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1.
ACS Omega ; 7(15): 13102-13111, 2022 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35474840

RESUMO

The spontaneous combustion of coal is affected by many factors, among which the influence of water is significant and complicated. To explore the influence of water on the spontaneous combustion characteristics of goaf residual coal, coal samples with similar particle size distributions to those of goaf residual coal were prepared. After the coal samples were immersed in water for 7-21 days and the external flowing water was drained, spontaneous combustion experiments were carried out using a temperature-programmed method. The results showed that soaking in water could promote and inhibit the spontaneous oxidative combustion of large coal particles in different temperature ranges. When the coal temperature was below 50 °C, water immersion had a significant inhibition effect on coal oxidation and spontaneous combustion. When the temperature of coal was 50-110 °C, soaking in water for 7 days could promote the oxidation and spontaneous combustion of coal. However, soaking for 14 and 21 days had a significant inhibition effect in this temperature range. When the coal temperature was higher than 110 °C, water immersion had a significant inhibition effect on the coal. Moreover, a prolonged immersion time significantly enhanced the inhibition effect. When the immersion time was less than 21 days, the spontaneous combustion of large coal particles by short-term soaking was mainly inhibited.

2.
J Environ Manage ; 314: 115122, 2022 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35472841

RESUMO

Rural land use patterns in southern China centered on household grain crop production have observed significant changes in the past few decades, profoundly affecting the release and fixation of carbon and nitrogen in the paddy soil of the region. This study selected different land use patterns developed in purple paddy soil on a decadal time scale, examined the changing rate of soil carbon and nitrogen of the purple paddy soil after abandonment, dry-farming, and fish-farming, and revealed the impact of land use changes on the balance of soil carbon and nitrogen. Results showed that the loss rates of soil organic carbon, readily oxidizable organic carbon and total nitrogen at the initial stage of dry-farming were most considerable, followed by abandonment and fish-farming. An average of 11.95-13.94 g kg-1 soil organic carbon loss and 0.90-1.03 g kg-1 total nitrogen loss of the cultivation horizon were observed when purple paddy soil was abandoned and dry farmed. In comparison, the net release of soil organic carbon and total nitrogen after fish-farming were 6.64 and -0.23 g kg-1. The changes of land use of rural area driven by rising labor cost and market demand have been inducing a continuous decline in soil C:N and significantly reducing the purple paddy soil's carbon sequestration ability. The promotion of no-tillage management, increase of organic manure application, and avoidance of over-use of nitrogen fertilizer in dryland farming need to be further considered to meet the dual pressures of China's resource constraints and carbon neutrality goals. A regression model may predict the changes in soil carbon after the change of paddy soil utilization, which provides a pathway for predicting changes in farmland carbon sequestration potential and carbon storage caused by changes in paddy soil utilization in the future.

3.
Front Plant Sci ; 13: 851077, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35401649

RESUMO

Treatments with abiotic elicitors can efficiently induce the accumulation of specialized metabolites in plants. We used a combined omics approach to analyze the elicitation effects of MeJa, AgNO3, and PEG on camptothecin (CPT) biosynthesis in Camptotheca acuminata plantlets. Untargeted analyses revealed that treatments with MeJa, AgNO3, and PEG significantly inhibited the photosynthetic pathway and promoted carbon metabolism and secondary metabolic pathways. The CPT levels increased by 78.6, 73.3, and 50.0% in the MeJa, AgNO3, and PEG treatment groups, respectively. Using C. acuminata plantlets after elicitation treatment, we mined and characterized 15 new alkaloids, 25 known CPT analogs and precursors, 9 iridoid biosynthetic precursors, and 15 tryptamine biosynthetic precursors based on their MS/MS fragmentation spectra. Using 32 characterized genes involved in CPT biosynthesis as bait, we mined 12 prioritized CYP450 genes from the 416 CYP450 candidates that had been identified based on co-expression analysis, conserved domain analysis, and their elicitation-associated upregulation patterns. This study provides a comprehensive perspective on CPT biosynthesis in C. acuminata plantlets after abiotic elicitation. The findings enable us to elucidate the previously unexplored CYP450-mediated oxidation steps for CPT biosynthesis.

