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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33925110

RESUMO

Poplar are planted extensively in reforestation and afforestation. However, their successful establishment largely depends on the environmental conditions of the newly established plantation and their resistance to abiotic as well as biotic stresses. NF-X1, a widespread transcription factor in plants, plays an irreplaceable role in plant growth, development, and stress tolerance. Although the whole genome sequence of Populus trichocarpa has been published for a long time, little is known about the NF-X1 genes in poplar, especially those related to drought stress, mechanical damage, insect feeding, and hormone response at the whole genome level. In this study, whole genome analysis of the poplar NF-X1 family was performed, and 4 PtrNF-X1 genes were identified. Then, bioinformatics analysis and qRT-PCR were applied to analyze the gene structure, phylogeny, chromosomal localization, gene replication, Cis-elements, and expression patterns of PtrNF-X1genes. Sequence analysis revealed that one-quarter of the PtrNF-X1 genes did not contain introns. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all NF-X1 genes were split into three subfamilies. The number of two pairs of segmented replication genes were detected in poplars. Cis-acting element analysis identified a large number of elements of growth and development and stress-related elements on the promoters of different NF-X1 members. In addition, some PtrNF-X1 could be significantly induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG) and abscisic acid (ABA), thus revealing their potential role in regulating stress response. Comprehensive analysis is helpful in selecting candidate NF-X1 genes for the follow-up study of the biological function, and molecular genetic progress of stress resistance in forest trees provides genetic resources.

2.
Carbohydr Polym ; 264: 118000, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33910734

RESUMO

The safe and effective drug delivery system is important for cancer therapy. Here in, we first constructed a delivery system Cabazitaxel(Cab)@MPN/CS between metal-polyphenol (MPN) and chitosan (CS) to deliver Cab for melanoma therapy. The preparation process is simple, green, and controllable. After introducing CS coating, the drug loading was improved from 7.56 % to 9.28 %. Cab@MPN/CS NPs released Cab continuously under acid tumor microenvironment. The zeta potential of Cab@MPN/CS NPs could be controlled by changing the ratio of Cab@MPN and CS solutions. The positively charged Cab@MPN/CS accelerate B16F10 cell internalization. After internalized, Cab@MPN/CS NPs could escape from lysosomes via the proton sponge effect. The permeability of CS promotes the penetration of Cab@MPN/CS to the deeper B16F10 tumor spheroids. In vivo results showed that Cab@MPN/CS NPs have a longer retention time in tumor tissues and significantly inhibit tumor growth by up-regulating TUNEL expression and down-regulating KI67 and CD31 expression. Thus, this delivery system provides a promising strategy for the tumor therapy in clinic.

3.
FASEB J ; 35(5): e21455, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33913197

RESUMO

Mammal's milk is an abundantly foremost source of proteins, lipids, and micronutrients for human nutrition and health. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying synthesis of milk components provides practical benefits to improve the milk quality via systematic breeding program in mammals. Through RNAi with EEF1D in primary bovine mammary epithelial cells, we phenotypically observed aberrant formation of cytoplasmic lipid droplets and significantly decreased milk triglyceride level by 37.7%, and exploited the mechanisms by which EEF1D regulated milk lipid synthesis via insulin (PI3K-Akt), AMPK, and PPAR pathways. In the EEF1D CRISPR/Cas9 knockout mice, incompletely developed mammary glands at 9th day postpartum with small or unformed lumens, and significantly decreased triglyceride concentration in milk by 23.4% were observed, as well as the same gene expression alterations in the three pathways. For dairy cattle, we identified a critical regulatory mutation modifying EEF1D transcription activity, which interpreted 7% of the genetic variances of milk lipid yield and percentage. Our findings highlight the significance of EEF1D in mammary gland development and milk lipid synthesis in mammals.

4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(14): e25398, 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33832134

