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1.
J Clin Med ; 10(5)2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806552

RESUMO

Obesity has become a pandemic. It is one of the strongest risk-factors of new-onset chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the effects of obesity and abdominal obesity on the risk of developing CKD in young adults has not been elucidated. From a nationwide health screening database, we included 3,030,884 young adults aged 20-39 years without CKD during a baseline examination in 2009-2010, who could follow up during 2013-2016. Patients were stratified into five levels based on their baseline body mass index (BMI) and six levels based on their waist circumference (WC; 5-cm increments). The primary outcome was the development of CKD. During the follow up, until 2016, 5853 (0.19%) participants developed CKD. Both BMI and WC showed a U-shaped relationship with CKD risk, identifying the cut-off values as a BMI of 21 and WC of 72 cm in young adults. The obesity group (odd ratio [OR] = 1.320, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.247-1.397) and abdominal obesity group (male WC ≥ 90, female WC ≥ 85) (OR = 1.208, 95%CI: 1.332-1.290) showed a higher CKD risk than the non-obesity or non-abdominal obesity groups after adjusting for covariates. In the CKD risk by obesity composite, the obesity displayed by the abdominal obesity group showed the highest CKD risk (OR = 1.502, 95%CI: 1.190-1.895), especially in those under 30 years old. During subgroup analysis, the diabetes mellitus (DM) group with obesity or abdominal obesity paradoxically showed a lower CKD risk compared with the non-obesity or non-abdominal obesity group. Obesity and abdominal obesity are associated with increased risk of developing CKD in young adults but a decreased risk in young adults with diabetes.

2.
Gynecol Oncol ; 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795129

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the association of serum GGT levels with the risk of developing endometrial cancer. Women's obesity and menopausal status were also taken into account in our analysis. METHODS: We used a nationwide cohort to examine the association between serum GGT levels and endometrial cancer development in Korean women. Data were retrieved from the Korean National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) healthcare system. Women aged over 19 years who participated in the Korea National Health Screening Examination in 2009 and were not diagnosed with endometrial cancer 1-year post-examination were included in our study (n = 2,736,588). RESULTS: Obese (BMI, ≥25 kg/m2) women with increased GGT levels were at high risk of endometrial cancer (HR = 1.415, 95% CI: 1.236-1.621). Interestingly, in pre-menopausal women, high GGT level (Q4) was associated with the increased endometrial cancer risk only for obese women (HR = 1.482, 95% CI: 1.205-1.821). In post-menopausal women, only a high GGT level (Q4) was also associated with the increased cancer risk for obese women (HR = 1.313, 95% CI: 1.096-1.573). We observed a significant association between high GGT levels and increased risk of endometrial cancer in pre-menopausal women with abdominal obesity (WC, ≥85 cm) (HR = 1.647, 95% CI: 1.218-2.227). CONCLUSIONS: Increased GGT level is an independent risk factor of endometrial cancer, especially for post-menopausal women and obese pre-menopausal women. These results may suggest that serum GGT levels might be useful in the risk stratification of endometrial cancer. Adopting a healthy lifestyle for lowering serum GGT level is warranted, especially for women with a higher risk of developing endometrial cancer.

3.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(7): e019764, 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787312

