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1.
NPJ Biofilms Microbiomes ; 8(1): 46, 2022 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35676509

RESUMO

Rumen microbiota facilitates nutrition through digestion of recalcitrant lignocellulosic substrates into energy-accessible nutrients and essential metabolites. Despite the high similarity in rumen microbiome structure, there might be distinct functional capabilities that enable different ruminant species to thrive on various lignocellulosic substrates as feed. Here, we applied genome-centric metagenomics to explore phylogenetic diversity, lignocellulose-degrading potential and fermentation metabolism of biofilm-forming microbiota colonizing 11 different plant substrates in the camel rumen. Diversity analysis revealed significant variations in the community of rumen microbiota colonizing different substrates in accordance with their varied physicochemical properties. Metagenome reconstruction recovered genome sequences of 590 bacterial isolates and one archaeal lineage belonging to 20 microbial phyla. A comparison to publicly available reference genomes and rumen metagenome-assembled genomes revealed that most isolates belonged to new species with no well-characterized representatives. We found that certain low abundant taxa, including members of Verrucomicrobiota, Planctomycetota and Fibrobacterota, possessed a disproportionately large number of carbohydrate active enzymes per Mb of genome, implying their high metabolic potential to contribute to the rumen function. In conclusion, we provided a detailed picture of the diversity and functional significance of rumen microbiota colonizing feeds of varying lignocellulose composition in the camel rumen. A detailed analysis of 591 metagenome-assembled genomes revealed a network of interconnected microbiota and highlighted the key roles of certain taxonomic clades in rumen function, including those with minimal genomes (e.g., Patescibacteria). The existence of a diverse array of gene clusters encoding for secondary metabolites unveiled the specific functions of these biomolecules in shaping community structure of rumen microbiota.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Rúmen , Animais , Camelus/microbiologia , Lignina , Microbiota/genética , Filogenia , Rúmen/microbiologia
3.
Mol Biol Evol ; 39(2)2022 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34893856

RESUMO

Domestic sheep and their wild relatives harbor substantial genetic variants that can form the backbone of molecular breeding, but their genome landscapes remain understudied. Here, we present a comprehensive genome resource for wild ovine species, landraces and improved breeds of domestic sheep, comprising high-coverage (∼16.10×) whole genomes of 810 samples from 7 wild species and 158 diverse domestic populations. We detected, in total, ∼121.2 million single nucleotide polymorphisms, ∼61 million of which are novel. Some display significant (P < 0.001) differences in frequency between wild and domestic species, or are private to continent-wide or individual sheep populations. Retained or introgressed wild gene variants in domestic populations have contributed to local adaptation, such as the variation in the HBB associated with plateau adaptation. We identified novel and previously reported targets of selection on morphological and agronomic traits such as stature, horn, tail configuration, and wool fineness. We explored the genetic basis of wool fineness and unveiled a novel mutation (chr25: T7,068,586C) in the 3'-UTR of IRF2BP2 as plausible causal variant for fleece fiber diameter. We reconstructed prehistorical migrations from the Near Eastern domestication center to South-and-Southeast Asia and found two main waves of migrations across the Eurasian Steppe and the Iranian Plateau in the Early and Late Bronze Ages. Our findings refine our understanding of genome variation as shaped by continental migrations, introgression, adaptation, and selection of sheep.


Assuntos
Genoma , Carneiro Doméstico , Animais , Ásia , Europa (Continente) , Variação Genética , Irã (Geográfico) , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Ovinos/genética , Carneiro Doméstico/genética
4.
Front Genet ; 12: 659507, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34349777

