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1.
Nat Biomed Eng ; 5(8): 880-896, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426676

RESUMO

Fibroblasts can be directly reprogrammed into cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells or smooth muscle cells. Here we report the reprogramming of mouse tail-tip fibroblasts simultaneously into cells resembling these three cell types using the microRNA mimic miR-208b-3p, ascorbic acid and bone morphogenetic protein 4, as well as the formation of tissue-like structures formed by the directly reprogrammed cells. Implantation of the formed cardiovascular tissue into the infarcted hearts of mice led to the migration of reprogrammed cells to the injured tissue, reducing regional cardiac strain and improving cardiac function. The migrated endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells contributed to vessel formation, and the migrated cardiomyocytes, which initially displayed immature characteristics, became mature over time and formed gap junctions with host cardiomyocytes. Direct reprogramming of somatic cells to make cardiac tissue may aid the development of applications in cell therapy, disease modelling and drug discovery for cardiovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Células Endoteliais/transplante , Coração/fisiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/transplante , Regeneração , Animais , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 4/farmacologia , Reprogramação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Junções Comunicantes/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Miocárdio/citologia , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/patologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/citologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Cadeias Pesadas de Miosina/genética , Cadeias Pesadas de Miosina/metabolismo , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Transcriptoma
2.
Front Plant Sci ; 10: 886, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31354762

RESUMO

The root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita severely reduces yields of pepper (Capsicum annuum) worldwide. A single dominant locus, Me7, conferring RKN resistance was previously mapped on the long arm of pepper chromosome P9. In the present study, the Me7 locus was fine mapped using an F2 population of 714 plants derived from a cross between the RKN-susceptible parent C. annuum ECW30R and the RKN-resistant parent C. annuum CM334. CM334 exhibits suppressed RKN juvenile movement, suppressed feeding site enlargement and significant reduction in gall formation compared with ECW30R. RKN resistance screening in the F2 population identified 558 resistant and 156 susceptible plants, which fit a 3:1 ratio confirming that this RKN resistance was controlled by a single dominant gene. Using the C. annuum CM334 reference genome and BAC library sequencing, fine mapping of Me7 markers was performed. The Me7 locus was delimited between two markers G21U3 and G43U3 covering a physical interval of approximately 394.7 kb on the CM334 chromosome P9. Nine markers co-segregated with the Me7 gene. A cluster of 25 putative nucleotide-binding site and leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR)-type disease resistance genes were predicted in the delimited Me7 region. We propose that RKN resistance in CM334 is mediated by one or more of these NBS-LRR class R genes. The Me7-linked markers identified here will facilitate marker-assisted selection (MAS) for RKN resistance in pepper breeding programs, as well as functional analysis of Me7 candidate genes in C. annuum.

3.
Circulation ; 136(20): 1939-1954, 2017 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28972000

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived endothelial cells (ECs) have limited clinical utility because of undefined components in the differentiation system and poor cell survival in vivo. Here, we aimed to develop a fully defined and clinically compatible system to differentiate hPSCs into ECs. Furthermore, we aimed to enhance cell survival, vessel formation, and therapeutic potential by encapsulating hPSC-ECs with a peptide amphiphile (PA) nanomatrix gel. METHODS: We induced differentiation of hPSCs into the mesodermal lineage by culturing on collagen-coated plates with a glycogen synthase kinase 3ß inhibitor. Next, vascular endothelial growth factor, endothelial growth factor, and basic fibroblast growth factor were added for endothelial lineage differentiation, followed by sorting for CDH5 (VE-cadherin). We constructed an extracellular matrix-mimicking PA nanomatrix gel (PA-RGDS) by incorporating the cell adhesive ligand Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (RGDS) and a matrix metalloproteinase-2-degradable sequence. We then evaluated whether the encapsulation of hPSC-CDH5+ cells in PA-RGDS could enhance long-term cell survival and vascular regenerative effects in a hind-limb ischemia model with laser Doppler perfusion imaging, bioluminescence imaging, real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and histological analysis. RESULTS: The resultant hPSC-derived CDH5+ cells (hPSC-ECs) showed highly enriched and genuine EC characteristics and proangiogenic activities. When injected into ischemic hind limbs, hPSC-ECs showed better perfusion recovery and higher vessel-forming capacity compared with media-, PA-RGDS-, or human umbilical vein EC-injected groups. However, the group receiving the PA-RGDS-encapsulated hPSC-ECs showed better perfusion recovery, more robust and longer cell survival (> 10 months), and higher and prolonged angiogenic and vascular incorporation capabilities than the bare hPSC-EC-injected group. Surprisingly, the engrafted hPSC-ECs demonstrated previously unknown sustained and dynamic vessel-forming behavior: initial perivascular concentration, a guiding role for new vessel formation, and progressive incorporation into the vessels over 10 months. CONCLUSIONS: We generated highly enriched hPSC-ECs via a clinically compatible system. Furthermore, this study demonstrated that a biocompatible PA-RGDS nanomatrix gel substantially improved long-term survival of hPSC-ECs in an ischemic environment and improved neovascularization effects of hPSC-ECs via prolonged and unique angiogenic and vessel-forming properties. This PA-RGDS-mediated transplantation of hPSC-ECs can serve as a novel platform for cell-based therapy and investigation of long-term behavior of hPSC-ECs.