4.
Drug Deliv ; 29(1): 1122-1131, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35380089

RESUMO

Smoke bombs are often used in military/fire training, which can produce a large amount of zinc chloride (ZnCl2) smoke. Inhalation of ZnCl2 smoke usually causes acute lung injury (ALI) that would likely develop to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, there is no effective prevention or treatment strategy for the smoke-induced ALI. Resveratrol (RES) is a natural polyphenol with good anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activities, but its low solubility, stability, and bioavailability restrict its clinical application. In this study, an inhalable RES formulation composed of RES-ß-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes (RES-ß-CD) was prepared for the prevention of ZnCl2 smoke-induced ALI. RES-ß-CD powders had a small mass median aerodynamic diameter of 3.61 µm and a high fine particle fraction of 38.84%, suitable for pulmonary inhalation. RES-ß-CD exhibited low BEAS-2B cytotoxicity. Pulmonary delivery of RES-ß-CD to mice remarkably prevented the smoke-induced ALI with downregulation of TNF-α, IL-1ß, STAT3, and GATA3, and upregulation of T-bet and Foxp3. RES-ß-CD protected the respiratory function, percutaneous oxygen saturation, physical activity, lung capillary integrity, and lung liquid balance, alleviating inflammation and apoptosis. Pulmonary delivery of the positive drug, budesonide (BUD), also alleviated the smoke-induced ALI by reduction of inflammation and cell apoptosis. RES-ß-CD exhibited the regulation of the Th1/Th2 and Treg/Th17 balances, while BUD did not show any effect on immune balances. In conclusion, pulmonary delivery of RES-ß-CD is a promising anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptosis strategy for the prevention of ZnCl2 smoke-induced ALI by direct lung drug distribution and regulation of immune balance.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda , beta-Ciclodextrinas , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/prevenção & controle , Animais , Cloretos , Pulmão , Camundongos , Resveratrol/farmacologia , Fumaça , Compostos de Zinco
5.
J Thorac Dis ; 14(2): 455-463, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35280489

RESUMO

Background: Brain metastases (BMs) develop in 20-65% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and are associated with a poor prognosis. Apatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) that selectively inhibits the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, is safe and significantly prolongs the survival of chemotherapy-refractory gastric cancer patients. This retrospective study evaluated the safety and efficacy of apatinib combined with concurrent brain radiotherapy in NSCLC patients with BMs. Methods: This trial enrolled patients with non-recurrent BM from histologically-confirmed NSCLC without any limits regarding the BM size/quantity. Eligibility criteria were patients 18-75 years old with measurable BM from histologically-confirmed NSCLC (including both newly-diagnosed and previously treated NSCLC) and expected survival time greater than 3 months. Oral apatinib (500 or 250 mg/day) was started within 1 week prior to commencing whole brain radiotherapy with simultaneous integrated boost (WBRT-SIB) and continued until one week after radiotherapy completion. In addition to toxicities, analyzed outcomes included intracranial overall response rate (iORR), intracranial disease control rate (iDCR), intracranial progression free survival (iPFS), and overall survival (OS). Results: From July 2016 to January 2020, 16 patients were enrolled in this retrospective study. After 3 months of brain radiotherapy, the iORR was 75%, the iDCR was 100%, and the brain edema index (EI) was significantly reduced compared to that before brain radiation therapy (4.2 vs. 1.9; P=0.02). The median iPFS was 16.5 months [95% confidence interval (CI): 15.1-37.4 months]. The median OS was 26 months (95% CI: 17.0-54.0 months). Most of the patients tolerated apatinib well, but 7 patients had side effects, most commonly grade 1 or 2. Only 2 patients experienced grade 3 adverse events (hypertension and oral mucositis), and no grade 4 or 5 toxicities were observed. Conclusions: Apatinib combined with WBRT-SIB appears to be safe and effective in treating BMs in NSCLC patients.