RESUMO

Background Hypertension among young adults is common. However, the effect of isolated systolic hypertension (ISH), isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH), or systolic and diastolic hypertension (SDH) among young adults on chronic kidney disease (CKD) development is unknown. Methods and Results From a nationwide health screening database, we included 3 030 884 participants aged 20 to 39 years who were not taking antihypertensives at baseline examination in 2009 to 2010. Participants were categorized as having normal blood pressure (BP), elevated BP, stage 1 IDH, stage 1 ISH, stage 1 SDH, stage 2 IDH, stage 2 ISH, and stage 2 SDH. The primary outcome was incident CKD. A total of 5853 (0.19%) CKD events occurred. With normal BP as the reference, multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) (95% CIs) for CKD were 1.14 (95% CI, 1.04-1.26), elevated BP; 1.19 (95% CI, 1.10-1.28), stage 1 IDH; 1.24 (95% CI, 1.08-1.42), stage 1 ISH; 1.39 (95% CI, 1.28-1.51), stage 1 SDH; 1.88 (95% CI, 1.63-2.16), stage 2 IDH; 1.84 (95% CI, 1.54-2.19), stage 2 ISH; 2.70 (95% CI, 2.44-2.98), stage 2 SDH. The HRs for CKD were attenuated in the patients who were antihypertensive and began medication within 1 year of medical checkup than in those without antihypertensives. Conclusions Among Korean young adults, those with elevated BP, stage 1 IDH, stage 1 ISH, stage 1 SDH, stage 2 IDH, stage 2 ISH, and stage 2 SDH were associated with a higher CKD risk than those with normal BP. The CKD risk in ISH and IDH groups was similar but lower than that in the SDH group. Antihypertensives attenuated the risk of CKD in young adults with hypertension.

5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(13): e25293, 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787616

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Data on the overall epidemiology and temporal trends of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring hemodialysis in Korea are scarce. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and incidence of ESRD requiring hemodialysis in Korea between 2002 and 2017.Using the National Health Insurance Service database, we analyzed data from the entire Korean population between 2002 and 2017. Hemodialysis patients were identified using rare incurable disease codes (V001) or prescription of medical fee codes of hemodialysis (O7020 and O7021). We only included patients who had been maintained on hemodialysis for more than 90 days from the date of dialysis initiation, to exclude patients who required short-term dialysis for acute kidney injury, conversion to peritoneal dialysis, or kidney transplantation.During the 16-year follow-up, the number of hemodialysis patients in Korea has steadily increased from 11,215 in 2002 to 67,486 in 2017. The mean age of these patients has gradually increased from 55.57 ±â€Š13.31 years in 2002 to 62.13 ±â€Š13.23 years in 2017. In 2017, the crude prevalence rate of hemodialysis was 1303.4 per million population. Overall, the number of men tended to be somewhat higher than that of women, and the proportion of men increased slightly from 55.56% in 2002 to 58.45% in 2017. The proportion of diabetic patients increased rapidly from 23.84% to 47.84%, and the percentage of dyslipidemic patients rose from 18.9% to 86.7%. The number of incident hemodialysis patients increased significantly from 4406 in 2003 to 12,134 in 2014, and then decreased to 8090 in 2017. In the incident cases of hemodialysis, the observed increase in the proportion of male patients and in diabetes and dyslipidemia were similar to that of prevalent patients. The more recent era of hemodialysis initiation, the better 5-year survival rates were observed.The prevalence and incidence of hemodialysis in Korea gradually increased between 2002 and 2017. The proportion of men, and patients with diabetes and dyslipidemia requiring hemodialysis also increased continuously. The survival rate of hemodialysis patients was gradually improving. These findings may serve as a reference for future epidemiological studies on hemodialysis in Korea.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Transplante de Rim/estatística & dados numéricos , Diálise Peritoneal/estatística & dados numéricos , Diálise Renal/estatística & dados numéricos , Lesão Renal Aguda/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Distribuição por Sexo , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 6753, 2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33762611

RESUMO

The relationship between anosmia and anthropometric factor has not been investigated sufficiently yet. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate anthropometric risk factors of anosmia in an Asian population. Claims data of subjects over 20 years old who underwent a national health examination conducted by the Korean National Insurance Program between 2005 and 2008 were analyzed. They were followed up through the Korean National Insurance Service database. Individuals newly diagnosed with anosmia were identified after the initial health examination until the last follow-up date (December 31, 2016). The incidence of anosmia was high in females younger than 70 years old. The hazard ratio of anosmia was found to be higher in taller groups. The tallest quintile had higher risk than the shortest quintile (hazard ratio = 1.185, 95% confidence interval: 1.147-1.225) after adjusting for age, sex, BMI, income, smoking status, alcohol consumption, regular physical activity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia. This study showed that the incidence of anosmia had a positive association with height. However, careful interpretation is needed to generalize our result because of the limitation of the study population. Further studies are needed to clarify the genetic or environmental causes of anosmia.

