Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.238
Filtrar
1.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 582(Pt B): 1021-1032, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927169

RESUMO

A new broad-spectrum responsive organic-inorganic hybrid photocatalyst (PI@BWO) was successfully prepared by in-situ growing Bi2WO6 nanosheets onto the surface of π-π stacking perylene imide. The obtained PI@BWO hybrids with different composition exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity for Bisphenol A (BPA) degradation. Among them, 30% PI@BWO exhibited optimal photocatalytic degradation efficiency, which is 2.6 and 3.9 times higher than that of pristine PI and BWO, respectively. Furthermore, PI@BWO also performed good stability and recyclability. Remarkably, the π-conjugation of PI facilitated the separation of charge carriers and improved the utilization of sunlight for PI@BWO. The introduction of BWO nanosheets also enhanced the adsorption capacity for contaminants and provided much more plentiful active sites, promoting the next photocatalytic reaction. Most importantly, PI@BWO could produce abundant reactive species (such as 1O2 and ·OH) via the charge carrier transfer and energy transfer dual transfer approach, therefore leading to stronger oxidation ability. The photocatalytic degradation mechanism and pathway of the PI@BWO hybrids were finally proposed. Overall, this present work might provide a new insight into the designing and preparation of efficient organic-inorganic hybrid photocatalysts for environmental-friendly removal of hazardous organic pollutants.

2.
ACS Nano ; 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33155466

RESUMO

Deformable organic light-emitting diode (OLED) based optoelectronic devices hold promise for various wearable applications including biomedical systems and displays, but current OLED technologies require high voltage and lack the power needed for wearable photodynamic therapy (PDT) applications and wearable displays. This paper presents a parallel-stacked OLED (PAOLED) with high power, more than 100 mW/cm2, at low voltage (<8 V). The current dispersion ratio can be tuned by optimizing the structure of the individual OLEDs stacked to create the PAOLED, allowing control of the PAOLED's wavelength shapes, current efficiency, and power. In this study, a fabricated PAOLED operated reliably for 100 h at a high power of 35 mW/cm2. Confirming its potential application to PDT, the measured singlet oxygen generation ratio of the PAOLED was found to be 3.8 times higher than the reference OLED. The high-power PAOLED achieved a 24% reduction in melanoma cancer cell viability after a short (0.5 h) irradiation. In addition, a white light PAOLED with color tuning was realized through OLED color combination, and a high brightness of over 30 000 cd/m2 was realized, below 8.5 V. In conclusion, the PAOLED was demonstrated to be suitable for a variety of low-voltage, high-power wearable optoelectronic applications.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33150976

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The goal of this study was to develop a preoperative nomogram for predicting the feasibility of trans-anal natural orifice specimen extraction (NOSE) for rectal cancer. METHOD: The analysis included 201 patients who underwent trans-anal NOSE and 457 patients who failed to undergo trans-anal NOSE in Shanghai East Hospital. The data collected included age, gender, BMI, presence of tumor obstruction, distance from anal verge; maximum tumor diameter and anteroposterior thickness of mesorectum (AP) measured by MRI; interspinous diameter, intertuberous diameter (IT), anteroposterior diameter of the inlet (API), anteroposterior diameter of the midplane, anteroposterior diameter of the outlet (APO), sacral length and pelvic depth (PD) measured by CT. RESULTS: The multivariate analysis suggested that a lower BMI (P<0.001), no tumor obstruction (P=0.005), a shorter distance from anal verge (P<0.001), a smaller tumor size (P<0.001), a thinner AP (P<0.001), a wider and shallower bony pelvis (API/PD, P<0.001), and a wider and shorter pelvic outlet (IT/APO, P<0.001) were significantly associated with an increased probability of trans-anal NOSE. Successful NOSE patients had a decreased time to liquid intake (P<0.001), a shorter postoperative hospital stay (P<0.001) and fewer wound infections (P=0.045). No significant difference in the rate of mortality or recurrence was observed. The nomogram model presented an area under the ROC curve of 0.81 (95% CI, 0.78 to 0.85) and good calibration. CONCLUSION: We developed a nomogram model that has some predicative value for the feasibility of laparoscopic rectal resection with trans-anal NOSE, utilizing clinical and radiologic parameters, available in most institutions.