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and toxicity of gemcitabine-based induction chemotherapy followed by concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (LA-NPC). METHODS: Both observational studies (OBS) and randomized controlled trials (RCT) were included in the meta-analysis. Systematic online searches were conducted in Web of Sciences, PubMed, Embase, meeting proceedings and ClinicalTrials.gov from the inception to May 25, 2020. The primary endpoint of interest was overall survival. RESULTS: five OBSs and 2 RCTs including 1680 patients were incorporated in the analysis. The evidence from the RCTs showed that adding gemcitabine-based induction chemotherapy to CCRT significantly improved progression free survival (hazard ratio (HR): 0.60, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.40-0.88; P = .010; chi square P = .25; I2 = 24%) and overall survival (HR: 0.47; 95% CI: 0.28-0.80; P = 0.005; chi square P = .49, I2 = 0%) and was related to a higher risk of hematological toxicities. Furthermore, based on the data of OBSs, overall survival (HR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.31-0.88; P = .02; chi square P = .37, I2 = 6%) was significantly improved in patients treated with gemcitabine-based induction chemotherapy compared to those treated with taxane-based induction chemotherapy. However, the progression free survival (HR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.45-1.01; P = .06; chi square P = .74; I2 = 0%) showed no significant difference. CONCLUSIONS: For LA-NPC patients, adding gemcitabine-based induction chemotherapy to CCRT significantly improved overall survival and progression free survival with a higher risk of hematological toxicities when compared to CCRT alone. Also, gemcitabine-based regimen could be used as an alternative induction chemotherapy regimen to taxane-based regimen in the treatment of LA-NPC.


Assuntos
Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Quimioterapia de Indução/métodos , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/patologia , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/toxicidade , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/toxicidade , Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos com Pontes/uso terapêutico , Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos com Pontes/toxicidade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , China/epidemiologia , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Desoxicitidina/uso terapêutico , Desoxicitidina/toxicidade , Humanos , Quimioterapia de Indução/tendências , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/mortalidade , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/radioterapia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Análise de Sobrevida , Taxoides/uso terapêutico , Taxoides/toxicidade , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
J Knee Surg ; 2021 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33853156

RESUMO

Accurately measuring the length and diameter of the hamstring tendon autograft preoperatively is important for planning anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructive surgery. The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability of three-dimensional computed tomography (3D CT) scanning technique to produce the actual measurement of the gracilis and semitendinosus (GT and ST, respectively) tendon grafts' length and diameter for surgery. Ninety patients were scheduled for ACL reconstruction with hamstring autograft. Before the surgery, patients were examined under the multidetector row CT scanner and the ST and GT tendons were qualitatively measured by a volume-rendering technique. The length of ST and GT was measured with 3D CT compared with the length of the harvested ST and GT. The cross-sectional area (CSA) of ST and GT measured with 3D CT compared with the ST and GT graft diameter. Tendon size measured preoperatively and during surgery were statistically compared and correlated. The GT tendons length and cross-sectional area measured during surgery was both shorter and smaller compared with the ST tendon. GT and ST tendon length were correlated to patients' body index such as the height and weight (p < 0.05). However, the correlation levels were low to medium (r = 0.23-0.49). There was strong correlation between the lengths of GT (r = 0.76; p < 0.001) and ST (r = 0.87; p < 0.001) measured with the 3D CT and tendon length at surgery. There was a moderate correlation between graft diameter measured at surgery and 3D CT cross-sectional area (r = 0.31; p < 0.05). A multidetector row CT scanner can determine the ST and GT tendons' length and diameter. These measurements can be used for preoperative planning to help determine the surgical method and counsel patients on appropriate graft choices prior to surgery.

6.
Science ; 372(6538): 195-200, 2021 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33833124

RESUMO

The integration of two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals semiconductors into silicon electronics technology will require the production of large-scale, uniform, and highly crystalline films. We report a route for synthesizing wafer-scale single-crystalline 2H molybdenum ditelluride (MoTe2) semiconductors on an amorphous insulating substrate. In-plane 2D-epitaxy growth by tellurizing was triggered from a deliberately implanted single seed crystal. The resulting single-crystalline film completely covered a 2.5-centimeter wafer with excellent uniformity. The 2H MoTe2 2D single-crystalline film can use itself as a template for further rapid epitaxy in a vertical manner. Transistor arrays fabricated with the as-prepared 2H MoTe2 single crystals exhibited high electrical performance, with excellent uniformity and 100% device yield.

