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1.
Epidemiology ; 30 Suppl 2: S10-S16, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Short telomere length (TL), an indicator of cellular aging and oxidative stress, has been implicated in glucose homeostasis. Additionally, studies have illustrated that the association of TL with health outcomes may vary by age. Yet, data on the association between TL and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are sparse and the potential effect modification by age remains unknown. METHODS: We prospectively investigated TL in early pregnancy in relation to the subsequent GDM risk in a case-control study of 93 women with GDM and 186 randomly selected controls matched on age, race/ethnicity, and gestational weeks at blood collection. TL was measured using blood samples collected at 10-14 gestational weeks and reported as the T/S ratio, a ratio of telomere repeat length T to copy number of a single copy gene S. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using conditional logistic regression adjusted for major risk factors. RESULTS: Overall, TL was not significantly associated with GDM risk. The TL-GDM association was significantly modified by age (Pinteraction = 0.02). Shorter TL in early pregnancy was associated with an increased GDM risk among women <30 years old (adjusted OR comparing the shortest vs. longest tertile: 3.1, 95% CI = 1.2, 8.1), but not associated with GDM risk among women ≥30 years. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that TL in early pregnancy may be implicated in GDM development, particularly among younger women.

2.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276202

RESUMO

Cell-mediated immune suppression may play an important role in lung carcinogenesis. We investigated the associations for circulating levels of tryptophan, kynurenine, kynurenine:tryptophan ratio (KTR), quinolinic acid (QA) and neopterin as markers of immune regulation and inflammation with lung cancer risk in 5,364 smoking-matched case-control pairs from 20 prospective cohorts included in the international Lung Cancer Cohort Consortium. All biomarkers were quantified by mass spectrometry-based methods in serum/plasma samples collected on average 6 years before lung cancer diagnosis. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for lung cancer associated with individual biomarkers were calculated using conditional logistic regression with adjustment for circulating cotinine. Compared to the lowest quintile, the highest quintiles of kynurenine, KTR, QA and neopterin were associated with a 20-30% higher risk, and tryptophan with a 15% lower risk of lung cancer (all ptrend < 0.05). The strongest associations were seen for current smokers, where the adjusted ORs (95% CIs) of lung cancer for the highest quintile of KTR, QA and neopterin were 1.42 (1.15-1.75), 1.42 (1.14-1.76) and 1.45 (1.13-1.86), respectively. A stronger association was also seen for KTR and QA with risk of lung squamous cell carcinoma followed by adenocarcinoma, and for lung cancer diagnosed within the first 2 years after blood draw. This study demonstrated that components of the tryptophan-kynurenine pathway with immunomodulatory effects are associated with risk of lung cancer overall, especially for current smokers. Further research is needed to evaluate the role of these biomarkers in lung carcinogenesis and progression.

3.
BMJ ; 364: k4981, 2019 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30606716

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To conduct a comprehensive analysis of prospectively measured circulating high sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP) concentration and risk of lung cancer overall, by smoking status (never, former, and current smokers), and histological sub-type. DESIGN: Nested case-control study. SETTING: 20 population based cohort studies in Asia, Europe, Australia, and the United States. PARTICIPANTS: 5299 patients with incident lung cancer, with individually incidence density matched controls. EXPOSURE: Circulating hsCRP concentrations in prediagnostic serum or plasma samples. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Incident lung cancer diagnosis. RESULTS: A positive association between circulating hsCRP concentration and the risk of lung cancer for current (odds ratio associated with a doubling in hsCRP concentration 1.09, 95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.13) and former smokers (1.09, 1.04 to 1.14) was observed, but not for never smokers (P<0.01 for interaction). This association was strong and consistent across all histological subtypes, except for adenocarcinoma, which was not strongly associated with hsCRP concentration regardless of smoking status (odds ratio for adenocarcinoma overall 0.97, 95% confidence interval 0.94 to 1.01). The association between circulating hsCRP concentration and the risk of lung cancer was strongest in the first two years of follow-up for former and current smokers. Including hsCRP concentration in a risk model, in addition to smoking based variables, did not improve risk discrimination overall, but slightly improved discrimination for cancers diagnosed in the first two years of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Former and current smokers with higher circulating hsCRP concentrations had a higher risk of lung cancer overall. Circulating hsCRP concentration was not associated with the risk of lung adenocarcinoma. Circulating hsCRP concentration could be a prediagnostic marker of lung cancer rather than a causal risk factor.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Grandes/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Fumar/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Grandes/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ex-Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , não Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
JAMA Dermatol ; 155(3): 353-357, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30586131