Assuntos
Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/transplante , Isquemia/terapia , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/administração & dosagem , Nanoestruturas/administração & dosagem , Oligopeptídeos/administração & dosagem , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/transplante , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos/métodos , Células Cultivadas , Células Endoteliais/fisiologia , Células Endoteliais/transplante , Membro Posterior/irrigação sanguínea , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/fisiologia , Humanos , Isquemia/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/fisiologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Circ Res ; 120(5): 848-861, 2017 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28003219

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Direct conversion or reprogramming of human postnatal cells into endothelial cells (ECs), bypassing stem or progenitor cell status, is crucial for regenerative medicine, cell therapy, and pathophysiological investigation but has remained largely unexplored. OBJECTIVE: We sought to directly reprogram human postnatal dermal fibroblasts to ECs with vasculogenic and endothelial transcription factors and determine their vascularizing and therapeutic potential. METHODS AND RESULTS: We utilized various combinations of 7 EC transcription factors to transduce human postnatal dermal fibroblasts and found that ER71/ETV2 (ETS variant 2) alone best induced endothelial features. KDR+ (kinase insert domain receptor) cells sorted at day 7 from ER71/ETV2-transduced human postnatal dermal fibroblasts showed less mature but enriched endothelial characteristics and thus were referred to as early reprogrammed ECs (rECs), and did not undergo maturation by further culture. After a period of several weeks' transgene-free culture followed by transient reinduction of ER71/ETV2, early rECs matured during 3 months of culture and showed reduced ETV2 expression, reaching a mature phenotype similar to postnatal human ECs. These were termed late rECs. While early rECs exhibited an immature phenotype, their implantation into ischemic hindlimbs induced enhanced recovery from ischemia. These 2 rECs showed clear capacity for contributing to new vessel formation through direct vascular incorporation in vivo. Paracrine or proangiogenic effects of implanted early rECs played a significant role in repairing hindlimb ischemia. CONCLUSIONS: This study for the first time demonstrates that ER71/ETV2 alone can directly reprogram human postnatal cells to functional, mature ECs after an intervening transgene-free period. These rECs could be valuable for cell therapy, personalized disease investigation, and exploration of the reprogramming process.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Reprogramação Celular/métodos , Células Endoteliais/fisiologia , Fibroblastos/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/biossíntese , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Membro Posterior/irrigação sanguínea , Membro Posterior/fisiologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Isquemia/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Neovascularização Fisiológica/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
5.
BMC Genet ; 17(1): 142, 2016 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27842492