7.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 638615, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33776934

RESUMO

Aims: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has a dynamic disease course, therefore repeated measurements of NAFLD status could have benefits rather than single one. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of persistent NAFLD on the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke and all-cause mortality by using repeated measurement of fatty liver index (FLI). Methods: About 3 million subjects who had undergone the health screening four times from 2009 until 2013 were included. NAFLD was defined as an FLI ≥60. FLI points were defined as the number of times participants meeting the criteria of NAFLD (0-4). Outcomes included all-cause mortality, MI, and stroke. Results: The higher the FLI points, the higher the risk of all-cause mortality, MI, and stroke (P for trend <0.001, all). Subjects with four FLI points had a higher risk of all-cause mortality (aHR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.75-1.98; P < 0.001), incidence of MI (aHR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.21-1.40; P < 0.001), and stroke (aHR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.19-1.37; P < 0.001) after adjustment for age, sex, smoking, alcohol consumption, income, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, body mass index, and physical activity. When the 1st and the last FLI were compared, the "incident NAFLD" group had a higher risk for death compared to the "no NAFLD" group (aHR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.37-1.55), and the "regression of NAFLD" group had a decreased risk for death compared to the "persistent NAFLD" group (aHR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.77-0.89). Conclusion: Repeated evaluations of NAFLD status based on FLI measurements could help physicians identify higher-risk groups in terms of mortality, MI, and stroke. The association between FLI worsening or improvement and outcomes also suggests clinical benefits of the prevention and treatment of NAFLD.

8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4854, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33649405

RESUMO

We investigated sex-related differences in the prognosis of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) using the Korea National Health Insurance Service database. From 2010 to 2016, 9524 patients diagnosed with HCM and had more than 1-year follow-up period were analyzed. The primary endpoint was the composite of cardiovascular death or new-onset heart failure (HF) admission. Propensity score-matching analysis was performed to adjust for different baseline characteristics. With a 4.4-years' median follow-up interval (range 2.0-6.6 years) and male predominance (77.6%), women with HCM were older (52.6 ± 9.7 vs. 51.4 ± 9.1, p < 0.001), had lower incomes, more comorbidities based on Charlson comorbidity index. Women with HCM had a higher incidence of the primary endpoint than men (incidence rate: 34.15 vs. 22.83 per 1000 person-years, log-rank p < 0.001). Multivariable Cox analysis showed that female sex was a poor prognostic factor for the primary endpoint (HR 1.43, 95% CI 1.24-1.64, p < 0.001). This was mainly driven by a higher incidence of new-onset HF admission (HR 1.55, 95% CI 1.34-1.80). However, there was no difference in the incidence of cardiovascular death between the sexes. This result was concordant in the propensity score-matched cohort. In conclusion, women with HCM have worse prognosis, which was mainly driven by a higher new-onset HF admission.

9.
Diabetes Metab J ; 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662197

RESUMO

Background: This study aimed to evaluate the dose-dependent effects of smoking on risk of diabetes among those quitting smoking. Methods: We analyzed clinical data from a total of 5,198,792 individuals age 20 years or older who received health care check-up arranged by the national insurance program of Korea between 2009 and 2016 using the Korean National Health Insurance Service database. Cumulative smoking was estimated by pack-years. Smokers were classified into four categories according to the amount of smoking: light smokers (0.025 to 5 smoking pack-years), medium smokers (5 to 14 smoking pack-years), heavy smokers (14 to 26 smoking pack-years), and extreme smokers (more than 26 smoking pack-years). Results: During the study period, 164,335 individuals (3.2% of the total population) developed diabetes. Compared to sustained smokers, the risk of diabetes was significantly reduced in both quitters (hazard ratio [HR], 0.858; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.838 to 0.878) and nonsmokers (HR, 0.616; 95% CI, 0.606 to 0.625) after adjustment for multiple risk factors. The risk of diabetes gradually increased with amount of smoking in both quitters and current smokers. The risk of diabetes in heavy (HR, 1.119; 95% CI, 1.057 to 1.185) and extreme smokers (HR, 1.348; 95% CI, 1.275 to 1.425) among quitters was much higher compared to light smokers among current smokers. Conclusion: Smoking cessation was effective in reducing the risk of diabetes regardless of weight change. However, there was a potential dose-dependent association between smoking amount and the development of diabetes. Diabetes risk still remained in heavy and extreme smokers even after smoking cessation.