7.
Langmuir ; 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33890793

RESUMO

The superhydrophobic surface has been used in ultradry surface applications, such as the maritime industry, windshields, non-sticky surfaces, anti-icing surfaces, self-cleaning surfaces, and so forth. However, one of the main hurdles for the production of superhydrophobic surfaces is high-cost fabrication methods. Here, we report a handy process of self-synthesis fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces with daily supplies. Driven by the physics of biscuit dunking, we introduce a method to self-synthesize superhydrophobic surfaces from daily supplies by coating a substrate with a liquid (liquids of paraffin from candles or polydimethylsiloxane) and subsequently sprinkling powders (food-desiccant silica, alumina, sugar, salt, or flour). A mechanistic study revealed that the capillary force, governed by surface energy difference, liquid viscosity, and powder pore size, draws the liquid solution into the porous channels within the powders. The entire surface of powders, in turn, is covered with the low-surface-energy liquid to maintain the porosity, creating a 3D porous nanostructure, resulting in a water contact angle over 160°. This work provides a scientific understanding that technological developments are closely related to the science that can be seen in our daily lives. Also, we believe that further intensive studies extended from this work could enable to home-fabricate a superhydrophobic surface, such as a bathtub and sink in bathrooms and a cooking area and sink in kitchens.

8.
Mol Med Rep ; 23(3)2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33655333

RESUMO

Neural tube defects (NTDs) are the most serious and common birth defects in the clinical setting. The Notch signaling pathway has been implicated in different processes of the embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs) during neural tube development. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression pattern and function of Notch1 (N1) in all­trans retinoic acid (atRA)­induced NTDs and NSC differentiation. A mouse model of brain abnormality was established by administering 28 mg/kg atRA, and then brain development was examined using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. The N1 expression pattern was detected in the brain of mice embryos via immunohistochemistry and western blotting. NSCs were extracted from the fetal brain of C57 BL/6 embryos at 18.5 days of pregnancy. N1, Nestin, neurofilament (NF), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and galactocerebroside (GALC) were identified using immunohistochemistry. Moreover, N1, presenilin 1 (PS1), Nestin, NF, GFAP and GALC were detected via western blotting at different time points in the NSCs with control media or atRA media. H&E staining identified that the embryonic brain treated with atRA was more developed compared with the control group. N1 was downregulated in the embryonic mouse brain between days 11 and 17 in the atRA­treated group compared with the untreated group. The distribution of N1, Nestin, NF, GFAP and GALC was positively detected using immunofluorescence staining. Western blotting results demonstrated that there were significantly, synchronous decreased expression levels of N1 and PS1, but increased expression levels of NF, GFAP and GALC in NSCs treated with atRA compared with those observed in the controls (P<0.05). The results suggested that the N1 signaling pathway inhibited brain development and NSC differentiation. Collectively, it was found that atRA promoted mouse embryo brain development and the differentiation of NSCs by inhibiting the N1 pathway.

9.
Eur J Med Chem ; 217: 113359, 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725632

RESUMO

A series of highly active CF3-containing 3'-(nitroisoxazole)spiro[pyrrolidin-3,2'-oxindoles] were synthesized and found to be novel glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4)/mouse double minute 2 (MDM2) dual inhibitors. Bioactive spirooxindole and isoxazole skeletons were combined, and the resulting compounds exhibited strong activities against both targets. In particular, compound 3d displayed excellent activity in the suppression of MDM2-mediated degradation of p53, as well as levels of GPX4, in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Moreover, 3d also exhibited inhibitory effects on MDM2 and GPX4 in MCF-7 xenograft model to trigger ferroptotic and apoptotic cell death in in vivo experiments, which was consistent with the results of in vitro experiments.

10.
Phytother Res ; 2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657655

RESUMO

Inflammation can cause a series of inflammatory lung disease, which seriously endangers human health. Pulmonary fibrosis is a kind of inflammatory disease with end-stage lung pathological changes. It has complicated and unknown pathogenesis and is still lack of effective therapeutic drugs. LPS-induced inflammation is a common feature of many infectious inflammations such as pneumonia, bacteremia, glomerulonephritis, etc. Evodiamine, one of the main components of Evodia rutaecarpa, is an alkaloid with excellent antiinflammatory effects. In this study, we evaluated the protective capacities of evodiamine on LPS-induced inflammatory damages in vitro and in vivo. MTT method, flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, and other methods were used for in vitro study to determine the protective capacities of evodiamine. The results suggest that evodiamine can protect murine macrophages from the LPS-nigericin-induced damages by (a) inhibiting cellular apoptosis, (b) inhibiting inflammatory cytokines releasing, and (c) activating the apelin pathway. We also used the exogenous apelin-13 peptide co-cultured with LPS-nigericin in RAW264.7 cells and found that apelin-13 contributes to protecting the effects of evodiamine. In vivo, the ELISA method and immunohistochemistry were used to examine inflammatory cytokines, apelin, and histological changes. BALB/c mice were exposed to LPS and subsequent administration of evodiamine (p.o.)for some time, the results of the alveolar lavage fluid and the tissue slices showed that evodiamine treatment alleviated the pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis, stimulated apelin expression and inhibited the inflammatory cytokines. These results provide a basis for the protective effect and mechanism of evodiamine in LPS-induced inflammation and suggest that it might be potential therapeutics in human pulmonary infections.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705107