6.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 33(2): 385-396, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35229512

RESUMO

We examined the effects of channel diversion of Yellow River on the content and stoichiometry of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in the organs of reeds (stem, leaf, rhizome and fibrous root) and soils in three typical Phragmites australis communities in the Yellow River Delta, including P. australis community in the former Yellow River course abandoned in 1996, P. australis community on the new Yellow River course and the P. australis communities on the intertidal area (far from the abandoned and current channel but affected by the tides). The results showed that foliar C, N and P contents of P. australis were highest in the communities of abandoned Yellow River course. Leaf N, stem C and rhizome P contents were highest in the communities of new Yellow River course. Leaf N and stem C and P contents were highest in the communities of intertidal area. The average leaf C (409.48 g·kg-1) and P (1.09 g·kg-1) contents in the three habitats were lower than national and global average levels, while leaf N content (21.71 g·kg-1) was higher than that of national and global average levels. The mean leaf N:P (20.22) was higher than 16 and the mean soil N:P (0.87) was lower than 14, indicating that the P. australis growth in the three habitats was limited by P. Correlation analysis showed that EC was one of the main factors affecting C:N:P stoichiometry in P. australis. In general, the C and P reserves in P. australis in the study area were low, and N reserve was high. The soil organic carbon content was low, the soil C reserves were large, while the N and P were relatively scarce.


Assuntos
Solo , Áreas Alagadas , Carbono , China , Ecossistema , Poaceae , Rios , Água
7.
Adv Mater ; 34(14): e2109952, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35106834

RESUMO

Thermoelectric materials are typically highly degenerate semiconductors, which require high carrier concentration. However, the efficiency of conventional doping by replacing host atoms with alien ones is restricted by solubility limit, and, more unfavorably, such a doping method is likely to cause strong charge-carrier scattering at ambient temperature, leading to deteriorated electrical performance. Here, an unconventional doping strategy is proposed, where a small trace of alien atoms is used to stabilize cation vacancies in Cu3 SbSe4  by compositing with CuAlSe2 , in which the cation vacancies rather than the alien atoms provide a high density of holes. Consequently, the hole concentration enlarges by six times but the carrier mobility is well maintained. As a result, a record-high average power factor of 19 µW cm-1  K-2  in the temperature range of 300-723 K is attained. Finally, with further reduced lattice thermal conductivity, a peak zT value of 1.4 and a record-high average zT value of 0.72 are achieved within the diamond-like compounds. This new doping strategy not only can be applied for boosting the average power factor for thermoelectrics, but more generally can be used to maintain carrier mobility for a variety of semiconductors that need high carrier concentration.

8.
Front Plant Sci ; 13: 836015, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35211145

RESUMO

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation is an important epigenetic mark involved in diverse biological processes. Here, we report the critical function of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Domains Rearranged Methyltransferase7 (SlDRM7) in plant growth and development, especially in leaf interveinal chlorosis and senescence. Using a hairpin RNA-mediated RNA interference (RNAi), we generated SlDRM7-RNAi lines and observed pleiotropic developmental defects including small and interveinal chlorosis leaves. Combined analyses of whole genome bisulfite sequence (WGBS) and RNA-seq revealed that silencing of SlDRM7 caused alterations in both methylation levels and transcript levels of 289 genes, which are involved in chlorophyll synthesis, photosynthesis, and starch degradation. Furthermore, the photosynthetic capacity decreased in SlDRM7-RNAi lines, consistent with the reduced chlorophyll content and repression of genes involved in chlorophyll biosynthesis, photosystem, and photosynthesis. In contrast, starch granules were highly accumulated in chloroplasts of SlDRM7-RNAi lines and associated with lowered expression of genes in the starch degradation pathway. In addition, SlDRM7 was activated by aging- and dark-induced senescence. Collectively, these results demonstrate that SlDRM7 acts as an epi-regulator to modulate the expression of genes related to starch and chlorophyll metabolism, thereby affecting leaf chlorosis and senescence in tomatoes.