4.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20068, 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33208832

RESUMO

Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is common in liver cirrhosis. Although esophageal and gastric varices (EGV) is the main bleeding source, there were still a proportion of patients with peptic ulcer bleeding. Thus, this study aimed to analyze the characteristic of variceal bleeding and peptic ulcer bleeding in liver cirrhosis. Cirrhotic patients with confirmed UGIB by urgent endoscopy from July 2012 to June 2018 were enrolled, and classified into peptic ulcer bleeding group (n = 248) and variceal bleeding group (n = 402). Clinical and endoscopic characteristics, therapeutic efficacy and prognosis were evaluated, and independent risk factors for 42-day morality were determined. The mean age and gender ratio of peptic ulcer bleeding group were higher than those in variceal bleeding group (55.58 ± 11.37 vs. 52.87 ± 11.57, P < 0.01; 4.51:1 vs. 2.87:1, P = 0.023). Variceal bleeding group most commonly presented as red blood emesis and coffee grounds (67.16%), while peptic ulcer group primarily manifested as melena (62.10%). Hepatocellular carcinoma was more prevalent in peptic ulcer group (141 vs. 119, P < 0.01). Albumin level in variceal bleeding group was lower higher (P < 0.01), but serum bilirubin, creatinine and prothrombin time were significantly higher (all P < 0.01). Success rate of endoscopic hemostasis for variceal bleeding and peptic ulcer bleeding was 89.05% and 94.35% (P = 0.021). Univariate and multivariate analysis identified prothrombin time (P = 0.041, OR [95% CI] 0.884 [0.786-0.995]), MELD score (P = 0.000, OR [95% CI] 1.153 [1.073-1.240]), emergency intervention (P = 0.002, OR [95% CI] 8.656 [2.219-33.764]), hepatic encephalopathy before bleeding (P = 0.003, OR [95% CI] 8.119 [2.084-31.637]) and hepatic renal syndrome before bleeding (P = 0.029, OR [95% CI] 3.877 [1.152-13.045]) as the independent predictors for 42-day mortality. Peptic ulcer bleeding should be distinguished from variceal bleeding by clinical and endoscopic characteristics.

5.
Ann Palliat Med ; 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with bone tumors of the proximal femur, endoprosthetic reconstruction can provide stable and durable biological reconstruction. However, it is difficult and time-consuming to accurately place the femoral component for an appropriate anteversion angle after large tumor resection. We propose a modified surgical technique for simplifying the implantation process and promoting the stability of the artificial joint. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 28 patients undergoing endoprosthetic reconstruction at our center between 2009 and 2016. We used a traditional method (group A, n=11) and a modified surgical technique (group B, n=17) to determine the femoral anteversion angle during implantation of the femoral component. The modified surgical technique allowed more convenient and accurate implantation of the femoral components by externally rotating the shin at an angle of 15°. Surgical time and blood loss were designated as the primary outcomes, hospital stays, postoperative complications and functional recovery [Harris Hip Score (HHS); Musculoskeletal Tumor Society Score (MSTS)] were recorded as the secondary outcomes. The outcomes of the two groups were compared to verify the safety and efficacy of the modified surgical technique. RESULTS: The mean operative time was shorter in group B (109±10 minutes) than group A (131±6 minutes) (P<0.05). Although the average estimated intraoperative blood loss was less in group B (814±35 mL) than that in group A (839±30 mL), there was no significant difference between the two groups (P=0.06). There was no significant difference between the two groups in hospital stays, postoperative complications, HHS or MSTS. CONCLUSIONS: This modified surgical technique can simplify the process of femoral component implantation and significantly shorten operative time without increasing postoperative complications.

6.
Eur J Med Chem ; : 112991, 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183866

RESUMO

Fungal infections have become a serious medical problem due to the high infection rate and the frequent emergence of drug resistance. Squalene epoxidase (SE) and 14α-demethylase (CYP51) are considered as the important antifungal targets, they can show the synergistic effect on antifungal therapy. In the study, a series of active fragments were screened through the method of De Novo Link, and these active fragments with the higher Ludi_Scores were selected, which can show the obvious binding ability with the dual targets (SE, CYP51). Subsequently, three series of target compounds with naphthyl amide scaffolds were constructed by connecting these core fragments, and their structures were synthesized. Most of compounds showed the antifungal activity in the treatment of pathogenic fungi. It was worth noting that compounds 10b-5 and 17a-2 with the excellent broad-spectrum antifungal properties also exhibited the obvious antifungal effects against drug-resistant fungi. Preliminary mechanism study has proved these target compounds can block the biosynthesis of ergosterol by inhibiting the activity of dual targets (SE, CYP51). Furthermore, target compounds 10-5 and 17a-2 with low toxicity side effects also demonstrated the excellent pharmacological effects in vivo. The molecular docking and ADMET prediction were performed, which can guide the optimization of subsequent lead compounds.