RESUMO

Formaldehyde (FA) and acetaldehyde (AcH) used as common chemicals in many fields are carcinogenic. The presently reported detection methods usually need expensive instruments, professional technicians, and time-consuming processes, and the detection sensitivity still needs further improvement. Herein, we report a highly effective fluorescence (FL) sensing film for FA and AcH based on naphthalimide derivative-infiltrated responsive SiO2 inverse opal photonic crystals (PCs), establishing a practically multiple-application detection platform for FA and AcH in air, aquatic products, and living cells. Nucleophilic addition products between the amine group of the naphthalimide derivative and aldehydes emit strong FL at ∼550 nm, realizing selective FL detection for FA and AcH. The emitted FL can be enhanced remarkably because of the slow photon effect of PCs, in which the FL wavelength is located at the stopband edge of PCs. A highly sensitive detection for FA and AcH with limits of detection of 10.6 and 7.3 nM, respectively, is achieved, increasing 3 orders of magnitude compared with that in the solution system. Additionally, the interconnected three-dimensional microporous inverse opal structure endows the sensor with a rapid response within 1 min. Furthermore, the as-prepared PC sensor can be reused by simple washing in an acidic aqueous solution. The sensing system can be used as a FL multi-detection platform for FA and AcH in air, aqueous solution, and living cells. This FL sensing approach based on small organic molecule-functionalized PCs is universally available to develop various sensors for target analytes by designing new functional organic compounds.

12.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 7(1): 35, 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33772032

RESUMO

Gene expression signatures have been used to predict the outcome of chemotherapy for breast cancer. The nucleosome footprint of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) carries gene expression information of the original tissues and thus may be used to predict the response to chemotherapy. Here we carried out the nucleosome positioning on cfDNA from 85 breast cancer patients and 85 healthy individuals and two cancer cell lines T-47D and MDA-MB-231 using low-coverage whole-genome sequencing (LCWGS) method. The patients showed distinct nucleosome footprints at Transcription Start Sites (TSSs) compared with normal donors. In order to identify the footprints of cfDNA corresponding with the responses to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients, we mapped on nucleosome positions on cfDNA of patients with different responses: responders (pretreatment, n = 28; post-1 cycle, post-3/4 cycles, and post-8 cycles of treatment, n = 12) and nonresponders (pretreatment, n = 10; post-1 cycle, post-3/4 cycles, and post-8 cycles of treatment, n = 10). The coverage depth near TSSs in plasma cfDNA differed significantly between responders and nonresponders at pretreatment, and also after neoadjuvant chemotherapy treatment cycles. We identified 232 TSSs with differential footprints at pretreatment and 321 after treatment and found enrichment in Gene Ontology terms such as cell growth inhibition, tumor suppressor, necrotic cell death, acute inflammatory response, T cell receptor signaling pathway, and positive regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor production. These results suggest that cfDNA nucleosome footprints may be used to predict the efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer patients and thus may provide help in decision making for individual patients.

13.
Epigenomics ; 13(6): 411-422, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33641342

RESUMO

Aim: To explore the roles of lncRNA NONHSAT177112.1 in the inflammatory injury of human cardiomyocytes (HCMs) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Materials & methods: The sublocalization of NONHSAT177112.1 was detected by FISH. HCMs were stimulated with LPS to induce inflammatory injury. NONHSAT177112.1 expression was detected by quantitative real-time PCR. Cell apoptosis and viability were detected by flow cytometry and CCK-8 assays. The expression of inflammatory cytokines and myocardial enzymes were detected by PCR and ELISA. Results: NONHSAT177112.1 is expressed in the nucleus and cytoplasm. NONHSAT177112.1 showed dynamic expression that first increased and then decreased during LPS stimulation. NONHSAT177112.1 knockdown reversed the promotion effect of LPS on inflammatory injury. Conversely, NONHSAT177112.1 overexpression exerted the opposite effects. Conclusion: NONHSAT177112.1 aggravates inflammatory injury in LPS-treated HCMs.