RESUMO

With climate change bound to affect food and feed production, emphasis will shift to resilient and adapted indigenous livestock to sustain animal production. However, indigenous livestock comprise several varieties, strains and ecotypes whose genomes are poorly characterized. Here, we investigated genomic variation in an African thin-tailed Desert Sheep sampled in Sudan, using 600K genotype data generated from 92 individuals representing five ecotypes. We included data from 18 fat-tailed and 45 thin-tailed sheep from China, to investigate shared ancestry and perform comparative genomic analysis. We observed a clear genomic differentiation between the African thin-tailed Desert Sheep and the Chinese thin-tailed and fat-tailed sheep, suggesting a broad genetic structure between the fat-tailed and thin-tailed sheep in general, and that at least two autosomal gene pools comprise the genome profile of the thin-tailed sheep. Further analysis detected two distinct genetic clusters in both the African thin-tailed Desert Sheep and the Chinese thin-tailed sheep, suggesting a fine-scale and complex genome architecture in thin-tailed sheep. Selection signature analysis suggested differences in adaptation, production, reproduction and morphology likely underly the fine-scale genetic structure in the African thin-tailed Desert Sheep. This may need to be considered in designing breeding programs and genome-wide association studies.

5.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 531, 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34253178

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CNV comprises a large proportion in cattle genome and is associated with various traits. However, there were few population-scale comparison studies on cattle CNV. RESULTS: Here, autosome-wide CNVs were called by read depth of NGS alignment result and copy number variation regions (CNVRs) defined from 102 Eurasian taurine (EAT) of 14 breeds, 28 Asian indicine (ASI) of 6 breeds, 22 African taurine (AFT) of 2 breeds, and 184 African humped cattle (AFH) of 17 breeds. The copy number of every CNVRs were compared between populations and CNVRs with population differentiated copy numbers were sorted out using the pairwise statistics VST and Kruskal-Wallis test. Three hundred sixty-two of CNVRs were significantly differentiated in both statistics and 313 genes were located on the population differentiated CNVRs. CONCLUSION: For some of these genes, the averages of copy numbers were also different between populations and these may be candidate genes under selection. These include olfactory receptors, pathogen-resistance, parasite-resistance, heat tolerance and productivity related genes. Furthermore, breed- and individual-level comparison was performed using the presence or copy number of the autosomal CNVRs. Our findings were based on identification of CNVs from short Illumina reads of 336 individuals and 39 breeds, which to our knowledge is the largest dataset for this type of analysis and revealed important CNVs that may play a role in cattle adaption to various environments.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Genoma , Animais , Bovinos/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
6.
BMC Biol ; 19(1): 118, 2021 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130700

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Species domestication is generally characterized by the exploitation of high-impact mutations through processes that involve complex shifting demographics of domesticated species. These include not only inbreeding and artificial selection that may lead to the emergence of evolutionary bottlenecks, but also post-divergence gene flow and introgression. Although domestication potentially affects the occurrence of both desired and undesired mutations, the way wild relatives of domesticated species evolve and how expensive the genetic cost underlying domestication is remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated the demographic history and genetic load of chicken domestication. RESULTS: We analyzed a dataset comprising over 800 whole genomes from both indigenous chickens and wild jungle fowls. We show that despite having a higher genetic diversity than their wild counterparts (average π, 0.00326 vs. 0.00316), the red jungle fowls, the present-day domestic chickens experienced a dramatic population size decline during their early domestication. Our analyses suggest that the concomitant bottleneck induced 2.95% more deleterious mutations across chicken genomes compared with red jungle fowls, supporting the "cost of domestication" hypothesis. Particularly, we find that 62.4% of deleterious SNPs in domestic chickens are maintained in heterozygous states and masked as recessive alleles, challenging the power of modern breeding programs to effectively eliminate these genetic loads. Finally, we suggest that positive selection decreases the incidence but increases the frequency of deleterious SNPs in domestic chicken genomes. CONCLUSION: This study reveals a new landscape of demographic history and genomic changes associated with chicken domestication and provides insight into the evolutionary genomic profiles of domesticated animals managed under modern human selection.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Domesticação , Animais , Animais Domésticos/genética , Galinhas/genética , Genoma , Genômica , Humanos
7.
Zool Res ; 42(4): 450-460, 2021 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34156172