7.
Eur J Pediatr ; 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33084980

RESUMO

Neonatal acute respiratory distress syndrome (NARDS) reflects pulmonary surfactant dysfunction, and the usage of bovine surfactant (Calsurf) supplement may therefore be beneficial. To determine whether bovine surfactant given in NARDS can improve oxygenation and survival rate, we conducted a multicenter, randomized trial between January 2018 and June 2019, and we compared Calsurf treatment to controls in neonates with pneumonia accompanied by NARDS. Neonates who met the Montreux criteria definition of NARDS were included, and those with congenital heart and lung malformations were excluded. Primary outcomes were oxygenation index (OI) after Calsurf administration, and secondary outcomes were mortality, and duration of ventilator and oxygen between the two groups, and also other morbidities. Cumulatively, 328 neonates were recruited and analyzed, 162 in the control group, and 166 in the Calsurf group. The results shows that OI in the Calsurf group were significantly lower than that in the control group at 4 h (7.2 ± 2.7 and 11.4 ± 9.1, P = 0.001); similarly, OI in the Calsurf group were significantly lower than in the control group at 12 h ( 7.5 ± 3.1 and 11.2 ± 9.2, P = 0.001). Mortality and duration of ventilator support or oxygen use between the two groups were not significantly different.Conclusion: Calsurf acutely improved OI immediately after administration in pneumonia-induced NARDS; although, we observed no significant decrease in mortality, duration of ventilator or oxygen, or major morbidity. What is known: • The definition proposed as the Monteux criteria for neonatal acute respiratory distress syndrome (NARDS). • Surfactant acutely improved oxygenation and significantly decreased mortality in children and adolescents with acute lung injury. What is new: • This is the first large randomized controlled trail to study on surfactant treatment of neonates with acute respiratory distress syndromes. • Surfactant acutely improved oxygenation immediately after administration in pneumonia-induced NARDS at a gestational age beyond 34 weeks.

8.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2020: 5915481, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33029281

RESUMO

Intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD) is a common cause of lower back pain. Programmed cell death (PCD) including apoptosis and autophagy is known to play key mechanistic roles in the development of IVDD. We hypothesized that the nucleus pulposus cells that make up the center of the IVD can be affected by aging and environmental oxygen concentration, thus affecting the development of IVDD. Here, we evaluated the phenotype changes and PCD signaling in nucleus pulposus cells in two different oxygen percentages (5% (hypoxia) and 20% (normoxia)) up to serial passage 20. NP cells were isolated from the lumbar discs of rats, and the chondrogenic, autophagic, and apoptotic gene expressions were analyzed during cell culture up to serial passage 20. Hypoxia significantly increased the number of autophagosomes, as determined by monodansylcadaverine staining and transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, hypoxia triggered the activation of autophagic flux (beclin-1, LC3-II/LC3-I ratio, and SIRT1) with a concomitant decrease in the expression of apoptotic proteins (Bax and caspase-3). Despite injury and age differences, no significant differences were observed between the ex vivo lumbar disc cultures of groups incubated in the hypoxic chamber. Our study provides a better understanding of autophagy- and apoptosis-related senescence in NP cells. These results also provide insight into the effects of aging on NP cells and their PCD levels during aging.

9.
Nanotechnology ; 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33105128

RESUMO

Though the mechanism of self-reactive etching between Ga and Ga2O3, Ga2O3 nanopore films are fabricated. The self-reactive etching effects based on as-grown and annealed Ga2O3 films by metal organic chemical vapor deposition were compared. It is found that the nanopore film based on as-grown Ga2O3 film has more uniform size, higher density and smaller diameter. Ultraviolet-visible light reflection spectra and transmission spectra show that the nanopore film could effectively reduce the reflectivity of light and enhance the light absorption. Based on the as-grown Ga2O3 film and its nanopore film, metal-semiconductor-metal structure solar blind Ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors (PD) are fabricated. Under 5 V bias, the light-dark current ratio of the nanopore film PD is about 2.5×102 times that of the film PD, the peak responsivity of the nanopore film PD is about 49 times that of the film PD. And the rejection ratio is 4.6×103, about 1.15×102 times that of the film PD. The nanopore structure effectively increase the surface-volume ratio of film. The photoelectric detection performance and response performance of the nanopore film PD could be significantly enhanced.