10.
J Clin Med ; 10(4)2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669473

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The impact of proteinuria and its severity on the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has not yet been studied. We aimed to determine the association between proteinuria measured by urine dipstick tests and the development of IBD. METHODS: This nationwide population-based study was conducted using the Korean National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) database. A total of 9,917,400 people aged 20 years or older who had undergone a national health examination conducted by the NHIS in 2009 were followed up until 2017. The study population was classified into four groups-negative, trace, 1+, and ≥ 2+-according to the degree of proteinuria measured by the urine dipstick test. The primary endpoint was newly diagnosed IBD, Crohn's disease (CD), or ulcerative colitis (UC) during the follow-up period. RESULTS: Compared with the dipstick-negative group, the incidence of CD significantly increased according to the degree of proteinuria (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] with 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 [0.703-1.451], 1.515 [1.058-2.162], and 2.053 [1.301-3.24] in the trace, 1+, and ≥ 2+ dipstick groups, respectively; p for trend 0.007). However, there was no significant difference in the incidence of UC according to the degree of proteinuria (aHR with 95% CI, 1.12 [0.949-1.323], 0.947 [0.764-1.174], and 1.009 [0.741-1.373] in the trace, 1+, and ≥ 2+ dipstick groups, respectively; p for trend 0.722). In the subgroup analysis, dipstick-positive proteinuria independently increased the incidence of CD regardless of the subgroup. However, dipstick-positive proteinuria was associated with the risk of UC in those with diabetes mellitus and not in those without diabetes mellitus (aHR, 1.527 vs. 0.846; interaction p-value 0.004). The risk of CD was increased or decreased according to proteinuria changes but not associated with the risk of UC. CONCLUSION: Proteinuria, measured by the dipstick test, is strongly associated with the development of CD.

11.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(9): e68, 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33686813

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to investigate the incidence, prevalence, and survival of malignant gliomas (MGs) using population-based Korean National Health Insurance Database (NHID) data. METHODS: Using the Korean NHID, we identified patients with MG as C71 codes in KCD 5-7 according to ICD-10 from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2017. Epidemiological characteristics of MG, including annual incidence, prevalence, mortality rates, and survival rates, were collected and analyzed according to socioeconomic state (SES) and treatments received. RESULTS: We identified 45,066 newly diagnosed-MG patients from 2007 to 2017, for an age-adjusted incidence of 7.47 per 100,000 people. The mean age at diagnosis was 54 years. The male to female ratio was 1.11. Mortality and survival probability were analyzed among total subjects and in subgroups. The mortality rates were lower in female than that of male patients (hazard ratio, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.67-0.71), and in younger age population and in higher income group. Patients operated had a slightly higher survival rate. The 1-, 3-, 5-, and 10-year survival rates were estimated at 63.4%, 46.2%, 39.4%, and 34.8%, respectively. This is the first population-based study to determine the incidence and prevalence of MG according to epidemiological characteristics in Korea using NHID. CONCLUSION: Our study found that female sex and high SES were factors that significantly lowered the mortality rate in MG, and younger groups and operated patients showed significantly higher survival rates.