RESUMO

Over the last several hundred years, donkeys have adapted to high-altitude conditions on the Tibetan Plateau. Interestingly, the kiang, a closely related equid species, also inhabits this region. Previous reports have demonstrated the importance of specific genes and adaptive introgression in divergent lineages for adaptation to hypoxic conditions on the Tibetan Plateau. Here, we assessed whether donkeys and kiangs adapted to the Tibetan Plateau via the same or different biological pathways and whether adaptive introgression has occurred. We assembled a de novo genome from a kiang individual and analyzed the genomes of five kiangs and 93 donkeys (including 24 from the Tibetan Plateau). Our analyses suggested the existence of a strong hard selective sweep at the EPAS1 locus in kiangs. In Tibetan donkeys, however, another gene, i.e., EGLN1, was likely involved in their adaptation to high altitude. In addition, admixture analysis found no evidence for interspecific gene flow between kiangs and Tibetan donkeys. Our findings indicate that despite the short evolutionary time scale since the arrival of donkeys on the Tibetan Plateau, as well as the existence of a closely related species already adapted to hypoxia, Tibetan donkeys did not acquire adaptation via admixture but instead evolved adaptations via a different biological pathway.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Altitude , Equidae/genética , Equidae/fisiologia , Genoma , Animais , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Evolução Biológica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Especificidade da Espécie
8.
Anim Biotechnol ; : 1-4, 2021 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34009087

RESUMO

Wild yak (Bos mutus) is a vulnerable bovine species on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. So far, most studies on the molecular genetic diversity of wild yak have focused on autosomal and mtDNA variations based on the small number of samples. In this study, we analyzed 84 D-loop and 24 whole mitogenome sequences of wild yak to further comprehensively explore its maternal genetic diversity and lineage composition. Meanwhile, using six yak Y-specific polymorphic markers (i.e., SRY4, USP9Y, UTY19, AMELY3, OFD1Y10 and INRA189), we assessed the paternal genetic diversity and lineage composition based on eight wild yak. Our results showed that wild yak exhibited abundant maternal genetic diversity with haplotype diversities of 0.9621 ± 0.0078 and 0.9928 ± 0.0144 in the D-loop and whole mitogenome sequences, respectively. Maternal phylogenetic analysis of wild yak uncovered three defined lineages (mt-I, mt-II and mt-III). Similarly, profuse paternal genetic diversity was observed in wild yak with Y-haplotype diversity at 0.8214 ± 0.1007. Two Y-haplogroups (Y1 and Y2) and four Y-haplotypes (yH1-yH4) were identified in paternal phylogenetic analysis, indicating wild yak to be of two paternal lineages. The present study of genetic diversity and lineage composition of wild yak would provide useful information for the genetic resource conservation and utilization of this vulnerable wild species.

9.
Heredity (Edinb) ; 126(6): 1000-1008, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33782560

RESUMO

Turano-Mongolian cattle are a group of taurine cattle from Northern and Eastern Asia with distinct morphological traits, which are known for their ability to tolerate harsh environments, such as the Asian steppe and the Tibetan plateau. Through the analysis of 170 mitogenomes from ten modern breeds, two sub-lineages within T3 (T3119 and T3055) were identified as specific of Turano-Mongolian cattle. These two T3 sub-lineages, together with the previously identified T4, were also present in six Neolithic samples, dated to ~3900 years BP, which might represent the earliest domestic taurine stocks from Southwest Asia. The rare haplogroup Q, found in three Tibetan cattle, testifies for the legacy of ancient migrations from Southwest Asia and suggests that the isolated Tibetan Plateau preserved unique prehistoric genetic resources. These findings confirm the geographic substructure of Turano-Mongolian cattle breeds, which have been shaped by ancient migrations and geographic barriers.