10.
J Lipid Res ; 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109681

RESUMO

HMG-CoA Reductase (Hmgcr) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the mevalonate pathway and is inhibited by statins. In addition to cholesterol, Hmgcr activity is also required for synthesizing non-sterol isoprenoids, such as dolichol, ubiquinone, farnesylated and geranylgeranylated proteins. Here, we investigated the effects of Hmgcr inhibition on non-sterol isoprenoids in the liver. We have generated new genetic models to acutely delete genes in the mevalonate pathway in the liver using AAV-mediated delivery of Cre-recombinase (AAV-Cre) or CRISPR/Cas9 (AAV-CRISPR). The genetic deletion of Hmgcr by AAV-Cre resulted in extensive hepatocyte apoptosis and compensatory liver regeneration. At the biochemical level, we observed decreased levels of sterols and depletion of the non-sterol isoprenoids, dolichol and ubiquinone. At the cellular level, Hmgcr null hepatocytes showed endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and impaired N-glycosylation. We further hypothesized that the depletion of dolichol, essential for N-glycosylation, could be responsible for ER stress.  Using AAV-CRISPR, we somatically disrupted Dehydrodolichyl diphosphate synthase subunit (Dhdds), encoding a branch point enzyme required for dolichol biosynthesis. Dhdds null livers showed ER stress and impaired N-glycosylation, along with apoptosis and regeneration. Finally, the combined deletion of Hmgcr and Dhdds synergistically exacerbated hepatocyte ER stress. Our data show a critical role for mevalonate-derived dolichol in the liver, and suggest that dolichol depletion is at least partially responsible for ER stress and apoptosis upon potent Hmgcr inhibition.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33074812

RESUMO

We present V2V, a novel deep learning framework, as a general-purpose solution to the variable-to-variable (V2V) selection and translation problem for multivariate time-varying data (MTVD) analysis and visualization. V2V leverages a representation learning algorithm to identify transferable variables and utilizes Kullback-Leibler divergence to determine the source and target variables. It then uses a generative adversarial network (GAN) to learn the mapping from the source variable to the target variable via the adversarial, volumetric, and feature losses. V2V takes the pairs of time steps of the source and target variable as input for training, Once trained, it can infer unseen time steps of the target variable given the corresponding time steps of the source variable. Several multivariate time-varying data sets of different characteristics are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of V2V, both quantitatively and qualitatively. We compare V2V against histogram matching and two other deep learning solutions (Pix2Pix and CycleGAN).

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33074824

RESUMO

We present SSR-TVD, a novel deep learning framework that produces coherent spatial super-resolution (SSR) of time-varying data (TVD) using adversarial learning. In scientific visualization, SSR-TVD is the first work that applies the generative adversarial network (GAN) to generate high-resolution volumes for three-dimensional time-varying data sets. The design of SSR-TVD includes a generator and two discriminators (spatial and temporal discriminators). The generator takes a low-resolution volume as input and outputs a synthesized high-resolution volume. To capture spatial and temporal coherence in the volume sequence, the two discriminators take the synthesized high-resolution volume(s) as input and produce a score indicating the realness of the volume(s). Our method can work in the in situ visualization setting by downscaling volumetric data from selected time steps as the simulation runs and upscaling downsampled volumes to their original resolution during postprocessing. To demonstrate the effectiveness of SSR-TVD, we show quantitative and qualitative results with several time-varying data sets of different characteristics and compare our method against volume upscaling using bicubic interpolation and a solution solely based on CNN.

13.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 2508952, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33123566

RESUMO

Triptolide (TP) is the most effective ingredient found in the traditional Chinese herbal Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F, and it is widely used in therapies of autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. However, the hepatotoxicity induced by TP has restricted its use in clinical trials. Arctiin is known as a protective agent against oxidative stress, and it exerts liver-protecting effect. This study was aimed at investigating the protective role of arctiin against TP-induced hepatotoxicity using in vitro and in vivo models. The results indicated that TP not only obviously induced liver injury in mice but also significantly inhibited the growth of HepG2 cells and increased the level of intracellular reactive oxygen. Furthermore, TP obviously decreased the expressions of proteins of Nrf2 pathway including HO-1, NQO1, and Nrf2 associated with oxidative stress pathway. However, the above experimental indexes were reversed by the treatment of arctiin. Our results suggested that arctiin could alleviate TP-induced hepatotoxicity, and the molecular mechanism is likely related to its capacity against oxidative stress.