9.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 36(2): e24233, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35007357

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current autoverification, which is only knowledge-based, has low efficiency. Regular historical data analysis may improve autoverification range determination. We attempted to enhance autoverification by selecting autoverification rules by knowledge and ranges from historical data. This new system was compared with the original knowledge-based system. METHODS: New types of rules, extreme values, and consistency checks were added and the autoverification workflow was rearranged to construct a framework. Criteria for creating rules for extreme value ranges, limit checks, consistency checks, and delta checks were determined by analyzing historical Zhongshan laboratory data. The new system's effectiveness was evaluated using pooled data from 20 centers. Efficiency improvement was assessed by a multicenter process. RESULTS: Effectiveness was evaluated by the true positive rate, true negative rate, and overall consistency rate, as compared to manual verification, which were 77.55%, 78.53%, and 78.3%, respectively for the new system. The original overall consistency rate was 56.2%. The new pass rates, indicating efficiency, were increased by 19%-51% among hospitals. Further customization using individualized data increased this rate. CONCLUSIONS: The improved system showed a comparable effectiveness and markedly increased efficiency. This transferable system could be further improved and popularized by utilizing historical data from each hospital.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Automação Laboratorial , Testes de Química Clínica , Aplicações da Informática Médica , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Bases de Conhecimento
10.
J Appl Clin Med Phys ; 23(3): e13502, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35045204

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) is a common side effect in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with radiotherapy. Minimizing irradiation into highly functional areas of the lung may reduce the occurrence of RILI. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and utility of hyperpolarized xenon-129 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), an imaging tool for evaluation of the pulmonary function, to guide radiotherapy planning. METHODS: Ten locally advanced NSCLC patients were recruited. Each patient underwent a simulation computed tomography (CT) scan and hyperpolarized xenon-129 MRI, then received 64 Gyin 32 fractions for radiotherapy. Clinical contours were drawn on CT. Lung regions with good ventilation were contoured based on the MRI. Two intensity-modulated radiation therapy plans were made for each patient: an anatomic plan (Plan-A) based on CT alone and a function-based plan (Plan-F) based on CT and MRI results. Compared to Plan-A, Plan-F was generated with two additional steps: (1) beam angles were carefully chosen to minimize direct radiation entering well-ventilated areas, and (2) additional optimization criteria were applied to well-ventilated areas to minimize dose exposure. V20Gy , V10Gy , V5Gy , and the mean dose in the lung were compared between the two plans. RESULTS: Plan-A and Plan-F were both clinically acceptable and met similar target coverage and organ-at-risk constraints (p > 0.05) except for the ventilated lungs. Compared with Plan-A, V5Gy (Plan-A: 30.7 ± 11.0%, Plan-F: 27.2 ± 9.3%), V10Gy (Plan-A: 22.0 ± 8.6%, Plan-F: 19.3 ± 7.0%), and V20Gy (Plan-A: 12.5 ± 5.6%, Plan-F: 11.0 ± 4.1%) for well-ventilated lung areas were significantly reduced in Plan-F (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: In this pilot study, function-based radiotherapy planning using hyperpolarized xenon-129 MRI is demonstrated to be feasible in 10 patients with NSCLC with the potential to reduce radiation exposure in well-ventilated areas of the lung defined by hyperpolarized xenon-129 MRI.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/radioterapia , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Projetos Piloto , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Isótopos de Xenônio
11.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 201: 20-28, 2022 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34998870