Assuntos
Genoma Mitocondrial , Animais , Bovinos/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Extremo Oriente , Variação Genética , Haplótipos , Taurina
10.
Anim Biotechnol ; : 1-5, 2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33612083

RESUMO

Wild yak (Bos mutus) is a vulnerable bovine species on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). So far, most studies on molecular genetic diversity of wild yak have focused on autosomal and mtDNA variations based on small number of samples. In this study, we analyzed 84 D-loop and 24 whole mitogenome sequences of wild yak to further comprehensively explore its maternal genetic diversity and lineage composition. Meanwhile, using six yak Y-specific polymorphic markers (i.e., SRY4, USP9Y, UTY19, AMELY3, OFD1Y10 and INRA189), we assessed the paternal genetic diversity and lineage composition based on eight wild yak. Our results showed that wild yak exhibited abundant maternal genetic diversity with haplotype diversities of 0.9621 ± 0.0078 and 0.9928 ± 0.0144 in the D-loop and whole mitogenome sequences, respectively. Maternal phylogenetic analysis of wild yak uncovered three defined lineages (mt-I, mt-II and mt-III). Similarly, profuse paternal genetic diversity was observed in wild yak with Y-haplotype diversity (Hd) at 0.8214 ± 0.1007. Two Y-haplogroups (Y1 and Y2) with four Y-haplotypes (yH1-yH4) were identified in paternal phylogenetic analysis, indicating wild yak to be of two paternal lineages. This study of genetic diversity and lineage composition of wild yak would provide useful information for the genetic resource conservation and utilization of this vulnerable wild species.

11.
PeerJ ; 9: e10463, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33510967

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rumen microbiota contributes strongly to the degradation of ingested plant materials. There is limited knowledge about the diversity of taxa involved in the breakdown of lignocellulosic biomasses with varying chemical compositions in the rumen. METHOD: We aimed to assess how and to what extent the physicochemical properties of forages influence the colonization and digestion by rumen microbiota. This was achieved by placing nylon bags filled with candidate materials in the rumen of fistulated sheep for a period of up to 96 h, followed by measuring forage's chemical characteristics and community structure of biofilm-embedded microbiota. RESULTS: Rumen degradation for all forages appeared to have occurred mainly during the first 24 h of their incubation, which significantly slowed down after 48 h of rumen incubation, depending on their chemical properties. Random Forest analysis predicted the predominant role of Treponema and Butyrivibrio in shaping microbial diversity attached to the forages during the course of rumen incubation. Exploring community structure and composition of fiber-attached microbiota revealed significant differential colonization rates of forages depending on their contents for NDF and cellulose. The correlation analysis highlighted the significant contribution of Lachnospiraceae and Veillonellaceae to fiber degradation in the sheep rumen. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggested that forage cellulose components are critical in shaping the pattern of microbial colonization and thus their final digestibility in the rumen.

12.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 21(1): 201-211, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745324

RESUMO

Yak is an important livestock animal for the people indigenous to the harsh, oxygen-limited Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and Hindu Kush ranges of the Himalayas. The yak genome was sequenced in 2012, but its assembly was fragmented because of the inherent limitations of the Illumina sequencing technology used to analyse it. An accurate and complete reference genome is essential for the study of genetic variations in this species. Long-read sequences are more complete than their short-read counterparts and have been successfully applied towards high-quality genome assembly for various species. In this study, we present a high-quality chromosome-scale yak genome assembly (BosGru_PB_v1.0) constructed with long-read sequencing and chromatin interaction technologies. Compared to an existing yak genome assembly (BosGru_v2.0), BosGru_PB_v1.0 shows substantially improved chromosome sequence continuity, reduced repetitive structure ambiguity, and gene model completeness. To characterize genetic variation in yak, we generated de novo genome assemblies based on Illumina short reads for seven recognized domestic yak breeds in Tibet and Sichuan and one wild yak from Hoh Xil. We compared these eight assemblies to the BosGru_PB_v1.0 genome, obtained a comprehensive map of yak genetic diversity at the whole-genome level, and identified several protein-coding genes absent from the BosGru_PB_v1.0 assembly. Despite the genetic bottleneck experienced by wild yak, their diversity was nonetheless higher than that of domestic yak. Here, we identified breed-specific sequences and genes by whole-genome alignment, which may facilitate yak breed identification.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Variação Genética , Genoma , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Adaptação Biológica , Animais , Cruzamento , China , Cromossomos , Tibet
13.
Mol Biol Evol ; 38(3): 838-855, 2021 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941615

