have shown that long-term exposure to IMI can induce liver fibrosis in quails. However, the specific mechanism of quail liver fibrosis induced by IMI is not completely clear. Accordingly, the purpose of this study is to further clarify the potential molecular mechanism of IMI-induced liver fibrosis in quails. Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica) were treated with/without IMI (intragastric administration with 6 mg/kg body weight) in the presence/absence of luteolin (Lut) (fed with 800 mg/kg) for 90 days. The results reveal that IMI can induce hepatic fibrosis, oxidative stress, fatty degeneration, inflammation, and the down-expression of nuclear factor-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2). Furthermore, the treatment of Lut, a kind of Nrf2 activator, increased the expression of Nrf2 in livers and alleviated liver fibrosis in quails. Altogether, our study demonstrates that inhibition of the Nrf2 pathway is the key to liver fibrosis induced by IMI in quails. These results provide a new understanding for the study of the toxicity of IMI and a practical basis for the treatment of liver fibrosis caused by IMI.

13.
Appl Bionics Biomech ; 2022: 4194472, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35677195

RESUMO

Background: Valgus braces are prescribed as a common conservative treatment option for patients with medial gonarthrosis to improve their quality of life. Many studies had reviewed the effects of the valgus braces on patients with medial gonarthrosis, while they mainly focused on the knee adduction moment (KAM), with less attention paid to other parameters such as spatiotemporal and morphological parameters. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to review the effects of valgus braces on the spatiotemporal, kinematic/kinetic, morphological, and muscle parameters. Methods: Based on the selected keywords, a survey of literatures was performed in Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar using the PRISMA methods, and the search period was established from January 2000 to March 2022. Results: Thirty-four articles were included. According to the conclusion of these articles, the valgus brace can be used to relieve the symptoms of patients with medial gonarthrosis by decreasing the varus angle, decreasing the KAM, and redistributing the knee compartment loads. However, the effects of valgus braces on other biomechanical parameters (e.g., walking speed, cadence, joint angle, and joint space) had not reached a consensus. Conclusions: The valgus knee brace can effectively relieve the symptoms of medial gonarthrosis through multiple mechanisms, while there is still some confusion about the effectiveness of the valgus brace on the other biomechanical parameters.

14.
Fam Community Health ; 45(3): 163-173, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35536714

RESUMO

Churches can be important settings for promoting physical activity (PA) among Latinx populations. Little is known about what factors across the church context-social, organizational, and physical (outdoor spaces)-are associated with Latinx PA to inform faith-based PA interventions. This study investigated associations of church contextual factors with Latinx PA. We used cross-sectional data from a Latinx adult sample recruited from 6 churches that each had a nearby park in Los Angeles, California (n = 373). Linear or logistic regression models examined associations of church PA social support, PA social norms, perceived quality and concerns about the park near one's church, and church PA programming with 4 outcomes: accelerometer-based moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and self-reported adherence to PA recommendations, use of the park near one's church, and park-based PA. Park quality and concerns were positively associated with using the park near one's church. Church PA programming was positively associated with park-based PA. None of the factors were related to accelerometer-based MVPA or meeting PA recommendations. Findings suggest targeting church PA programming and nearby parks may be key to improving Latinx park use. Church and local parks department partnerships may help enhance park conditions to support churchgoing Latinx PA and health.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Apoio Social , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Los Angeles , Autorrelato
15.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; : e202203398, 2022 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35594364

RESUMO

A novel distal radical rearrangement of alkoxyphosphine is developed for the first time and applied to the regioselective radical fluoroalkylphosphorylation of unactivated olefins. By employing a one-pot two-step reaction of (bis)homoallylic alcohols, organophosphine chlorides, and fluoroalkyl iodides under CFL (compact fluorescence light) irradiation, a series of fluoroalkylphosphorylated alkyl iodides and alcohols are easily synthesized by regiospecific installing a phosphonyl onto the inner carbon of terminal olefins and further iodination/hydroxylation. Mechanism studies reveal that the migration undergoes a distinctive radical cyclization/ß-scission on the lone electron pair of phosphorus, resulting in C-P bond formation and C-O bond cleavage.

16.
Nano Lett ; 22(11): 4347-4353, 2022 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35584238

RESUMO

The high specific capacity of alkalic metal (Li, Na, and K) anodes has drawn widespread interest; however, the practical applications of alkalic metal anodes have been hampered by dendrite growth and interfacial instability, resulting in performance deterioration and even safety issues. Here, we describe a simple method for building tunable fluoride-based artificial solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) from the fluorination reaction of alkali metals with a mild organic fluorinating reagent. Comprehensive characterization by advanced electron microscopes shows that the LiF-based artificial SEI adopts a crystal-glass structure, which enables efficient Li ion transport and improves structural integrity against the volume changes that occur during Li plating/stripping. Compared with bare Li anode, the ones with artificial SEI exhibit decreased voltage hysteresis, enhanced rate capability, and prolonged cycle life. This method is also applied to generate fluoride-based artificial SEI on Na and K metal anodes that brings significant improvement in battery performance.