RESUMO

The administration of nanodrugs can lead to metabolism related systemic toxicity due to the use of inert carriers in large quantities. Carrier materials that offer therapeutic effects are therefore a promising means of addressing this limitation. Herein, a hyaluronate-based nanocarrier was prepared from hyaluronic acid (HA) and solanesol. Solanesyl thiosalicylate (STS) derived from solanesol has certain antitumor effects and was used to modify HA. The conjugate (HA-STS) self-assembled into nanoparticles acting as a drug carrier. The synthesis of the conjugates was confirmed by 1H NMR spectroscopy. Doxorubicin (DOX) was loaded into the HA-STS nanoparticles with a relatively high content of 6.0%. pH-sensitive drug release behavior was achieved by introducing a hydroazone bond between STS and HA. A cytotoxicity assay indicated that the blank nanoparticles had an antitumor effect, which was enhanced by loading with an additional drug. Moreover, in vivo antitumor experiments indicated that the HA-STS-DOX showed superior tumor inhibition compared with free DOX, as well as lower cardiotoxicity and hepatotoxicity, demonstrating the advantages of the bioactive drug vehicles in cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Neoplasias , Doxorrubicina , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Humanos , Ácido Hialurônico/química , Nanopartículas/química , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Terpenos/química
12.
Small ; 18(2): e2104592, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34741422

RESUMO

Bornite (Cu5 FeS4 ) is an Earth-abundant, nontoxic thermoelectric material. Herein, twin engineering and Se alloying are combined in order to further improve its thermoelectric performance. Cu5 FeS4- x Sex (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.4) icosahedral nanoparticles, containing high-density twin boundaries, have been synthesized by a colloidal method. Spark plasma sintering retains twin boundaries in the pellets sintered from Cu5 FeS4- x Sex colloidal powders. Thermoelectric property measurement demonstrates that alloying Se increases the carrier concentration, leading to much-improved power factor in Se-substituted Cu5 FeS4 , for example, 0.84 mW m-1 K-2 at 726 K for Cu5 FeS3.6 Se0.4 ; low lattice thermal conductivity is also achieved, due to intrinsic structural complexity, distorted crystal structure, and existing twin boundaries and point defects. As a result, a maximum zT of 0.75 is attained for Cu5 FeS3.6 Se0.4 at 726 K, which is about 23% higher than that of Cu5 FeS4 and compares favorably to that of reported Cu5 FeS4 -based materials. In addition, the Cu5 FeS4- x Sex samples containing twin boundaries also obtain improved hardness compared to the ones fabricated by melting-annealing or ball milling. This work demonstrates an effective twin engineering-composition tuning strategy toward enhanced thermoelectric and mechanical properties of Cu5 FeS4 -based materials.

13.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 36(2): e24206, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34957600

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serum creatinine (SCr) is a useful diagnostic marker for the assessment of renal function. Accurate quantitation of SCr is clinically important in calculation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). METHOD: To confirm whether there are differences in SCr between enzymatic kits of different manufacturers, the analytical performance of the matched and open test system in the measurement of SCr was evaluated. The analytical performance evaluation was conducted according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Precision, accuracy, linearity, dilution, lower limit of measurement and analytical interference were studied between the two test systems. RESULTS: The performance of SCr from the open test system was in compliance with the matched test system with good precision, accuracy, and linearity. In presence of most common interferents, both test systems could lead to accurate creatinine results except for the existence of specified drugs. For dobutamine, the open test system showed better anti-interference performance than the matched system. CONCLUSION: This study provides referable opinions for clinical laboratory selection on the test system and a framework for future analogous studies based on different test systems.


Assuntos
Creatinina/sangue , Testes de Função Renal/métodos , Humanos , Teste de Materiais
14.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 93(4): 044102, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35489912

RESUMO

A Concurrent-wavelength Reconstruction Algorithm (CRA) based on multi-wavelength information fusion is proposed in this paper that aims to further improve the accuracy of Fluorescence Molecular Tomography (FMT) reconstruction. Combining multi-spectral data with FMT technology, the information of 650 and 750 nm wavelengths near-infrared was used to increase the feature information of the dominant 850 nm wavelength near-infrared effectively. Principal component analysis, which can remove redundant information and achieve data dimensionality reduction, was then utilized to extract the feature information. Finally, tomographic reconstruction of the anomalies was performed based on the stacked auto-encoder neural network model. The comparison results of numerical experiments showed that the reconstruction effect of CRA was superior to the performance of the single wavelength model. The correlation coefficient between CRA reconstructed anomalies' fluorescence yield values and the real fluorescence yield values remained at 0.95 or more under the noise of different levels of signal-to-noise ratios. Therefore, the CRA proposed in this paper could effectively improve on the ill-posedness of the inverse problem, which could further enhance the accuracy of FMT reconstruction.