RESUMO

How animals, particularly livestock, adapt to various climates and environments over short evolutionary time is of fundamental biological interest. Further, understanding the genetic mechanisms of adaptation in indigenous livestock populations is important for designing appropriate breeding programs to cope with the impacts of changing climate. Here, we conducted a comprehensive genomic analysis of diversity, interspecies introgression, and climate-mediated selective signatures in a global sample of sheep and their wild relatives. By examining 600K and 50K genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism data from 3,447 samples representing 111 domestic sheep populations and 403 samples from all their seven wild relatives (argali, Asiatic mouflon, European mouflon, urial, snow sheep, bighorn, and thinhorn sheep), coupled with 88 whole-genome sequences, we detected clear signals of common introgression from wild relatives into sympatric domestic populations, thereby increasing their genomic diversities. The introgressions provided beneficial genetic variants in native populations, which were significantly associated with local climatic adaptation. We observed common introgression signals of alleles in olfactory-related genes (e.g., ADCY3 and TRPV1) and the PADI gene family including in particular PADI2, which is associated with antibacterial innate immunity. Further analyses of whole-genome sequences showed that the introgressed alleles in a specific region of PADI2 (chr2: 248,302,667-248,306,614) correlate with resistance to pneumonia. We conclude that wild introgression enhanced climatic adaptation and resistance to pneumonia in sheep. This has enabled them to adapt to varying climatic and environmental conditions after domestication.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Introgressão Genética , Ovinos/genética , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Mudança Climática , Variação Genética , Filogeografia , Pneumonia/imunologia , Ovinos/imunologia
14.
ISME J ; 15(4): 1108-1120, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33262428

RESUMO

Rumen microbiota play a key role in the digestion and utilization of plant materials by the ruminant species, which have important implications for greenhouse gas emission. Yet, little is known about the key taxa and potential gene functions involved in the digestion process. Here, we performed a genome-centric analysis of rumen microbiota attached to six different lignocellulosic biomasses in rumen-fistulated cattle. Our metagenome sequencing provided novel genomic insights into functional potential of 523 uncultured bacteria and 15 mostly uncultured archaea in the rumen. The assembled genomes belonged mainly to Bacteroidota, Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobiota, and Fibrobacterota and were enriched for genes related to the degradation of lignocellulosic polymers and the fermentation of degraded products into short chain volatile fatty acids. We also found a shift from copiotrophic to oligotrophic taxa during the course of rumen fermentation, potentially important for the digestion of recalcitrant lignocellulosic substrates in the physiochemically complex and varying environment of the rumen. Differential colonization of forages (the incubated lignocellulosic materials) by rumen microbiota suggests that taxonomic and metabolic diversification is an evolutionary adaptation to diverse lignocellulosic substrates constituting a major component of the cattle's diet. Our data also provide novel insights into the key role of unique microbial diversity and associated gene functions in the degradation of recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials in the rumen.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Rúmen , Animais , Bovinos , Fermentação , Lignina/metabolismo , Metagenoma , Rúmen/metabolismo
15.
BMC Evol Biol ; 20(1): 137, 2020 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109104

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: On the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, known as the roof ridge of the world, the yak is a precious cattle species that has been indispensable to the human beings living in this high-altitude area. However, the origin of domestication, dispersal route, and the divergence of domestic yaks from different areas are poorly understood. RESULTS: Here, we resequenced the genome of 91 domestic yak individuals from 31 populations and 1 wild yaks throughout China. Using a population genomics approach, we observed considerable genetic variation. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the earliest domestications of yak occurred in the south-eastern QTP, followed by dispersal to the west QTP and northeast to SiChuang, Gansu, and Qinghai by two routes. Interestingly, we also found potential associations between the distribution of some breeds and historical trade routes such as the Silk Road and Tang-Tibet Ancient Road. Selective analysis identified 11 genes showing differentiation between domesticated and wild yaks and the potentially positively selected genes in each group were identified and compared among domesticated groups. We also detected an unbalanced pattern of introgression among domestic yak, wild yak, and Tibetan cattle. CONCLUSIONS: Our research revealed population genetic evidence for three groups of domestic yaks. In addition to providing genomic evidence for the domestication history of yaks, we identified potential selected genes and introgression, which provide a theoretical basis and resources for the selective breeding of superior characters and high-quality yak.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Evolução Molecular , Variação Genética , Filogenia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Animais , China , Domesticação , Genoma , Genômica , Tibet
16.
Curr Biol ; 30(20): 4085-4095.e6, 2020 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822607