RESUMO

Importance: Detection bias may influence the results of epidemiologic studies of skin cancer risk. An individual's degree of contact with the health care system, and, specifically, undergoing routine screening practices, may be a source of such bias. More intensive screening practices may be associated with increased diagnoses of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and melanoma. Objective: To assess a possible association between health care screening practices and skin cancer risk. Design, Setting, and Participants: The cohort of participants for this study was drawn from the Nurses' Health Study (121 700 women) and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (51 529 men). Participants in the Nurses' Health Study were followed up from June 1, 1990, to June 1, 2012, and participants in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study were followed up from January 1, 1990, to January 1, 2012. Statistical analysis was performed from April 4, 2017, to May 16, 2018. Exposures: During cohort follow-up, Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study participants were asked whether they had undergone various health care screening practices including physical examination by a physician, sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy, eye examination, serum cholesterol test, mammography, breast examination and pelvic examination, and prostate-specific antigen test and rectal examination. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incident BCC, SCC, and invasive melanoma. Cases of SCC and melanoma were confirmed with histopathologic findings. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs were calculated for the association between screening practices and the various types of skin cancer. Results: This study included 77 736 women from the Nurses' Health Study (mean [SD] age at baseline, 56 [7] years) who were followed up for 1 388 523 person-years and 39 756 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (mean [SD] age at baseline, 58 [10] years) who were followed up for 635 319 person-years. A total of 14 319 incident BCCs, 1517 SCCs, and 506 melanomas were identified in the Nurses' Health Study cohort and 8741 incident BCCs, 1191 SCCs, and 469 melanomas were identified in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study cohort. Positive associations were seen between various screening practices and diagnoses of BCC and SCC, with similar directions of associations seen with melanoma for some screening practices. In the Nurses' Health Study, the multivariable HR associated with undergoing a physical examination was 1.46 (95% CI, 1.30-1.64) for BCC, 2.32 (95% CI, 1.41-3.80) for SCC, and 1.66 (95% CI, 0.85-3.22) for melanoma. Similar results were seen in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, with a multivariable HR associated with undergoing a physical examination of 1.43 (95% CI, 1.26-1.63) for BCC and 1.85 (95% CI, 1.17-2.92) for SCC, with an attenuated HR for melanoma of 1.04 (95% CI, 0.64-1.69). Conclusions and Relevance: Undergoing health care screening practices increases the likelihood of being diagnosed with skin cancer. Researchers should be aware of this association and, where appropriate and possible, condition analyses of skin cancer risk on measures of health care use, including screening, to address confounding associated with detection bias.

6.
Cancer ; 125(7): 1133-1142, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30548236

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) exceeds the incidence of all other types of cancers combined. Cumulative sun exposure and intermittent sun exposure are known risk factors for the development of NMSC. Because obesity has been shown to decrease the risk of NMSC incidence, this study investigated whether the risk of NMSC with sun exposure was consistent across different levels of body size. METHODS: Body size was assessed with the body mass index (BMI) and the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). Sun exposure was assessed in watts and langleys and by the amount of time spent outdoors per day in the summer during a person's 30s. RESULTS: Among 71,645 postmenopausal women eligible for inclusion in this study, 13,351 participants (18.6%) developed NMSC. A BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 or a WHR ≥ 0.80 was associated with lower NMSC hazard rates (hazard ratio for BMI, 0.78; hazard ratio for WHR, 0.89); however, the association between higher levels of sun exposure and a higher risk of NMSC was more apparent among women with a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 or a WHR ≥ 0.80 in comparison with those of a normal weight (P for interaction for BMI < .001; P for interaction for WHR = .022). CONCLUSIONS: Although most studies have considered sun exposure as a covariate, none have addressed the potential interaction of body size with sun exposure; therefore, the effect size of being overweight or obese may have been overestimated. In comparison to the normal-weight group, those in the overweight group had increasingly higher hazard rates with increasing sun exposure. Further studies are warranted to investigate how increased weight interacts with sun exposure to influence skin cancer pathogenesis.