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conservation of genetic diversity is an essential prerequisite for developing new cultivars with desirable agronomic traits. Although a large number of germplasm collections have been established worldwide, many of them face major difficulties due to large size and a lack of adequate information about population structure and genetic diversity. Core collection with a minimum number of accessions and maximum genetic diversity of pepper species and its wild relatives will facilitate easy access to genetic material as well as the use of hidden genetic diversity in Capsicum. RESULTS: To explore genetic diversity and population structure, we investigated patterns of molecular diversity using a transcriptome-based 48 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a large germplasm collection comprising 3,821 accessions. Among the 11 species examined, Capsicum annuum showed the highest genetic diversity (HE = 0.44, I = 0.69), whereas the wild species C. galapagoense showed the lowest genetic diversity (HE = 0.06, I = 0.07). The Capsicum germplasm collection was divided into 10 clusters (cluster 1 to 10) based on population structure analysis, and five groups (group A to E) based on phylogenetic analysis. Capsicum accessions from the five distinct groups in an unrooted phylogenetic tree showed taxonomic distinctness and reflected their geographic origins. Most of the accessions from European countries are distributed in the A and B groups, whereas the accessions from Asian countries are mainly distributed in C and D groups. Five different sampling strategies with diverse genetic clustering methods were used to select the optimal method for constructing the core collection. Using a number of allelic variations based on 48 SNP markers and 32 different phenotypic/morphological traits, a core collection 'CC240' with a total of 240 accessions (5.2 %) was selected from within the entire Capsicum germplasm. Compared to the other core collections, CC240 displayed higher genetic diversity (I = 0.95) and genetic evenness (J' = 0.80), and represented a wider range of phenotypic variation (MD = 9.45 %, CR = 98.40 %). CONCLUSIONS: A total of 240 accessions were selected from 3,821 Capsicum accessions based on transcriptome-based 48 SNP markers with genome-wide distribution and 32 traits using a systematic approach. This core collection will be a primary resource for pepper breeders and researchers for further genetic association and functional analyses.


Assuntos
Capsicum/genética , Variação Genética , Cruzamento , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Genômica , Filogenia , Sementes/genética
6.
Cell Transplant ; 25(2): 313-26, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25975801

RESUMO

Recent evidence has suggested that diabetic neuropathy (DN) is pathophysiologically related to both impaired angiogenesis and a deficiency of neurotrophic factors in the nerves. It is widely known that vascular and neural growths are intimately associated. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) promote angiogenesis in ischemic diseases and have neuroprotective effects, particularly on Schwann cells. Accordingly, we investigated whether DN could be improved by local transplantation of MSCs by augmenting angiogenesis and neural regeneration such as remyelination. In sciatic nerves of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats, motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities (NCVs) and capillary density were reduced, and axonal atrophy and demyelination were observed. After injection of bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) into hindlimb muscles, NCVs were restored to near-normal levels. Histological examination demonstrated that injected MSCs were preferentially and durably engrafted in the sciatic nerves, and a portion of the engrafted MSCs were distinctively localized close to vasa nervora of sciatic nerves. Furthermore, vasa nervora increased in density, and the ultrastructure of myelinated fibers in nerves was observed to be restored. Real-time RT-PCR experiments showed that gene expression of multiple factors involved in angiogenesis, neural function, and myelination were increased in the MSC-injected nerves. These findings suggest that MSC transplantation improved DN through direct peripheral nerve angiogenesis, neurotrophic effects, and restoration of myelination.


Assuntos
Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Neuropatias Diabéticas/terapia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Neovascularização Patológica/patologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Neuropatias Diabéticas/patologia , Masculino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/métodos , Bainha de Mielina/metabolismo , Regeneração Nervosa/fisiologia , Ratos Wistar , Células de Schwann/metabolismo , Nervo Isquiático/patologia
7.
Cell Transplant ; 24(8): 1571-84, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25008576

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of diabetes on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in terms of their angiogenic and therapeutic potential for repairing tissue ischemia. We culture-isolated MSCs from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (D-MSCs) and compared their proliferation, differentiation, and angiogenic effects with those from normal rats (N-MSCs). The angiogenic effects of MSCs were evaluated by real-time PCR, in vitro tube formation assay, and transplantation of the MSCs into a hindlimb ischemia model followed by laser Doppler perfusion imaging. The number of MSCs derived from diabetic rats was smaller, and their proliferation rate was slower than N-MSCs. Upon induction of differentiation, the osteogenic and angiogenic differentiation of D-MSCs were aberrant compared to N-MSCs. The expression of angiogenic factors was lower in D-MSCs than N-MSCs. D-MSCs cocultured with endothelial cells resulted in decreased tube formation compared to N-MSCs. D-MSCs were ineffective to improve hindlimb ischemia and showed lower capillary density and angiogenic gene expression in ischemic limbs than N-MSCs. D-MSCs have defective proliferation and angiogenic activities and are ineffective for repairing hindlimb ischemia. Newer measures are needed before MSCs can be employed as a source for autologous cell therapy.