Assuntos
Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Tomografia , Algoritmos , Razão Sinal-Ruído , Tomografia/métodos
15.
Front Oncol ; 11: 754838, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34868962

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This retrospective observational study examined patients who experienced radiotherapy (RT) interruption during the Wuhan lockdown for the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The data of all patients whose RT was interrupted during the Wuhan lockdown from January 23 to April 8, 2020 were collected. Patient-, cancer-, and treatment-related characteristics were analyzed, along with interruption time, disease progression type, and survival status. The methods employed in order to compensate for RT interruption were also described. RESULTS: There were altogether 129 cancer patients whose RT was interrupted. Nineteen (14.7%) patients experienced a total interruption time of at most 7 days; the interruption time was 8-14 days for 27 (20.9%) patients, and 15 or more days for 47 (36.4%) patients. The remaining 36 (27.9%) patients did not come back to our hospital for further RT. We first describe our experience with re-immobilization and/or re-planning (n = 17) as well as dose compensation/adjustment. Of the 40 definitive radiotherapy patients, 37 had squamous cell carcinoma of nasopharyngeal, lung, or cervical origin. Most patients (85/93, 91.4%) were followed up for more than one year. Among the 40 patients who received definitive radiotherapy, nine patients experienced disease progression and five patients died. Three of the seven (42.9%) patients who did not finish radiotherapy after interruption died, as compared to only two of the 33 (6.1%) patients who completed radiotherapy. EQD2 (equivalent dose in 2 Gy fractions) at the time point of RT interruption was calculated. Five of the six patients (83.3%) who received EQD2 ≤10 Gy suffered from disease progression, compared with four of the 34 (11.8%) patients who received EQD2 >10 Gy. For the seven definitive radiotherapy cases who did not finish radiotherapy, three received systemic anti-cancer treatments and three died (all of whom did not receive further systemic therapies). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the longest follow-up for the outcomes of RT interruption during COVID-19 pandemic to date. It cannot imply causation but implies that completing RT is important, along with the utility of having patients remain on systemic therapies if RT is to be interrupted.

16.
Front Immunol ; 12: 769775, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34804060

RESUMO

The crosstalk between the immune system and microbiota drives an amazingly complex mutualistic symbiosis. In mammals, the upper respiratory tract acts as a gateway for pathogen invasion, and the dynamic interaction between microbiota and mucosal immunity on its surface can effectively prevent disease development. However, the relationship between virus-mediated mucosal immune responses and microbes in lower vertebrates remains uncharacterized. In this study, we successfully constructed an infection model by intraperitoneally injecting common carp (Cyprinus carpio) with spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV). In addition to the detection of the SVCV in the nose and pharynx of common carp, we also identified obvious histopathological changes following viral infection. Moreover, numerous immune-related genes were significantly upregulated in the nose and pharynx at the peak of SVCV infection, after which the expression levels decreased to levels similar to those of the control group. Transcriptome sequencing results revealed that pathways associated with bacterial infection in the Toll-like receptor pathway and the Nod-like receptor pathway were activated in addition to the virus-related Rig-I-like receptor pathway after SVCV infection, suggesting that viral infection may be followed by opportunistic bacterial infection in these mucosal tissues. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we further identified an upward trend in pathogenic bacteria on the mucosal surface of the nose and pharynx 4 days after SVCV infection, after which these tissues eventually reached new homeostasis. Taken together, our results suggest that the dynamic interaction between mucosal immunity and microbiota promotes the host to a new ecological state.