7.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4774, 2018 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30429480

RESUMO

The total number of acquired melanocytic nevi on the skin is strongly correlated with melanoma risk. Here we report a meta-analysis of 11 nevus GWAS from Australia, Netherlands, UK, and USA comprising 52,506 individuals. We confirm known loci including MTAP, PLA2G6, and IRF4, and detect novel SNPs in KITLG and a region of 9q32. In a bivariate analysis combining the nevus results with a recent melanoma GWAS meta-analysis (12,874 cases, 23,203 controls), SNPs near GPRC5A, CYP1B1, PPARGC1B, HDAC4, FAM208B, DOCK8, and SYNE2 reached global significance, and other loci, including MIR146A and OBFC1, reached a suggestive level. Overall, we conclude that most nevus genes affect melanoma risk (KITLG an exception), while many melanoma risk loci do not alter nevus count. For example, variants in TERC and OBFC1 affect both traits, but other telomere length maintenance genes seem to affect melanoma risk only. Our findings implicate multiple pathways in nevogenesis.

8.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 2018 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30130598

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current evidence about the association between voriconazole and risk of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) remains inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between voriconazole use and risk of SCC. METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed and Embase and performed a random effects model meta-analysis to calculate the pooled relative risk (RR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: Of the 8 studies involving a total of 3710 individuals with a lung transplant or hematopoietic cell transplant that were included in the qualitative analysis, 5 were included in the meta-analysis. Use of voriconazole was significantly associated with increased risk of SCC (RR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.36-2.55). The increased risk did not differ according to type of transplantation or adjustment for sun exposure. Longer duration of voriconazole use was found to be positively associated with risk of SCC (RR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.09-2.72). Voriconazole use was not associated with increased risk of basal cell carcinoma (RR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.41-1.71). LIMITATIONS: There were some heterogeneities in the retrospective observational studies. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support an increased risk of SCC associated with voriconazole in individuals with a lung transplant or hematopoietic cell transplant. Routine dermatologic surveillance should be performed, especially among individuals at high risk of developing SCC.

9.
Genet Epidemiol ; 42(6): 571-586, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29968341

RESUMO

The human MC1R gene is highly polymorphic among lightly pigmented populations, and several variants in the MC1R gene have been associated with increased risk of both melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. The functional consequences of MC1R gene variants have been studied in vitro and in vivo in postulated causal pathways, such as G-protein-coupled signaling transduction, pigmentation, immune response, inflammatory response, cell proliferation, and extracellular matrix adhesion. In a case-control study nested within the Nurses' Health Study, we utilized hierarchical modeling approaches, incorporating quantitative information from these functional studies, to examine the association between particular MC1R alleles and the risk of skin cancers. Different prior matrices were constructed according to the phenotypic associations in controls, cell surface expression, and enzymatic kinetics. Our results showed the parameter variance estimates of each single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) were smaller when using a hierarchical modeling approach compared to standard multivariable regression. Estimates of second-level parameters gave information about the relative importance of MC1R effects on different pathways, and odds ratio estimates changed depending on prior models (e.g., the change ranged from -21% to 7% for melanoma risk assessment). In addition, the estimates of prior model hyperparameters in the hierarchical modeling approach allow us to determine the relevance of individual pathways on the risk of each of the skin cancer types. In conclusion, hierarchical modeling provides a useful analytic approach in addition to the widely used conventional models in genetic association studies that can incorporate measures of allelic function.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Modelos Genéticos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Receptor Tipo 1 de Melanocortina/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Fatores de Risco
10.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 20(12): 2919-2924, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30039616