RESUMO

The domestication and subsequent global dispersal of livestock are crucial events in human history, but the migratory episodes during the history of livestock remain poorly documented [1-3]. Here, we first developed a set of 493 novel ovine SNPs of the male-specific region of Y chromosome (MSY) by genome mapping. We then conducted a comprehensive genomic analysis of Y chromosome, mitochondrial DNA, and whole-genome sequence variations in a large number of 595 rams representing 118 domestic populations across the world. We detected four different paternal lineages of domestic sheep and resolved, at the global level, their paternal origins and differentiation. In Northern European breeds, several of which have retained primitive traits (e.g., a small body size and short or thin tails), and fat-tailed sheep, we found an overrepresentation of MSY lineages y-HC and y-HB, respectively. Using an approximate Bayesian computation approach, we reconstruct the demographic expansions associated with the segregation of primitive and fat-tailed phenotypes. These results together with archaeological evidence and historical data suggested the first expansion of early domestic hair sheep and the later expansion of fat-tailed sheep occurred ∼11,800-9,000 years BP and ∼5,300-1,700 years BP, respectively. These findings provide important insights into the history of migration and pastoralism of sheep across the Old World, which was associated with different breeding goals during the Neolithic agricultural revolution.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Genoma/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Carneiro Doméstico/genética , Cromossomo Y/genética , Animais , Cruzamento , Linhagem da Célula/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Variação Genética/genética , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/genética , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Ovinos , Carneiro Doméstico/classificação , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
17.
Mol Immunol ; 124: 83-90, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544655

RESUMO

Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are critical for disease resistance or susceptibility responsible for host-pathogen interactions determined mainly by extensive polymorphisms in the MHC genes. Here, we examined the diversity and phylogenetic pattern of MHC haplotypes reconstructed using three MHC-linked microsatellite markers in 55 populations of five Bovidae species and compared them with those based on neutral autosomal microsatellite markers (NAMs). Three-hundred-and-forty MHC haplotypes were identified in 1453 Bovidae individuals, suggesting significantly higher polymorphism and heterozygosity compared with those based on NAMs. The ambitious boundaries in population differentiation (phylogenetic network, pairwise FST and STRUCTURE analyses) within and between species assessed using the MHC haplotypes were different from those revealed by NAMs associated closely with speciation, geographical distribution, domestication and management histories. In addition, the mean FST was significantly correlated negatively with the number of observed alleles (NA), observed (HO) and expected (HE) heterozygosity and polymorphism information content (PIC) (P < 0.05) in the MHC haplotype dataset while there was no correction of the mean FST estimates (P> 0.05) between the MHC haplotype and NAMs datasets. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed a lower percentage of total variance (PTV) between species/groups based on the MHC-linked microsatellites than NAMs. Therefore, it was inferred that individuals within populations accumulated as many MHC variants as possible to increase their heterozygosity and thus the survival rate of their affiliated populations and species, which eventually reduced population differentiation and thereby complicated their classification and phylogenetic relationship inference. In summary, host-pathogen coevolution and heterozygote advantage, rather than demographic history, act as key driving forces shaping the MHC diversity within the populations and determining the interspecific MHC diversity.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos/genética , Evolução Biológica , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Complexo Principal de Histocompatibilidade/genética , Animais , Animais Domésticos/imunologia , Bovinos , Variação Genética , Haplótipos , Heterozigoto , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Complexo Principal de Histocompatibilidade/imunologia , Repetições de Microssatélites , Filogenia
18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2815, 2020 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499537