Assuntos
Bactérias/imunologia , Carpas/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Imunidade nas Mucosas/imunologia , Faringe/imunologia , Rhabdoviridae/imunologia , Estruturas Animais/imunologia , Estruturas Animais/microbiologia , Estruturas Animais/virologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Carpas/microbiologia , Carpas/virologia , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/virologia , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Homeostase/genética , Homeostase/imunologia , Imunidade nas Mucosas/genética , Faringe/microbiologia , Faringe/virologia , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Receptores de Reconhecimento de Padrão/genética , Receptores de Reconhecimento de Padrão/imunologia , Rhabdoviridae/genética , Rhabdoviridae/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia
17.
Heart Surg Forum ; 24(5): E877-E881, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623245

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: ICl,stretch have been reported to be involved in the development of atrial fibrillation, so we observed the changes of transcription and translation levels of ICl,stretch in isolated atrial myocardium of heart failure canine models. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the control group (N = 10), five dogs were untreated and the other five received sham operation, while dogs in the heart failure group (N = 10) were implanted with cardiac pacemakers and underwent right ventricular pacing to induce heart failure. Cardiac structure and function were evaluated. The gene expression and protein level of ICl,stretch in the left atrial appendage were detected. RESULTS: The left atrial diameter, right atrial dimension, left ventricular diastolic dimension, and right ventricular diastolic dimension were significantly larger in the heart failure group (P < 0.05). In contrast, the ejection fraction and the left ventricular shorten fraction were higher in the control group (P < 0.05). Both the mRNA and protein expression levels of ICl,stretch in atrial myocardium of the heart failure group were significantly higher compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: ICl,stretch might play an important role in the vulnerability to atrial fibrillation in dilated atria with heart failure and could be a potential therapeutic target for atrial fibrillation.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Átrios do Coração/metabolismo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Subunidades alfa do Canal de Potássio Ativado por Cálcio de Condutância Alta/genética , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Animais , Fibrilação Atrial/etiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Cães , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Subunidades alfa do Canal de Potássio Ativado por Cálcio de Condutância Alta/biossíntese , Masculino , RNA/genética
18.
Pharm Biol ; 59(1): 1378-1387, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34629029

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is the leading cause of drug-induced liver injury. Bianliang ziyu, a variety of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. (Asteraceae), has potential hepatoprotective effect. However, the mechanism is not clear yet. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the hepatoprotective activity and mechanism of Bianliang ziyu flower ethanol extract (BZE) on APAP-induced rats based on network pharmacology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Potential pathways of BZE were predicted by network pharmacology. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pre-treated with BZE (110, 220 and 440 mg/kg, i.g.) for eight days, and then APAP (800 mg/kg, i.g.) was used to induce liver injury. After 24 h, serum and liver were collected for biochemical detection and western blot measurement. RESULTS: Network pharmacology indicated that liver-protective effect of BZE was associated with its antioxidant and anti-apoptotic efficacy. APAP-induced liver pathological change was alleviated, and elevated serum AST and ALT were reduced by BZE (440 mg/kg) (from 66.45 to 22.64 U/L and from 59.59 to 17.49 U/L, respectively). BZE (440 mg/kg) reduced the ROS to 65.50%, and upregulated SOD and GSH by 212.92% and 175.38%, respectively. In addition, BZE (440 mg/kg) increased levels of p-AMPK, p-GSK3ß, HO-1 and NQO1, ranging from 1.66- to 10.29-fold compared to APAP group, and promoted nuclear translocation of Nrf2. BZE also inhibited apoptosis induced by APAP through the PI3K-Akt pathway and restored the ability of mitochondrial biogenesis. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated that BZE protected rats from APAP-induced liver injury through antioxidant and anti-apoptotic pathways, suggesting BZE could be further developed as a potential liver-protecting agent.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/envenenamento , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Chrysanthemum/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Overdose de Drogas , Flores , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
19.
Front Immunol ; 12: 704224, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489953