14.
Biometrics ; 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721326

RESUMO

With rapidly increasing data sources, statistical methods that make use of external information are gradually becoming popular tools in medical research. In this article, we efficiently synthesize the auxiliary survival information and propose a semiparametric estimation method for the combined empirical likelihood in the framework of the nonmixture cure model, to enhance inference about the associations between exposures and disease outcomes. The auxiliary survival probabilities from external sources are first summarized as unbiased estimation equations, which help produce more efficient estimates of the effects of interest and improve the prediction accuracy for the risk of the event. Then we develop a Bernstein-based sieve empirical likelihood method to estimate the parametric and nonparametric components simultaneously. Such an estimation procedure allows us to reduce the computation burden while preserving the shape constraint on the baseline distribution function. The resulting estimators for the true associations are strongly consistent and asymptotically normal. Instead of collecting substantial exposure data, the auxiliary survival information at multiple time points is incorporated, which further reduces the mean squared error of the estimators. This contributes to biomarker evaluation and treatment effect analysis within smaller studies. We show how to choose the number of auxiliary survival probabilities appropriately and provide a guideline for practical applications. Simulation studies demonstrate that the estimators enjoy large gains in efficiency. A melanoma dataset is analyzed for illustrating the methodology.

16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 741, 2021 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33531485

RESUMO

The heterogeneous nature of tumour microenvironment (TME) underlying diverse treatment responses remains unclear in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Here, we profile 176,447 cells from 10 NPC tumour-blood pairs, using single-cell transcriptome coupled with T cell receptor sequencing. Our analyses reveal 53 cell subtypes, including tumour-infiltrating CD8+ T, regulatory T (Treg), and dendritic cells (DCs), as well as malignant cells with different Epstein-Barr virus infection status. Trajectory analyses reveal exhausted CD8+ T and immune-suppressive TNFRSF4+ Treg cells in tumours might derive from peripheral CX3CR1+CD8+ T and naïve Treg cells, respectively. Moreover, we identify immune-regulatory and tolerogenic LAMP3+ DCs. Noteworthily, we observe intensive inter-cell interactions among LAMP3+ DCs, Treg, exhausted CD8+ T, and malignant cells, suggesting potential cross-talks to foster an immune-suppressive niche for the TME. Collectively, our study uncovers the heterogeneity and interacting molecules of the TME in NPC at single-cell resolution, which provide insights into the mechanisms underlying NPC progression and the development of precise therapies for NPC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/imunologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/metabolismo , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/imunologia , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral/fisiologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/enzimologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
17.
Clin Spine Surg ; 34(2): E112-E120, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33633068

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective observational study. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to characterize the feasibility of assessing the accuracy of cortical bone trajectory (CBT) screw placement in midline lumbar interbody fusion using a traditional pedicle screw insertion accuracy evaluation system based on computed tomography (CT). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Since Santoni and colleagues proposed CBT as an alternative approach for the treatment of lumbar degenerative disease, CBT has been biomechanically and clinically investigated in detail. The reported misplacement rate was 0%-12.5%. Therefore, these cortical screws may result in severe complications, such as nerve root, vascular, and spinal cord injuries. However, to the best of our knowledge, the accuracy of the current assessment system of cortical bone screw placement has not been described clearly. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Overall, 342 cortical screws of 69 consecutive patients with lumbar degenerative disease who underwent midline lumbar interbody fusion surgery in one surgeon's initial phase were examined retrospectively. A comprehensive and detailed pedicle screw accuracy classification and grading system was introduced in our study, including 5 types of misplacement: (1) medial and (2) lateral cortical bone perforation (MCP and LCP) of the corresponding pedicle, (3) anterior cortical bone perforation of the vertebral body, (4) endplate perforation, and (5) foraminal perforation (FP). The degree of interobserver and intraobserver agreement with regard to the screw positions based on CT were used as indicators of the reliability of the modified classification system. All patients were retrospectively assessed for screw placement-related complications throughout the entire treatment course to evaluate the relationship between the procedure adequacy and neurological symptoms. RESULTS: The interobserver and intraobserver agreements were substantial-to-almost perfect (κ=0.78 and 0.88, respectively) in distinguishing the acceptable-placed pedicle screws from those with partial or complete cortical perforation. In the MCP and LCP-the most common types of misplacement-the interobserver agreement was substantial (κ=0.70 and 0.76, respectively), and the intraobserver agreement was almost perfect (κ=0.85 and 0.89, respectively). In total, there are 7 (2.05%) MCP and 65 (19.01%) LCP screws. The screw placement-related complication rate is significantly higher in the MCP and FP groups than that in the LCP group. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated that using a pedicle screw classification and grading system based on CT to assess the accuracy of CBT screw placement is feasible and practical. MCP and FP screws are more likely to cause neurological deficits with statistical significance, especially grade 2 MCP. We recommend inexperienced surgeons choose a lateral trajectory rather than a medial one if they cannot ensure accurate screw insertion. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III.