14.
J Proteome Res ; 19(11): 4470-4485, 2020 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045833

RESUMO

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is an emergent enteropathogenic coronavirus associated with swine diarrhea. Porcine small intestinal epithelial cells (IPEC) are the primary target cells of PDCoV infection in vivo. Here, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) labeling coupled to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used to quantitatively identify differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in PDCoV-infected IPEC-J2 cells. A total of 78 DEPs, including 23 upregulated and 55 downregulated proteins, were identified at 24 h postinfection. The data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD019975. To ensure reliability of the proteomics data, two randomly selected DEPs, the downregulated anaphase-promoting complex subunit 7 (ANAPC7) and upregulated interferon-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 1 (IFIT1), were verified by real-time PCR and Western blot, and the results of which indicate that the proteomics data were reliable and valid. Bioinformatics analyses, including GO, COG, KEGG, and STRING, further demonstrated that a majority of the DEPs are involved in numerous crucial biological processes and signaling pathways, such as immune system, digestive system, signal transduction, RIG-I-like receptor, mTOR, PI3K-AKT, autophagy, and cell cycle signaling pathways. Altogether, this is the first study on proteomes of PDCoV-infected host cells, which shall provide valuable clues for further investigation of PDCoV pathogenesis.

15.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2020 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012120

RESUMO

As a novel enteropathogenic coronavirus, porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) warrants further investigation. In this study, a Chinese PDCoV strain, designated CHN-HN-1601, was isolated from the faeces of a diarrhoeic piglet. After plaque purification, the genome was determined which shared 97.5%-99.5% nucleotide identities with 71 representative PDCoV strains available in the GenBank. The pathogenic properties of CHN-HN-1601 were evaluated using 5-day-old piglets. All inoculated piglets developed severe diarrhoea from 2 days post-infection (dpi) onwards. To our surprise, two periods of diarrhoea starting from 2 to 7 dpi and from 13 to 19 dpi were observed in affected piglets during the experiment. Faecal viral shedding of the inoculated piglets was detected by real-time RT-PCR, with viral shedding peaked at 4 and 16 dpi, respectively. At necropsy at 5 dpi, the main gross lesions included transparent, thin-walled and gas-distended intestines containing yellow watery contents. Further histopathological examinations, including haematoxylin and eosin staining, immunohistochemistry and RNAscope in situ hybridization, revealed that the virus infection caused severe villous atrophy of the small intestines, with PDCoV antigen and RNA mainly distributed in the cytoplasm of the villous epithelial cells of jejunum and ileum in piglets. The dynamic production of PDCoV-specific IgG and neutralizing antibodies in serum of the affected piglets was also assessed using a whole virus-based ELISA and an immunofluorescence assay-based neutralization test, respectively. Furthermore, a full-length cDNA infectious clone of CHN-HN-1601 was constructed using a bacterial artificial chromosome system. The rescued virus exhibited in vitro growth and pathogenic properties similar to the parental virus. Taken together, our study not only enriches the information of PDCoV, but also provides a useful reverse genetics platform for further pathogenesis exploration of the virus.

16.
Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol ; : 1-10, 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107357

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study was designed to characterize the interaction between Securidaca inappendiculata Hassk. derived xanthones and methotrexate (MTX). METHODS: Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) was induced in rats, which were treated with MTX, a xanthone-rich fraction (XRF), or MTX+XRF by gavage for 30 days. Clinical efficacy was assessed based on arthritis scores, serological analysis, and histological examination. Protein expression was investigated by either immunohistochemical or immunoblotting methods. MTX concentrations were determined by HPLC or LC-MS methods. Obtained results were further validated by in vitro assays using 1,7-dihydroxy-3,4-dimethoxyxanthone and HEK 293 T cells. RESULTS: XRF antagonized the antirheumatic effects of MTX in vivo, suggested by higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines, and severer swelling and deformation of joints in CIA rats in the MTX+XRF group compared with MTX monotherapy. XRF reduced MTX concentration in plasma and promoted its excretion into urine. As a result, XRF attenuated MTX-induced edema of the proximal tubule. Furthermore, XRF restored the decreased expression of organic anion transporter three (OAT3), which accounts for MTX secretion in the kidney. Consistently, 1,7-dihydroxy-3,4-dimethoxyxanthone promoted the cellular intake of MTX by increasing OTA3 expression. CONCLUSION: It is suggested that the combined use of S. inappendulata with MTX should be optimized to avoid the antagonistic effects and improve the safety of the MTX regimen.