12.
Dermatology ; : 1-6, 2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756455

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: No epidemiologic study has previously reported on the associations among Behçet's disease (BD) and autoimmune disorders. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between BD and the autoimmune disorders multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. METHODS: Medical records of patients newly diagnosed with BD (n = 6,214) in 2012-2017 were analyzed using data entered into a large, nationwide database from 2007 to 2017. An age- and sex-matched control population of individuals without BD was sampled at a ratio of controls:BD cases of 3:1 (n = 18,642). Both cohorts were analyzed for the presence of multiple sclerosis or rheumatoid arthritis within a minimum of 5 years prior to their BD diagnosis. RESULTS: Patients with BD had significantly higher odds ratios (ORs) for multiple sclerosis (8.85 [95% CI 2.36-33.17]) and rheumatoid arthritis (4.62 [95% CI 3.35-6.35]) than the control group after adjustment for diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. BD patients aged <40 years had a higher proportion of rheumatoid arthritis (OR 23.91, 95% CI 5.50-103.9) than older patients (OR 3.96, 95% CI 2.83-5.54). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that BD is associated with multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33730289

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The risk of gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) can be mitigated by proton pump inhibitor (PPI) co-therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) treated with anticoagulants. We aimed to evaluate the effect of PPIs on the risk of GIB in Asian patients with AF, treated with oral anticoagulants (OACs), and with a prior history of upper GIB. METHODS: Using a nationwide claims database, OAC-naïve patients with AF and a history of upper GIB before initiating OAC treatment between January 2010 and April 2018 were included. Patients were categorized into 10 groups according to the index OAC (warfarin, rivaroxaban, dabigatran, apixaban, and edoxaban) and whether or not they received PPI co-therapy, and were followed up for incidence of major GIB. RESULTS: Among a total of 42,048 patients, 40% were prescribed PPIs as co-therapy with OACs. Over a median 0.6 years (interquartile ranges 0.2-1.7 years) of follow-up, rivaroxaban use without PPIs showed the highest crude incidence of major GIB (2.62 per 100 person-years), followed by the use of warfarin without a PPI (2.20 per 100 person-years). Compared to the patients without PPI use, PPI co-therapy was associated with a significantly lower risk of major GIB, by 40% and 36%, in the rivaroxaban and warfarin groups, respectively. In dabigatran, apixaban, and edoxaban users, PPI co-therapy did not show a significant reduction in the risk of major GIB. CONCLUSION: Among patients with AF receiving anticoagulant treatment and with a prior history of upper GIB, PPI co-therapy was associated with a significant reduction in the risk of major GIB in patients treated with rivaroxaban and warfarin.

14.
Cancer Med ; 10(4): 1366-1376, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33638317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although elevated serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) is a known indicator of increased risk of several cancers, the clinical value of repeated measurements of GGT has not been determined. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether repeatedly elevated serum GGT levels are associated with the risk of respiratory cancer incidence. METHODS: We included participants who had undergone the Korean Health screening four times during 2009-2012 and had previously undergone four consecutive examinations. Those who were diagnosed with respiratory cancer before the date of examination were excluded. The participants obtained one GGT point if their GGT levels were in the highest quartile (the quartile 4 group). We analyzed the association between GGT points and respiratory cancer incidence by Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: During mean follow-up of 6.39 ± 1.2 years, 3,559,109 participants were enrolled. Of them, 8,944 (0.34%) men and 1,484 (0.14%) women were newly diagnosed with respiratory cancer. In multivariate analysis adjusted for confounding factors, male participants with 4 GGT points had a significantly higher hazards of developing respiratory cancer than those with 0 GGT points (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.39; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.31-1.48). Among female, participants with the highest points of GGT also had sixfold increased risk of developing laryngeal cancer. However, no significant association was observed between GGT points and lung cancer incidence among women (HR: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.81-1.11). CONCLUSION: Repeatedly elevated serum levels of GGT were associated with a higher risk of respiratory cancer incidence, especially in men. This finding suggests that physicians can identify a person with a higher risk of respiratory cancer through a simple repeated measurement of GGT.