Assuntos
Fluoretos , Halogenação , Eletrodos , Interfase , Lítio/química , Sódio/química
17.
Am J Infect Control ; 2022 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35545151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Quantification of the impact of local masking policies may help guide future policy interventions to reduce SARS-COV-2 disease transmission. This study's objective was to identify factors associated with adherence to masking and social distancing guidelines. METHODS: Faculty from 16 U.S. colleges and universities trained 231 students in systematic direct observation. They assessed correct mask use and distancing in public settings in 126 US cities from September 2020 through August 2021. RESULTS: Of 109,999 individuals observed in 126 US cities, 48% wore masks correctly with highest adherence among females, teens and seniors and lowest among non-Hispanic whites, those in vigorous physical activity, and in larger groups (P < .0001). Having a local mask mandate increased the odds of wearing a mask by nearly 3-fold (OR = 2.99, P = .0003) compared to no recommendation. People observed in non-commercial areas were least likely to wear masks. Correct mask use was greatest in December 2020 and remained high until June 2021 (P < .0001). Masking policy requirements were not associated with distancing. DISCUSSION: The strong association between mask mandates and correct mask use suggests that public policy has a powerful influence on individual behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Mask mandates should be considered in future pandemics to increase adherence.

18.
Sci Total Environ ; 839: 156086, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35605870

RESUMO

Exploring the geospatial variation of root-associated microbiomes is critical for understanding plant-microbe-environment interactions and plant environmental adaptability. Root-associated bacterial communities from the three compartments [rhizosphere surrounding soil (RSS), rhizosphere soil (rhizosphere), and root endosphere (endophytic)] are influenced by multiple factors, including plant species and geographical locations. Nonetheless, these communities remain poorly understood under harsh conditions. In this study, we selected four dominant alpine plants on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (i.e., Elymus nutans, Festuca sinensis, Kobresia pygmaea, and Kobresia humilis) to investigate their root-associated bacterial communities across 11 geographical locations and determine the factors driving spatial variation. The results showed that the microbiota of the three compartments had significantly different community compositions, with more Pseudomonadaceae and Enterobacteriaceae present in the endosphere. Spatial variations in root endophytic microbiota were mainly governed by stochastic processes, which were different from the deterministic processes in the other two compartments. Meanwhile, the geographical location had greater effects on bacterial communities than plant species, and the spatial variation of α-diversity in the endosphere was much higher than that in the RSS and rhizosphere. We further found that the differentiation of bacterial diversity in the endosphere among sympatric plant species was enhanced by higher annual precipitation, lower soil nutrients (carbon and nitrogen), and pH. For example, the coefficient of variation of endosphere Pseudomonadaceae abundance was positively correlated with annual mean precipitation, whereas that of Enterobacteriaceae abundance was negatively correlated with soil pH. The co-occurrence network analysis identified a higher proportion of bacterial coexistence in the endosphere (70.9%) than in the RSS (49.5%) and rhizosphere soil (50.9%). Finally, we revealed the relative convergence of endophytic communities among sympatric plant species in the alpine grasslands.

19.
Adv Mater ; : e2202558, 2022 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35593489

RESUMO

Defect engineering is a well-established approach to customize the functionalities of perovskite oxides. In demanding high-power applications of piezoelectric materials, acceptor doping serves as the state-of-the-art hardening approach, but inevitably deteriorates the electromechanical properties. Here, a new hardening effect associated with isolated oxygen vacancies for achieving well-balanced performances is proposed. Guided by theoretical design, a well-balanced performance of mechanical quality factor (Qm ) and piezoelectric coefficient (d33 ) is achieved in lead-free potassium sodium niobate ceramics, where Qm increases by over 60% while d33 remains almost unchanged. By atomic-scale Z-contrast imaging, hysteresis measurement, and quantitative piezoresponse force microscopy analysis, it is revealed that the improved Qm results from the inhibition of both extrinsic and intrinsic losses while the unchanged d33 is associated with the polarization contributions being retained. More encouragingly, the hardening effect shows exceptional stability with increasing vibration velocity, offering potential in material design for practical high-power applications such as pharmaceutical extraction and ultrasonic osteotomes.

20.
Implement Sci Commun ; 3(1): 51, 2022 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35562836

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sustained, widespread availability of evidence-based practices (EBPs) is essential to address the public health and societal impacts of adolescent substance use disorders (SUD). There remains a particularly significant need to identify effective financing strategies, which secure and direct financial resources to support the costs associated with EBP implementation and sustainment. This protocol describes a new project comparing two types of U.S. federal grant mechanisms (i.e., a type of financing strategy), which supported the implementation of the Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach (A-CRA) EBP for SUD, through either organization-focused or state-focused granting of funds. The Exploration-Preparation-Implementation-Sustainment (EPIS) framework will guide our study aims, hypotheses, and selection of measures. METHOD: We will employ a longitudinal, mixed-method (i.e., web surveys, semi-structured interviews, document review, focus groups, administrative data), quasi-experimental design to compare the grant types' outcomes and examine theoretically informed mediators and moderators. Aim 1 will examine the proportion of eligible clinicians certified in A-CRA with adequate fidelity levels (i.e., penetration outcomes) at the end of grant funding. Aim 2 will examine the sustainment of A-CRA up to 5 years post-funding, using a 10-element composite measure of treatment delivery and supervision activities. We will integrate the new data collected from state-focused grant recipients (~85 organizations in 19 states) with previously collected data from organization-focused grant recipients (Hunter et al., Implement Sci 9:104, 2014) (82 organizations in 26 states) for analysis. We will also use sensitivity analyses to characterize the effects of observed and unobserved secular trends in our quasi-experimental design. Finally, aim 3 will use comparative case study methods (integrating diverse quantitative and qualitative measures) to identify and disseminate policy implications about the roles of state- and organization-focused federal grants in efforts to promote adolescent SUD EBP implementation and sustainment. DISCUSSION: The proposed research will have direct, practical implications for behavioral health administrators, policymakers, implementation experts, and the public. It will offer new knowledge that can directly inform financing strategies to support large-scale, sustained EBP delivery in behavioral health-while advancing implementation science through the use of novel methods to study financing strategies and sustainment.

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