18.
Vet Res ; 52(1): 17, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568211

RESUMO

Klebsiella pneumoniae, an important cause of bovine mastitis worldwide, is strongly pathogenic to bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMECs). Our objective was to determine the role of mitochondrial damage in the pathogenicity of K. pneumoniae on bMECs, by assessing several classical indicators of mitochondrial dysfunction, as well as differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Two K. pneumoniae strains (HLJ-D2 and HB-AF5), isolated from cows with clinical mastitis (CM), were used to infect bMECs (MAC-T line) cultured in vitro. In whole-transcriptome analysis of bMECs at 6 h post-infection (hpi), there were 3453 up-regulated and 3470 down-regulated genes for HLJ-D2, whereas for HB-AF5, there were 2891 up-regulated and 3278 down-regulated genes (P < 0.05). Based on GO term enrichment of differentially expressed genes (DEGs), relative to the controls, the primary categories altered in K. pneumoniae-infected bMECs included cellular macromolecule metabolism, metabolic process, binding, molecular function, etc. Infections increased (P < 0.05) malondialdehyde concentrations and formation of reactive oxygen species in bMECs. Additionally, both bacterial strains decreased (P < 0.05) total antioxidant capacity in bMECs at 6 and 12 hpi. Furthermore, infections decreased (P < 0.05) mitochondrial membrane potential and increased (P < 0.01) mitochondrial calcium concentrations. Finally, severe mitochondrial swelling and vacuolation, as well as mitochondrial rupture and cristae degeneration, were detected in infected bMECs. In conclusion, K. pneumoniae infections induced profound mitochondrial damage and dysfunction in bMECs; we inferred that this caused cellular damage and contributes to the pathogenesis of K. pneumoniae-induced CM in dairy cows.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33621169

RESUMO

This paper studies instance-dependent Positive and Unlabeled (PU) classification, where whether a positive example will be labeled (indicated by s) is not only related to the class label y, but also depends on the observation x. Therefore, the labeling probability on positive examples is not uniform as previous works assumed, but is biased to some simple or critical data points. To depict the above dependency relationship, a graphical model is built in this paper which further leads to a maximization problem on the induced likelihood function regarding P(s,y|x). By utilizing the well-known EM and Adam optimization techniques, the labeling probability of any positive example P(s=1|y=1,x) as well as the classifier induced by P(y|x) can be acquired. Theoretically, we prove that the critical solution always exists, and is locally unique for linear model if some sufficient conditions are met. Moreover, we upper bound the generalization error for both linear logistic and non-linear network instantiations of our algorithm. Empirically, we compare our method with state-of-the-art instance-independent and instance-dependent PU algorithms on a wide range of synthetic, benchmark and real-world datasets, and the experimental results firmly demonstrate the advantage of the proposed method over the existing PU approaches.

20.
Eur Spine J ; 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33558972

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to compare the pedicle screw placement accuracy and surgical outcomes between 3D-printed (3DP) drill guide template technique and freehand technique in spinal deformity surgery. METHODS: A comprehensive systematic literature search of databases (PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science) was conducted. The meta-analysis compared the pedicle screw placement accuracy and other important surgical outcomes between the two techniques. RESULTS: A total of seven studies were included in the meta-analysis, comprising 87 patients with 1384 pedicle screws placed by 3DP drill guide templates and 88 patients with 1392 pedicle screws placed by freehand technique. The meta-analysis results revealed that the 3DP template technique was significantly more accurate than the freehand technique to place pedicle screws and had a higher rate of excellently placed screws (OR 2.22, P < 0.001) and qualifiedly placed screws (OR 3.66, P < 0.001), and a lower rate of poorly placed screws (OR 0.23, P < 0.001). The mean placement time per screw (WMD-1.99, P < 0.05), total screw placement time (WMD-27.86, P < 0.001), and blood loss (WMD-104.58, P < 0.05) were significantly reduced in the 3DP template group compared with the freehand group. Moreover, there was no significant statistical difference between the two techniques in terms of the operation time and correction rate of main bend curve. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that the 3DP drill guide template was a promising tool for assisting the pedicle screw placement in spinal deformity surgery and deserved further promotion.

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