RESUMO

Understanding the genetic changes underlying phenotypic variation in sheep (Ovis aries) may facilitate our efforts towards further improvement. Here, we report the deep resequencing of 248 sheep including the wild ancestor (O. orientalis), landraces, and improved breeds. We explored the sheep variome and selection signatures. We detected genomic regions harboring genes associated with distinct morphological and agronomic traits, which may be past and potential future targets of domestication, breeding, and selection. Furthermore, we found non-synonymous mutations in a set of plausible candidate genes and significant differences in their allele frequency distributions across breeds. We identified PDGFD as a likely causal gene for fat deposition in the tails of sheep through transcriptome, RT-PCR, qPCR, and Western blot analyses. Our results provide insights into the demographic history of sheep and a valuable genomic resource for future genetic studies and improved genome-assisted breeding of sheep and other domestic animals.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais Selvagens/genética , Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/metabolismo , Carneiro Doméstico/genética , Alelos , Animais , Cruzamento , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Variação Genética , Genética , Genômica , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Mutação , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Seleção Genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Ovinos , Especificidade da Espécie , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
19.
FEMS Microbiol Ecol ; 96(6)2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32304321

RESUMO

The attachment of rumen microbes to feed particles is critical to feed fermentation, degradation and digestion. However, the extent to which the physicochemical properties of feeds influence the colonization by rumen microbes is still unclear. We hypothesized that rumen microbial communities may have differential preferences for attachments to feeds with varying lignocellulose properties. To this end, the structure and composition of microbial communities attached to six common forages with different lignocellulosic compositions were analyzed following in situ rumen incubation in male Taleshi cattle. The results showed that differences in lignocellulosic compositions significantly affected the inter-sample diversity of forage-attached microbial communities in the first 24 h of rumen incubation, during which the highest dry matter degradation was achieved. However, extension of the incubation to 96 h resulted in the development of more uniform microbial communities across the forages. Fibrobacteres were significantly overrepresented in the bacterial communities attached to the forages with the highest neutral detergent fiber contents. Ruminococcus tended to attach to the forages with low acid detergent lignin contents. The extent of dry matter fermentation was significantly correlated with the populations of Fibrobacteraceae, unclassified Bacteroidales, Ruminococcaceae and Spirochaetacea. Our findings suggested that lignocellulosic compositions, and more specifically the cellulose components, significantly affected the microbial attachment to and thus the final digestion of the forages.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Rúmen , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão , Fermentação , Lignina/metabolismo , Masculino , Rúmen/metabolismo
20.
Genomics ; 112(2): 1988-1999, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759120

RESUMO

We analyzed the whole genomes of cecum microbiomes of Ethiopian indigenous chickens from two distinct geographical zones: Afar (AF) district (Dulecha, 730 m above sea level) and Amhara (AM) district (Menz Gera Midir, 3300 m). Through metagenomic analysis we found that microbial populations were mainly dominated by Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. We identified 2210 common genes in the two groups. LEfSe showed that the distribution of Coprobacter, Geobacter, Cronobacter, Alloprevotella, and Dysgonomonas were more abundant in AF than AM. Analyses using KEGG, eggNOG, and CAZy databases indicated that the pathways of metabolism, genetic information processing, environmental information processing, and cellular process were significantly enriched. Functional abundance was found to be associated with the nutrient absorption and microbial localization of indigenous chickens. We also investigated antibiotic resistant genes and found antibiotics like LSM, cephalosporin, and tetracycline were significantly more abundant in AF than AM.


Assuntos
Galinhas/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Metagenoma , Animais , Bacteroidetes/genética , Bacteroidetes/patogenicidade , Ceco/microbiologia , Etiópia , Firmicutes/genética , Firmicutes/patogenicidade , Metagenômica/métodos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos
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