RESUMO

The intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), known as CD54, is a transmembrane cell surface glycoprotein that interacts with two integrins (i.e., LFA-1 and Mac-l) important for trans-endothelial migration of leukocytes. The level of ICAM-1 expression is upregulated in response to some inflammatory stimulations, including pathogen infection and proinflammatory cytokines. Yet, to date, our knowledge regarding the functional role of ICAM-1 in teleost fish remains largely unknown. In this study, we cloned and characterized the sequence of ICAM-1 in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) for the first time, which exhibited that the molecular features of ICAM-1 in fishes were relatively conserved compared with human ICAM-1. The transcriptional level of ICAM-1 was detected in 12 different tissues, and we found high expression of this gene in the head kidney, spleen, gills, skin, nose, and pharynx. Moreover, upon stimulation with infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), Flavobacterium columnare G4 (F. columnare), and Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) in rainbow trout, the morphological changes were observed in the skin and gills, and enhanced expression of ICAM-1 mRNA was detected both in the systemic and mucosal tissues. These results indicate that ICAM-1 may be implicated in the mucosal immune responses to viral, bacterial, and parasitic infections in teleost fish, meaning that ICAM-1 emerges as a master regulator of mucosal immune responses against pathogen infections in teleost fish.


Assuntos
Infecções por Cilióforos , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Infecções por Flavobacteriaceae , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/imunologia , Oncorhynchus mykiss , Infecções por Rhabdoviridae , Animais , Infecções por Cilióforos/imunologia , Infecções por Cilióforos/veterinária , Infecções por Flavobacteriaceae/imunologia , Infecções por Flavobacteriaceae/veterinária , Flavobacterium/imunologia , Hymenostomatida/imunologia , Vírus da Necrose Hematopoética Infecciosa/imunologia , Oncorhynchus mykiss/imunologia , Oncorhynchus mykiss/microbiologia , Oncorhynchus mykiss/parasitologia , Oncorhynchus mykiss/virologia , Infecções por Rhabdoviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Rhabdoviridae/veterinária
20.
Front Immunol ; 12: 689187, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34367147

RESUMO

Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is a highly contagious pathogen, which pose continuous threat to the swine industry. Though most attenuated vaccines are effective, they fail to serologically distinguish between infected and vaccinated animals, hindering CSFV eradication. Beneficially, nanoparticles (NPs)-based vaccines resemble natural viruses in size and antigen structure, and offer an alternative tool to circumvent these limitations. Using self-assembling NPs as multimerization platforms provides a safe and immunogenic tool against infectious diseases. This study presented a novel strategy to display CSFV E2 glycoprotein on the surface of genetically engineered self-assembling NPs. Eukaryotic E2-fused protein (SP-E2-mi3) could self-assemble into uniform NPs as indicated in transmission electron microscope (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). SP-E2-mi3 NPs showed high stability at room temperature. This NP-based immunization resulted in enhanced antigen uptake and up-regulated production of immunostimulatory cytokines in antigen presenting cells (APCs). Moreover, the protective efficacy of SP-E2-mi3 NPs was evaluated in pigs. SP-E2-mi3 NPs significantly improved both humoral and cellular immunity, especially as indicated by the elevated CSFV-specific IFN-γ cellular immunity and >10-fold neutralizing antibodies as compared to monomeric E2. These observations were consistent to in vivo protection against CSFV lethal virus challenge in prime-boost immunization schedule. Further results revealed single dose of 10 µg of SP-E2-mi3 NPs provided considerable clinical protection against lethal virus challenge. In conclusion, these findings demonstrated that this NP-based technology has potential to enhance the potency of subunit vaccine, paving ways for nanovaccine development.


Assuntos
Antígenos Virais/administração & dosagem , Vírus da Febre Suína Clássica/imunologia , Peste Suína Clássica/prevenção & controle , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Antígenos Virais/genética , Linhagem Celular , Peste Suína Clássica/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Insetos , RNA Viral/sangue , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Suínos , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/genética
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