15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4676, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33633333

RESUMO

We evaluated the impacts of lifestyle behaviors, namely smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical activity, on the development of new-onset AF in patients with DM. Using the Korean Nationwide database, we identified subjects diagnosed with type 2 DM and without previous history of AF between 2009 and 2012. Self-reported lifestyle behaviors were analyzed. Among 2,551,036 included subjects, AF was newly diagnosed in 73,988 patients (median follow-up 7.1 years). Both ex-smokers (hazard ratio [HR] 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.07) and current smokers (HR 1.06, 95% CI 1.03-1.08) demonstrated a higher risk of AF than never smokers. Patients with moderate (15-29 g/day) (HR 1.12, 95% CI 1.09-1.15) and heavy (≥ 30 g/day) (HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.21-1.28) alcohol consumption exhibited an increased risk of AF, while subjects with mild alcohol consumption (< 15 g/day) (HR 1.01, 95% CI 0.99-1.03) had an AF risk similar to that of non-drinkers. Patients who engaged in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity showed a lower risk of AF (HR 0.93, 95% CI 0.91-0.94) than those who did not. This study suggests that smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical activity are associated with new-onset AF in patients with DM, and lifestyle management might reduce the risk of AF in this population.

16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4174, 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33603026

RESUMO

Various treatment modalities are used for head and neck cancer (HNC). This study analyzed the incidence and risks of myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke by cancer site and treatment modality in 22,737 patients newly diagnosed with HNC registered in the Korean National Health Insurance Service database in 2007-2013. An additional 68,211 patients without HNC, stroke, or MI were identified as the control group. The risks for MI (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.24-1.53), stroke (HR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.37-1.60), and mortality (HR = 5.30, 95% CI 5.14-5.47) were significantly higher in the HNC group. Analysis by cancer site showed the risk of MI and mortality was highest in hypopharynx cancer, while the risk of stroke was highest in nasopharynx and paranasal sinus cancer. Analysis by treatment modality showed the highest risks for MI (HR = 1.88, 95% CI 1.31-2.69) and mortality (HR = 2.95, 95% CI 2.75-3.17) in HNC patients receiving chemotherapy (CT) alone, while HNC patients receiving CT with surgery had the highest risk for stroke (HR = 1.81, 95% CI 1.14-2.88). Careful attention to MI and stroke risks in HNC patients is suggested, especially those who received both CT and radiotherapy.

17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3737, 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33580177

RESUMO

We evaluated the association between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and incident atrial fibrillation (AF) and analyzed the impact of NAFLD on AF risk in relation to body mass index (BMI). A total of 8,048,055 subjects without significant liver disease who were available fatty liver index (FLI) values were included. Subjects were categorized into 3 groups based on FLI: < 30, 30 to < 60, and ≥ 60. During a median 8-year of follow-up, 534,442 subjects were newly diagnosed as AF (8.27 per 1000 person-years). Higher FLI was associated with an increased risk of AF (hazard ratio [HR] 1.053, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.046-1.060 in 30 ≤ FLI < 60, and HR 1.115, 95% CI 1.106-1.125 in FLI ≥ 60). In underweight subjects (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2), higher FLI raised the risk of AF (by 1.6-fold in 30 ≤ FLI < 60 and by twofold in FLI ≥ 60). In normal- and overweight subjects, higher FLI was associated with an increased risk of AF, but the HRs were attenuated. In obese subjects, higher FLI was not associated with higher risk of AF. NAFLD as assessed by FLI was independently associated with an increased risk of AF in nonobese subjects with BMI < 25 kg/m2. The impact of NAFLD on AF risk was accentuated in lean subjects with underweight.

18.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 20(1): 20, 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33468142