Assuntos
Isquemia/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Animais , Vasos Sanguíneos/fisiologia , Capilares/fisiopatologia , Diferenciação Celular , Proliferação de Células , Técnicas de Cocultura , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Membro Posterior/irrigação sanguínea , Membro Posterior/metabolismo , Humanos , Isquemia/patologia , Masculino , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Ratos
8.
Diabetes Metab J ; 37(2): 91-105, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23641349

RESUMO

Diabetic neuropathy (DN) is the most common and disabling complication of diabetes that may lead to foot ulcers and limb amputations. Despite widespread awareness of DN, the only effective treatments are glucose control and pain management. A growing body of evidence suggests that DN is characterized by reduction of vascularity in peripheral nerves and deficiency in neurotrophic and angiogenic factors. Previous studies have tried to introduce neurotrophic or angiogenic factors in the form of protein or gene for therapy, but the effect was not significant. Recent studies have shown that bone marrow (BM)-derived stem or progenitor cells have favorable effects on the repair of cardiovascular diseases. Since these BM-derived stem or progenitor cells contain various angiogenic and neurotrophic factors, these cells have been attempted for treating experimental DN, and turned out to be effective for reversing various manifestations of experimental DN. These evidences suggest that cell therapy, affecting both vascular and neural components, can represent a novel therapeutic option for treatment of clinical DN.

9.
Nat Cell Biol ; 15(6): 700-11, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23685628

RESUMO

Mammalian somatic cells can be directly reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by introducing defined sets of transcription factors. Somatic cell reprogramming involves epigenomic reconfiguration, conferring iPSCs with characteristics similar to embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Human ESCs (hESCs) contain 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), which is generated through the oxidation of 5-methylcytosine by the TET enzyme family. Here we show that 5hmC levels increase significantly during reprogramming to human iPSCs mainly owing to TET1 activation, and this hydroxymethylation change is critical for optimal epigenetic reprogramming, but does not compromise primed pluripotency. Compared with hESCs, we find that iPSCs tend to form large-scale (100 kb-1.3 Mb) aberrant reprogramming hotspots in subtelomeric regions, most of which exhibit incomplete hydroxymethylation on CG sites. Strikingly, these 5hmC aberrant hotspots largely coincide (~80%) with aberrant iPSC-ESC non-CG methylation regions. Our results suggest that TET1-mediated 5hmC modification could contribute to the epigenetic variation of iPSCs and iPSC-hESC differences.


Assuntos
5-Metilcitosina/metabolismo , Citosina/análogos & derivados , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , 5-Metilcitosina/química , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular , Reprogramação Celular , Citosina/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Dioxigenases/genética , Células-Tronco Embrionárias , Ativação Enzimática , Epigênese Genética , Fibroblastos , Humanos , Oxigenases de Função Mista , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Alinhamento de Sequência , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
10.
Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci ; 111: 1-26, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22917224

RESUMO

The technology for generation of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) from somatic cells emerged to circumvent the ethical and immunological limitations of embryonic stem cell (ESC). The recent progress of iPSC technology offers an unprecedented tool for regenerative medicine; however, integrating viral-driven iPSCs prohibits clinical applications by their genetic alterations and tumorigenicity. Various approaches including nonintegrating, nonviral, and nongenetic methods have been developed for generating clinically compatible iPSCs. In addition, approaches for using more clinically convenient or compatible source cells replacing fibroblasts have been actively pursued. While iPSC and ESC closely resemble in genomic, cell biologic, and phenotypic characteristics, these two pluripotent stem cells are not identical in terms of differentiation capacity and epigenetic features. In this chapter, we deal with the current techniques of generating iPSCs and their various characteristics.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Reprogramação Celular/genética , Epigênese Genética , Técnicas de Transferência de Genes , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
11.
J Mol Biol ; 416(3): 319-27, 2012 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22227394