17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(37): e21896, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925724

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine the differences in antibiotic usage patterns in the treatment of acute pyelonephritis according to hospital type and region in Korea.The claims database of the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service in Korea was used to select patients with the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision code N10 (acute tubulo-interstitial nephritis) or N12 (tubulo-interstitial nephritis, neither acute nor chronic) as the primary discharge diagnosis in 2010-2014. Usage of each class of antibiotics was expressed as the defined daily dose (DDD)/event.The average antibiotic usage per inpatient event was 11.3 DDD. The average antibiotic usage was the highest among patients admitted to tertiary hospitals (13.8 DDD), followed by those admitted to secondary hospitals (11.5 DDD), clinics (10.0 DDD), and primary hospitals (9.8 DDD). According to the geographic analyses, third-generation cephalosporins were highly prescribed in some southern regions; fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides were highly prescribed in some centrally located regions of the Korean peninsula. The hotspots for carbapenem usage included Seoul and Gyeonggi province cluster and Busan cluster: these regions include the capital city and the second biggest city in Korea, respectively.In conclusion, the antibiotic usage patterns for acute pyelonephritis in Korea differ according to the hospital type and region.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Pielonefrite/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Aminoglicosídeos/uso terapêutico , Cefalosporinas/uso terapêutico , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Fluoroquinolonas/uso terapêutico , Geografia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia , Centros de Cuidados de Saúde Secundários/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Physiol ; 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893883

RESUMO

KEY POINTS: Nrf2 is a master regulator of endogenous cellular defences, governing the expression of more than 200 cytoprotective proteins, including a panel of antioxidant enzymes. Nrf2 plays an important role in redox haemostasis of skeletal muscle in response to the increased generation of reactive oxygen species during contraction. Employing skeletal muscle-specific transgenic mouse models with unbiased-omic approaches, we uncovered new target proteins, downstream pathways and molecular networks of Nrf2 in skeletal muscle following Nrf2 or Keap1 deletion. Based on the findings, we proposed a two-way model to understand Nrf2 function: a tonic effect through a Keap1-independent mechanism under basal conditions and an induced effect through a Keap1-dependent mechanism in response to oxidative and other stresses. ABSTRACT: Although Nrf2 has been recognized as a master regulator of cytoprotection, its functional significance remains to be completely defined. We hypothesized that proteomic/bioinformatic analyses from Nrf2-deficient or overexpressed skeletal muscle tissues will provide a broader spectrum of Nrf2 targets and downstream pathways than are currently known. To this end, we created two transgenic mouse models; the iMS-Nrf2flox/flox and iMS-Keap1flox/flox , employing which we demonstrated that selective deletion of skeletal muscle Nrf2 or Keap1 separately impaired or improved skeletal muscle function. Mass spectrometry revealed that Nrf2-KO changed expression of 114 proteins while Keap1-KO changed expression of 117 proteins with 10 proteins in common between the groups. Gene ontology analysis suggested that Nrf2 KO-changed proteins are involved in metabolism of oxidoreduction coenzymes, purine ribonucleoside triphosphate, ATP and propanoate, which are considered as the basal function of Nrf2, while Keap1 KO-changed proteins are involved in cellular detoxification, NADP metabolism, glutathione metabolism and the electron transport chain, which belong to the induced effect of Nrf2. Canonical pathway analysis suggested that Keap1-KO activated four pathways, whereas Nrf2-KO did not. Ingenuity pathway analysis further revealed that Nrf2-KO and Keap1-KO impacted different signal proteins and functions. Finally, we validated the proteomic and bioinformatics data by analysing glutathione metabolism and mitochondrial function. In conclusion, we found that Nrf2-targeted proteins are assigned to two groups: one mediates the tonic effects evoked by a low level of Nrf2 at basal condition; the other is responsible for the inducible effects evoked by a surge of Nrf2 that is dependent on a Keap1 mechanism.

20.
Org Biomol Chem ; 18(39): 7740-7750, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940308

RESUMO

Unlike many other state-of-the-art transition-metal-catalyzed allylic substitutions, cobalt-catalyzed allylic substitution has received much less attention from synthetic chemists for a long time despite the fact that cobalt is an earth-abundant, low-cost and thus much more sustainable option as either a reagent or a catalyst in organic synthesis. Recently, there has been an upsurge in the use of cobalt catalysis in allylic functionalization reactions, including allylic substitution, nucleophilic allylation, and Heck-type allylic functionalization, to construct synthetically significant building blocks featuring a double bond available for diverse downstream synthetic manipulations. This review highlights the current development of cobalt catalysis in allylic functionalization with an in-depth discussion of the reaction scope and mechanistic insights.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA