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J Ginseng Res ; 37(3): 371-8, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24198664


Serum and liver metabolites in rats fed red ginseng (RG) were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The mass data were analyzed by partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) to discriminate between control and RG groups and identify metabolites contributing to this discrimination. The RG group was clearly separated from the control group on PLS-DA scores plot for serum samples, but not liver samples. The major metabolites contributing to the discrimination included lipid metabolites (lysophosphatidylcholine, acyl-carnitine, and sphingosine), isoleucine, nicotinamide, and corticosterone in the serum; the blood levels of all but isoleucine were reduced by RG administration. Not all metabolites were positively correlated with the health benefits of RG. However, the blood levels of lysophosphatidylcholine, which stimulate various diseases, and long-chain acylcarnitines and corticosterone, which activate the stress response, were reduced by RG, suggesting long-term RG might relieve stress and prevent physiological and biological problems.

J Med Food ; 16(9): 823-30, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23909905


The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of apple pomace (AP) and apple juice concentrate (AC) supplementation on body weight and fat loss as well as lipid metabolism in obese rats fed a high-fat diet. Diet-induced obese rats were assigned to three groups (n=8 for each group): high fat diet (HFD) control, HFD containing 10% (w/w) AP, and HFD containing 10% (w/w) AC. There was also a normal diet group (n=8). After 5 weeks, body weight gain, adipose tissue weight, serum and hepatic lipid profiles, liver morphology, and adipocyte size were measured. Body weight gain, white adipose tissue (WAT) weight, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, epididymal adipocyte size, and lesion scores were significantly lower and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and brown adipose tissue weights were significantly higher in the AP and AC groups compared with the HFD group. In addition, atherogenic indices in the AP and AC groups were significantly lower than in the HFD group. These results indicate that supplementing apple products such as AP and AC may help suppress body weight and WAT gain, as well as improve lipid profiles in diet-induced obese rats.

Fármacos Antiobesidade/metabolismo , Malus/metabolismo , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Preparações de Plantas/metabolismo , Animais , Bebidas/análise , LDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Masculino , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Perda de Peso
Int J Mol Sci ; 13(2): 1620-31, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22408412


Obesity is associated with a broad spectrum of cardio-metabolic disturbances, including atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CDV). A high-fat diet has been shown to cause an elevation of the plasma cholesterol levels in humans, and the control of serum cholesterol has been demonstrated to be important in the prevention of CVD and atherosclerosis. The aims of this study were to demonstrate that crude and acidic polysaccharide extracts from Gastrodia rhizomes suppress atherosclerosis through the regulation of serum lipids in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats fed a high-fat diet. We examined the concentrations of serum lipids, including total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoproteins (HDL) cholesterol, and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) cholesterol, in SD rats fed a high-fat diet and evaluated the atherogenic index. Here, we show that both crude and acidic polysaccharide extracts from Gastrodia rhizomes inhibited the total cholesterol and LDL levels. Moreover, there was a significantly suppressed atherosclerosis risk due to the acidic polysaccharide extract from Gastrodia rhizome. Taken together, our results suggested that acidic polysaccharide extracts from Gastrodia rhizomes might be beneficial for lowering the incidence of CVD and atherosclerosis by reducing the de novo synthesis of total cholesterol and the LDL levels.

Aterosclerose , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Gastrodia/química , Extratos Vegetais , Polissacarídeos , Rizoma/química , Animais , Aterosclerose/sangue , Aterosclerose/induzido quimicamente , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia , Humanos , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Triglicerídeos/sangue
Int J Mol Sci ; 13(1): 698-709, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22312280


The effects of acidic polysaccharides purified from Gastrodia rhizome on blood pressure and serum lipid levels in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) fed a high-fat diet were investigated. Acidic polysaccharides were purified from crude polysaccharides by DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B. Thirty-six male SHR were randomly divided into three groups: Gastrodia rhizome crude polysaccharide (A), acidic polysaccharide (B) groups, and a control group (C). A 5-week oral administration of all treatment groups was performed daily in 3- to 8-week-old SHRs with a dose of 6 mg/kg of body weight/day. After 5 weeks of treatment, total cholesterol in the acidic polysaccharide group, at 69.7 ± 10.6 mg/dL, was lower than in the crude polysaccharide group (75.0 ± 6.0 mg/dL) and the control group (89.2 ± 7.4 mg/dL). In addition, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the acidic polysaccharide group were lower than in the crude polysaccharide and control groups. The atherogenic index of the acidic polysaccharide group was 46.3% lower than in the control group. Initial blood pressure after the initial three weeks on the high-fat diet averaged 195.9 ± 3.3 mmHg among all rats. Compared with the initial blood pressure, the final blood pressure in the control group was increased by 22.8 mmHg, whereas it decreased in the acidic polysaccharide group by 14.9 mmHg. These results indicate that acidic polysaccharides from Gastrodia rhizome reduce hypertension and improve serum lipid levels.

Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Gastrodia/metabolismo , Lipídeos/sangue , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Hipertensivos/análise , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/etiologia , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Masculino , Polissacarídeos/análise , Polissacarídeos/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Rizoma/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/sangue