RESUMO

BIX-01294 and its analogs were originally identified and subsequently designed as potent inhibitors against histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methyltransferases G9a and G9a-like protein. Here, we show that BIX-01294 and its analog E67 can also inhibit H3K9 Jumonji demethylase KIAA1718 with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations in low micromolar range. Crystallographic analysis of KIAA1718 Jumonji domain in complex with E67 indicated that the benzylated six-membered piperidine ring was disordered and exposed to solvent. Removing the moiety (generating compound E67-2) has no effect on the potency against KIAA1718 but, unexpectedly, lost inhibition against G9a-like protein by a factor of 1500. Furthermore, E67 and E67-2 have no effect on the activity against histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) demethylase JARID1C. Thus, our study provides a new avenue for designing and improving the potency and selectivity of inhibitors against H3K9 Jumonji demethylases over H3K9 methyltransferases and H3K4 demethylases.


Assuntos
Azepinas/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Histona Desmetilases com o Domínio Jumonji/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinazolinas/farmacologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Cristalografia por Raios X , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/enzimologia , Histona Metiltransferases , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/antagonistas & inibidores , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Histona Desmetilases com o Domínio Jumonji/química , Camundongos , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína
12.
Antioxid Redox Signal ; 17(2): 205-23, 2012 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22044221

RESUMO

SIGNIFICANCE: Derived from the inner cell mass of the preimplantation embryo, embryonic stem cells are prototype pluripotent stem (PS) cells that have the ability of self-renewal and differentiation into almost all cell types. Exploration of the mechanisms governing this pluripotency is important for understanding reprogramming mechanisms and stem cell behavior of PS cells and can lead to enhancing reprogramming efficiency and other applications. RECENT ADVANCES: Induced pluripotent stem cells are recently discovered PS cells that can be derived from somatic cells by overexpression of pluripotency-related transcription factors. Recent studies have shown that transcription factors and their epigenetic regulation play important roles in the generating, maintaining, and differentiating these PS cells. Recent advances in sequencing technologies allow detailed analysis of target epigenomes and microRNAs (miRs), and have revealed unique epigenetic marks and miRs for PS cells. CRITICAL ISSUES: Epigenetic modifications of genes include histone modifications, DNA methylation, and chromatin remodeling. Working closely with epigenetic modifiers, miRs play an important role in inducing and maintaining pluripotency. FUTURE DIRECTIONS: The dynamic changes in epigenetic marks during reprogramming and their role in cell fate changes are being uncovered. This review focuses on these new advances in the epigenetics of PS cells.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/metabolismo , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Reprogramação Celular/genética , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética/genética , Histonas/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
13.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 31(10): 2203-9, 2011 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21799178

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Myeloid lineage cells (MLCs) such as macrophages are known to play a key role in postischemic neovascularization. However, the role of MLC-derived reactive oxygen species in this process and their specific chemical identity remain unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: Transgenic mice with MLC-specific overexpression of catalase (Tg(Cat-MLC) mice) were created on a C57BL/6 background. Macrophage catalase activity was increased 3.4-fold compared with wild-type mice. After femoral artery ligation, laser Doppler perfusion imaging revealed impaired perfusion recovery in Tg(Cat-MLC) mice. This was associated with fewer collateral vessels, as assessed by microcomputed tomography angiography, and decreased capillary density. Impaired functional recovery of the ischemic limb was also evidenced by a 50% reduction in spontaneous running activity. The deficient neovascularization was associated with a blunted inflammatory response, characterized by decreased macrophage infiltration of ischemic tissues, and lower mRNA levels of inflammatory markers, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, osteopontin, and matrix mettaloproteinase-9. In vitro macrophage migration was impaired in Tg(Cat-MLC) mice, suggesting a role for H(2)O(2) in regulating the ability of macrophages to infiltrate ischemic tissues. CONCLUSIONS: MLC-derived H(2)O(2) plays a key role in promoting neovascularization in response to ischemia and is a necessary factor for the development of ischemia-induced inflammation.