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components are associated with the development of atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the impact of time-burden of MetS on the risk of AF is unknown. We investigated the effect of the cumulative longitudinal burden of MetS on the development of AF. METHODS: We included 2 885 189 individuals without AF who underwent four annual health examinations during 2009-2013 from the database of the Korean national health insurance service. Metabolic burdens were evaluated in the following three ways: (1) cumulative number of MetS diagnosed at each health examination (0-4 times); (2) cumulative number of each MetS component diagnosed at each health examination (0-4 times per MetS component); and (3) cumulative number of total MetS components diagnosed at each health examination (0 to a maximum of 20). The risk of AF according to the metabolic burden was estimated using Cox proportional-hazards models. RESULTS: Of all individuals, 62.4%, 14.8%, 8.7%, 6.5%, and 7.6% met the MetS diagnostic criteria 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 times, respectively. During a mean follow-up of 5.3 years, the risk of AF showed a positive association with the cumulative number of MetS diagnosed over four health examinations: adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of 1, 2, 3, and 4 times compared to 0 times were 1.18 (1.13-1.24), 1.31 (1.25-1.39), 1.46 (1.38-1.55), and 1.72 (1.63-1.82), respectively; P for trend < 0.001. All five components of MetS, when diagnosed repeatedly, were independently associated with an increased risk of AF: adjusted HR (95% CI) from 1.22 (1.15-1.29) for impaired fasting glucose to 1.96 (1.87-2.07) for elevated blood pressure. As metabolic components were accumulated from 0 to 20 counts, the risk of AF also gradually increased up to 3.1-fold (adjusted HR 3.11, 95% CI 2.52-3.83 in those with 20 cumulative components of MetS), however, recovery from MetS was linked to a decreased risk of AF. CONCLUSIONS: Given the positive correlations between the cumulative metabolic burdens and the risk of incident AF, maximal effort to detect and correct metabolic derangements even before MetS development might be important to prevent AF and related cardiovascular diseases.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471125

RESUMO

AIMS: To compare the effectiveness and safety of off-label underdosed apixaban with on-label standard dose apixaban in Asian patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). METHODS AND RESULTS: Using the Korean nationwide claims database, we identified patients who were prescribed apixaban and did not fulfil the dose reduction criteria for apixaban between January 2015 and December 2017. A multivariable Cox hazard regression model was performed, and hazard ratios (HRs) for ischemic stroke, major bleeding (MB), all-cause death, and composite outcome were analysed. Compared to patients prescribed on-label standard dose apixaban (n = 4,194), patients prescribed off-label underdosed apixaban (n = 2,890) showed a higher risk of ischemic stroke (adjusted HR [aHR], 1.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-1.81), all-cause death (aHR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.01-1.39), and the composite outcome (aHR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.03-1.34), but with no significant differences in MB between the two groups. Among the patients who did not meet any dose reduction criteria, off-label underdosed apixaban use was associated with a significantly higher risk of ischemic stroke than on-label standard dose apixaban use (aHR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.25-2.73). Among the patients who met a single dose reduction criterion, off-label underdosed apixaban use was associated with a higher risk of all-cause death than on-label standard dose apixaban (aHR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.07-1.64). CONCLUSION: The off-label underdosed apixaban group showed higher risks of ischemic stroke, all-cause death, and composite clinical outcomes than the on-label standard dose apixaban group, but both showed comparable risks of MB. Label-adherence to apixaban dosing should be emphasised to achieve the best clinical outcomes for Asian patients with AF.

20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1601, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452389

RESUMO

Premature ventricular contraction (PVC) and atrial fibrillation (AF) are common arrhythmias affecting 1-2% of the general population. During PVC, retrograde ventriculo-atrial activation can occur and act like an atrial ectopy. However, the clinical significance of this phenomenon is not fully understood. We aimed to elucidate whether the clinical diagnosis of PVC can increase the risk of new-onset AF. We performed a nationwide population-based analysis using the Korean National Health Insurance Service database. A total of 9,537,713 people without prior history of PVC and AF were identified. Among these people, 4135 developed PVC in 2009, and people with and without PVC were followed until 2018. People who had PVC showed an increased risk of new-onset AF as compared with people without PVC (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.705; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.428-3.013; p < 0.001). The risk of ischemic stroke was also significantly increased in people with PVC (HR 1.160; 95% CI 1.048-1.284; p = 0.0041). New-onset AF developed in 72 people (19.3%) among 374 people with PVC who had ischemic stroke during their follow-up. A significant interaction was observed between PVC and age with people < 65 years at greater risk of new-onset AF for having PVC. In this observational analysis, the risk of new-onset AF and ischemic stroke was increased in people with PVC. Additional evaluation to identify AF in people with PVC can be helpful.

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