RESUMO

A slight increase in melanoma risk was observed among sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor users in the regular reports. However, the association remains uncertain. To address this issue, we performed a systematic search of electronic databases up to May 2, 2018 and a meta-analysis of 21 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving 20 308 patients. We did not find a significant increase in risk of melanoma among SGLT-2 inhibitor users (Peto odds ratio [OR], 2.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80-5.89; I2 , 0%). Similar results were observed in the subgroup analyses according to the type of SGLT-2 inhibitor, type of control, ages of patients, race/ethnicity, and trial durations. For non-melanoma skin cancer risk, no significant difference was observed when all trials were combined (Peto OR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.47-1.07; I2 , 0%), while a significantly decreased risk was observed among trials with duration <52 weeks (Peto OR, 0.12; 95% CI, 0.02-0.59; I2 , 0%). No evidence of publication bias was detected in the analyses. Current evidence from RCTs did not support a significantly increased risk of skin cancer associated with SGLT-2 inhibitors.

11.
Cancer Med ; 2018 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29761859

RESUMO

Accumulating evidence implies that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a crucial role in predicting survival for Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. This study aims to capture the current research hotspots of HCC, based on the analysis of publications related to HCC research from 2013 to 2017, and to identify a novel lncRNA signature for HCC prognosis through the data mining in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). "Prognosis" and "biomarker" were located in the core of the HCC research hotspot. Moreover, long noncoding RNA was the top one research frontier in HCC research. The associations between survival outcome and the expression of lncRNAs were evaluated by the univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analyses. Four lncRNAs (LINC00261, TRELM3P, GBP1P1, and CDKN2B-AS1) were identified as significantly correlated with overall survival (OS). These four lncRNAs were gathered as a single prognostic signature. There was a significant positive correlation between HCC patients with low-risk scores and overall survival (HR = 1.802, 95%CI [1.224-2.652], P = .003). Further analysis suggested that the prognostic value of this four-lncRNA signature was independent in clinical features. The enrichment analysis of prognostic lncRNA-related gene was performed to find out the related pathways. Our study indicates that this novel lncRNA expression signature may be a useful biomarker of the prognosis for HCC patients, based on bioinformatics analysis.

12.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 1684, 2018 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29739929

RESUMO

The skin's tendency to sunburn rather than tan is a major risk factor for skin cancer. Here we report a large genome-wide association study of ease of skin tanning in 176,678 subjects of European ancestry. We identify significant association with tanning ability at 20 loci. We confirm previously identified associations at six of these loci, and report 14 novel loci, of which ten have never been associated with pigmentation-related phenotypes. Our results also suggest that variants at the AHR/AGR3 locus, previously associated with cutaneous malignant melanoma the underlying mechanism of which is poorly understood, might act on disease risk through modulation of tanning ability.

13.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 171(1): 161-171, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29737472

RESUMO

PURPOSE: An increasing number of long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) appear to play critical roles in cancer development and progression. To assess the association between SNPs that reside in regions of lincRNAs and breast cancer risk, we performed a large case-control study in China. METHODS: We carried out a two-stage case-control study including 2881 breast cancer cases and 3220 controls. In stage I, we genotyped 17 independent (r2 < 0.5) SNPs located in 6 tumor-related lincRNAs by using the TaqMan platform. In stage II, SNPs potentially associated with breast cancer risk were replicated in an independent population. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to measure H19 levels in tissues from 228 breast cancer patients with different genotypes. RESULTS: We identified 2 SNPs significantly associated with breast cancer risk in stage I (P < 0.05), but not significantly replicated in stage II. We combined the data from stage I and stage II, and found that, compared with the rs2071095 CC genotype, AA and CA + AA genotypes were associated with significantly decreased risk of breast cancer (adjusted OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.69-0.99; adjusted OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.80-0.98, respectively). Stratified analyses showed that rs2071095 was associated with breast cancer risk in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive patients (P = 0.002), but not in ER-negative ones (P = 0.332). Expression levels of H19 in breast cancer cases with AA genotype were significantly lower than those with CC genotype. CONCLUSIONS: We identified that rs2071095 may contribute to the susceptibility of breast cancer in Chinese women via affecting H19 expression. The mechanisms underlying the association remain to be investigated.

14.
Cancer Manag Res ; 10: 1143-1154, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29795986

RESUMO

Purpose: Melanoma represents an important public health problem, due to its high case-fatality rate. Identification of individuals at high risk would be of major interest to improve early diagnosis and ultimately survival. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether MC1R variants predicted melanoma risk independently of at-risk phenotypic characteristics. Materials and methods: Data were collected within an international collaboration - the M-SKIP project. The present pooled analysis included data on 3,830 single, primary, sporadic, cutaneous melanoma cases and 2,619 controls from seven previously published case-control studies. All the studies had information on MC1R gene variants by sequencing analysis and on hair color, skin phototype, and freckles, ie, the phenotypic characteristics used to define the red hair phenotype. Results: The presence of any MC1R variant was associated with melanoma risk independently of phenotypic characteristics (OR 1.60; 95% CI 1.36-1.88). Inclusion of MC1R variants in a risk prediction model increased melanoma predictive accuracy (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve) by 0.7% over a base clinical model (P=0.002), and 24% of participants were better assessed (net reclassification index 95% CI 20%-30%). Subgroup analysis suggested a possibly stronger role of MC1R in melanoma prediction for participants without the red hair phenotype (net reclassification index: 28%) compared to paler skinned participants (15%). Conclusion: The authors suggest that measuring the MC1R genotype might result in a benefit for melanoma prediction. The results could be a valid starting point to guide the development of scientific protocols assessing melanoma risk prediction tools incorporating the MC1R genotype.

16.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 79(1): 36-41.e10, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29499294

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with melanoma have been identified though genome-wide association studies. However, the combined impact of these SNPs on melanoma development remains unclear, particularly in postmenopausal women who carry a lower melanoma risk. OBJECTIVE: We examine the contribution of a combined polygenic risk score on melanoma development in postmenopausal women. METHODS: Genetic risk scores were calculated using 21 genome-wide association study-significant SNPs. Their combined effect on melanoma development was evaluated in 19,102 postmenopausal white women in the clinical trial and observational study arms of the Women's Health Initiative dataset. RESULTS: Compared to the tertile of weighted genetic risk score with the lowest genetic risk, the women in the tertile with the highest genetic risk were 1.9 times more likely to develop melanoma (95% confidence interval 1.50-2.42). The incremental change in c-index from adding genetic risk scores to age were 0.075 (95% confidence interval 0.041-0.109) for incident melanoma. LIMITATIONS: Limitations include a lack of information on nevi count, Fitzpatrick skin type, family history of melanoma, and potential reporting and selection bias in the Women's Health Initiative cohort. CONCLUSION: Higher genetic risk is associated with increased melanoma prevalence and incidence in postmenopausal women, but current genetic information may have a limited role in risk prediction when phenotypic information is available.

17.
Cancer Med ; 7(4): 1070-1080, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29476615

RESUMO

Current evidence about the association between pioglitazone and bladder cancer risk remains conflict. We aimed to assess the risk of bladder cancer associated with the use of pioglitazone and identify modifiers that affect the results. We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from inception to 25 August 2016 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies that evaluated the association between pioglitazone and bladder cancer risk. Conventional and cumulative meta-analyses were used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). A restricted spline regression analysis was used to examine the dose-response relationship with a generalized least-squares trend test. We included two RCTs involving 9114 patients and 20 observational studies (n = 4,846,088 individuals). An increased risk of bladder cancer in patients treated with pioglitazone versus placebo was noted from RCTs (OR, 1.84; 95%CI, 0.99 to 3.42). In observational studies, the increased risk of bladder cancer was slight but significant among ever-users of pioglitazone versus never-users (OR, 1.13; 95%CI, 1.03 to 1.25), which appeared to be both time- (P = 0.003) and dose-dependent (P = 0.05). In addition, we observed the association differed by region of studies (Europe, United States, or Asia) or source of funding (sponsored by industry or not). Current evidence suggests that pioglitazone may increase the risk of bladder cancer, possibly in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Patients with long-term and high-dose exposure to pioglitazone should be monitored regularly for signs of bladder cancer.

18.
Lipids Health Dis ; 17(1): 18, 2018 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29375034

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational studies have demonstrated diet/lifestyle play roles in development of type 2 diabetes (T2DM); however, it remains unclear whether these relationships are causal. METHODS: A two-sample MR approach was used to examine the causal effect of diet/lifestyle upon risk of T2DM and glycemic traits. RESULTS: The protein intake-increasing allele C of FTO was significant associated with higher risk of T2DM (Beta ± SE = 0.104 ± 0.014, P = 4.40 × 10- 11), higher level of HOMA-IR (Beta ± SE = 0.016 ± 0.004, P = 9.55 × 10- 5), HOMA-B (Beta ± SE = 0.008 ± 0.003, P = 0.020). Using MR analyses, increased protein intake was causally associated with an increased risk of T2DM (Beta ± SE = 0.806 ± 0.260, P = 0.002). In addition, smoking cessation was causally associated with increased levels of glycemic traits such as HOMA-IR (Beta ± SE = 0.165 ± 0.072, P = 0.021), fasting insulin (Beta ± SE = 0.132 ± 0.066, P = 0.047) and fasting glucose (Beta ± SE = 0.132 ± 0.064, P = 0.039). CONCLUSIONS: These results provide evidence supporting a causal role for higher protein intake and smoking cession in T2DM. Our study provides further rationale for individuals at risk for diabetes to keep healthy lifestyle.


Assuntos
Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Dieta Rica em Proteínas/efeitos adversos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
19.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf ; 27(3): 279-288, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29318704

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Current epidemiologic evidence on the association between antihypertensive drugs and keratinocyte carcinoma (KC) risk is inconsistent. We sought to quantify this association by meta-analysis of observational studies. METHODS: We systematically reviewed observational studies published through August 2016 and reported the KC risk (basal cell carcinoma [BCC] and squamous cell carcinoma [SCC]) associated with antihypertensive drugs, including diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), beta-adrenergic blocking agents (ß-blockers), and calcium channel blockers (CCBs). Random-effects meta-analysis was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: Ten eligible studies were included. Compared with nonuse, diuretic use was significantly associated with increased risk of both BCC (OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.01-1.20) and SCC (OR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.19-1.66). Use of ß-blockers or CCBs was associated with increased risk of BCC (but not SCC); the OR with ß-blockers was 1.09 (95% CI, 1.04-1.15) and with CCBs was 1.15 (95% CI, 1.09-1.21). Use of ACE inhibitors or ARBs was associated with decreased risk of both BCC (OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.39-0.71) and SCC (OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.42-0.80) in high-risk individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Current evidence indicates that use of diuretics might be associated with increased risk of KC, while ACE inhibitors or ARBs might be associated with decreased risk in high-risk individuals. ß-blockers or CCBs might be positively associated with BCC risk. Further postmarketing surveillance studies and investigations to clarify the possible underlying mechanisms are warranted.

20.
Int J Cancer ; 142(11): 2303-2312, 2018 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29313974

RESUMO

Cutaneous melanoma (CM) is considered as a steroid hormone-related malignancy. However, few studies have evaluated the roles of genetic variants encoding steroid hormone receptor genes and their related regulators (SHR-related genes) in CM-specific survival (CMSS). Here, we performed a pathway-based analysis to evaluate genetic variants of 191 SHR-related genes in 858 CMSS patients using a dataset from a genome-wide association study (GWAS) from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC), and then validated the results in an additional dataset of 409 patients from the Harvard GWAS. Using multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, we identified three-independent SNPs (RORA rs782917 G > A, RORA rs17204952 C > T and DNMT1 rs7253062 G > A) as predictors of CMSS, with a variant-allele attributed hazards ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval of 1.62 (1.25-2.09), 1.60 (1.20-2.13) and 1.52 (1.20-1.94), respectively. Combined analysis of risk genotypes of these three SNPs revealed a decreased CMSS in a dose-response manner as the number of risk genotypes increased (ptrend < 0.001); however, no improvement in the prediction model was observed (area under the curve [AUC] = 79.6-80.8%, p = 0.656), when these risk genotypes were added to the model containing clinical variables. Our findings suggest that genetic variants of RORA and DNMT1 may be promising biomarkers for CMSS, but these results needed to be validated in future larger studies.

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