Assuntos
Capilares/enzimologia , Catalase/biossíntese , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Isquemia/enzimologia , Músculo Esquelético/irrigação sanguínea , Células Mieloides/enzimologia , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Animais , Capilares/diagnóstico por imagem , Capilares/fisiopatologia , Catalase/genética , Movimento Celular , Células Cultivadas , Circulação Colateral , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Artéria Femoral/cirurgia , Genótipo , Membro Posterior , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Isquemia/genética , Isquemia/fisiopatologia , Fluxometria por Laser-Doppler , Ligadura , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Atividade Motora , Neovascularização Fisiológica/genética , Fenótipo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Ultrassonografia , Regulação para Cima , Microtomografia por Raio-X
14.
PLoS Genet ; 7(6): e1002154, 2011 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21731508

RESUMO

Covalent modification of DNA distinguishes cellular identities and is crucial for regulating the pluripotency and differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells. The recent demonstration that 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) may be further modified to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) in ES cells has revealed a novel regulatory paradigm to modulate the epigenetic landscape of pluripotency. To understand the role of 5-hmC in the epigenomic landscape of pluripotent cells, here we profile the genome-wide 5-hmC distribution and correlate it with the genomic profiles of 11 diverse histone modifications and six transcription factors in human ES cells. By integrating genomic 5-hmC signals with maps of histone enrichment, we link particular pluripotency-associated chromatin contexts with 5-hmC. Intriguingly, through additional correlations with defined chromatin signatures at promoter and enhancer subtypes, we show distinct enrichment of 5-hmC at enhancers marked with H3K4me1 and H3K27ac. These results suggest potential role(s) for 5-hmC in the regulation of specific promoters and enhancers. In addition, our results provide a detailed epigenomic map of 5-hmC from which to pursue future functional studies on the diverse regulatory roles associated with 5-hmC.


Assuntos
Citosina/análogos & derivados , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/citologia , Epigenômica , Genoma Humano , 5-Metilcitosina/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Linhagem Celular , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Citosina/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Biblioteca Gênica , Heterocromatina/química , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Immunoblotting , Metáfase , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Alinhamento de Sequência , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
15.
Circ Res ; 108(11): 1340-7, 2011 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21493893

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Bone marrow (BM)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) hold great promise for cardiovascular cell therapy owing to their multipotency and culture expandability. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate whether MSCs can treat experimental acute myocardial infarction (MI) and diabetic neuropathy. METHODS AND RESULTS: We isolated mononuclear cells from mouse BM and cultured MSCs in a conventional manner. Flow cytometry analyses of these cultured cells at passage 4 showed expression of typical MSC markers such as CD44 and CD29, but not hematopoietic markers such as c-kit, flk1, and CD34. To determine the therapeutic effects of MSCs, we injected MSCs into the peri-infarct area after ligation of the left anterior descending coronary arteries of mice and, as separate experiments, injected the same batch of MSCs into hindlimb muscles of mice with diabetic neuropathy. During the follow-up at 4 to 8 weeks after cell transplantation, growing tumors were observed in 30% of hearts in the MI model, and in 46% of hindlimbs in the diabetic neuropathy model. Histological examination of the tumors revealed hypercelluarity, pleomorphic nucleoli, cytological atypia and necrosis, and positive staining for α-smooth muscle actin, indicative of malignant sarcoma with myogenic differentiation. Chromosomal analysis of these MSCs showed multiple chromosomal aberrations including fusion, fragmentation, and ring formation. CONCLUSIONS: Genetically unmodified MSCs can undergo chromosomal abnormalities even at early passages and form malignant tumors when transplanted in vivo. These results suggest that careful monitoring of chromosomal status is warranted when in vitro expanded MSCs are used for cell therapy such as for MI.


Assuntos
Neuropatias Diabéticas/terapia , Neoplasias Cardíacas/etiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Musculares/etiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Sarcoma/etiologia , Células-Tronco Adultas/citologia , Células-Tronco Adultas/transplante , Animais , Células da Medula Óssea/citologia , Transformação Celular Neoplásica , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
16.
Antioxid Redox Signal ; 15(7): 1799-820, 2011 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21194386

RESUMO

Introduction of four transcription factors, Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc, can successfully reprogram somatic cells into embryonic stem (ES)-like cells. These cells, which are referred to as induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, closely resemble embryonic stem cells in genomic, cell biologic, and phenotypic characteristics, and the creation of these special cells was a major triumph in cell biology. In contrast to pluripotent stem cells generated by somatic cell nuclear-transfer (SCNT) or ES cells derived from the inner cell mass (ICM) of the blastocyst, direct reprogramming provides a convenient and reliable means of generating pluripotent stem cells. iPS cells have already shown incredible potential for research and for therapeutic applications in regenerative medicine within just a few years of their discovery. In this review, current techniques of generating iPS cells and mechanisms of nuclear reprogramming are reviewed, and the potential for therapeutic applications is discussed.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/fisiologia , Adenoviridae/genética , Animais , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Desdiferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatina , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Epigênese Genética , Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Engenharia Genética , Vetores Genéticos , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/transplante , Lentivirus/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Medicina Regenerativa , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
17.
Stem Cells ; 27(7): 1686-96, 2009 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19544451

RESUMO

Bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMNCs) have been shown to effectively treat ischemic cardiovascular diseases. Because diabetic neuropathy (DN) is causally associated with impaired angiogenesis and deficiency of angiogenic and neurotrophic factors in the nerves, we investigated whether DN can be ameliorated by local injection of BMNCs. Severe peripheral neuropathy, characterized by a significant decrease in the motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities (NCVs), developed 12 weeks after the induction of diabetes with streptozotocin in rats. The injection of BMNCs restored motor and sensory NCVs to normal levels and significantly improved vascular density and blood flow in diabetic nerves over 4 weeks. Fluorescent microscopic observation revealed that DiI-labeled BMNCs preferentially engrafted in sciatic nerves. Whole-mount fluorescent imaging and confocal microscopic evaluation demonstrated that many of the BMNCs localized following the course of the vasa nervorum in close proximity to blood vessels without incorporation into vasa nervorum as endothelial cells at a detectable level. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the levels of angiogenic and neurotrophic factors were significantly increased in the nerves by BMNC injection. Local transplantation of BMNCs improved experimental DN by augmenting angiogenesis and increasing angiogenic and neurotrophic factors in peripheral nerves. These findings suggest that BMNC transplantation may represent a novel therapeutic option for treating DN.


Assuntos
Células da Medula Óssea/citologia , Transplante de Medula Óssea/métodos , Neuropatias Diabéticas/patologia , Neuropatias Diabéticas/terapia , Animais , Hemodinâmica , Imunofenotipagem , Masculino , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos F344 , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Vasa Nervorum/metabolismo , Vasa Nervorum/patologia
18.
Cell Motil Cytoskeleton ; 52(2): 66-81, 2002 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12112149

RESUMO

The distribution of two proteins in Naegleria gruberi, N-gammaTRP (Naegleria gamma-tubulin-related protein) and N-PRP (Naegleria pericentrin-related protein), was examined during the de novo formation of basal bodies and flagella that occurs during the differentiation of N. gruberi. After the initiation of differentiation, N-gammaTRP and N-PRP began to concentrate at the same site within cells. The percentage of cells with a concentrated region of N-gammaTRP and N-PRP was maximal (68%) at 40 min when the synthesis of tubulin had just started but no assembled microtubules were visible. When concentrated tubulin became visible (60 min), the region of concentrated N-gammaTRP and N-PRP was co-localized with the tubulin spot and then flagella began to elongate from the region of concentrated tubulin. When cells had elongated flagella, the concentrated N-gammaTRP and N-PRP were translocated to the opposite end of the flagellated cells and disappeared. The transient concentration of N-gammaTRP coincided with the transient formation of an F-actin spot at which N-gammaTRP and alpha-tubulin mRNA were co-localized. The concentration of N-gammaTRP and formation of the F-actin spot occurred without the formation of microtubules but were inhibited by cytochalasin D. These observations suggest that the regional concentration of N-gammaTRP and N-PRP is mediated by actin filaments and might provide a site of microtubule nucleation for the assembly of newly synthesized tubulins into basal bodies and flagella.


Assuntos
Antígenos/análise , Centríolos/química , Flagelos/química , Naegleria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Protozoários/análise , Tubulina (Proteína)/análise , Actinas/metabolismo , Animais , Antígenos/fisiologia , Diferenciação Celular , Citocalasina D/metabolismo , Flagelos/metabolismo , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/análise , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/classificação , Naegleria/citologia , Naegleria/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/fisiologia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Tubulina (Proteína)/química , Tubulina (Proteína)/fisiologia
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