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1.
Gynecol Oncol ; 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795129

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the association of serum GGT levels with the risk of developing endometrial cancer. Women's obesity and menopausal status were also taken into account in our analysis. METHODS: We used a nationwide cohort to examine the association between serum GGT levels and endometrial cancer development in Korean women. Data were retrieved from the Korean National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) healthcare system. Women aged over 19 years who participated in the Korea National Health Screening Examination in 2009 and were not diagnosed with endometrial cancer 1-year post-examination were included in our study (n = 2,736,588). RESULTS: Obese (BMI, ≥25 kg/m2) women with increased GGT levels were at high risk of endometrial cancer (HR = 1.415, 95% CI: 1.236-1.621). Interestingly, in pre-menopausal women, high GGT level (Q4) was associated with the increased endometrial cancer risk only for obese women (HR = 1.482, 95% CI: 1.205-1.821). In post-menopausal women, only a high GGT level (Q4) was also associated with the increased cancer risk for obese women (HR = 1.313, 95% CI: 1.096-1.573). We observed a significant association between high GGT levels and increased risk of endometrial cancer in pre-menopausal women with abdominal obesity (WC, ≥85 cm) (HR = 1.647, 95% CI: 1.218-2.227). CONCLUSIONS: Increased GGT level is an independent risk factor of endometrial cancer, especially for post-menopausal women and obese pre-menopausal women. These results may suggest that serum GGT levels might be useful in the risk stratification of endometrial cancer. Adopting a healthy lifestyle for lowering serum GGT level is warranted, especially for women with a higher risk of developing endometrial cancer.

2.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(5)2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803268

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To our knowledge, no studies have yet looked at how the risk of developing breast cancer (BC) varies with changes in metabolic syndrome (MetS) status. This study aimed to investigate the association between changes in MetS and subsequent BC occurrence. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We enrolled 930,055 postmenopausal women aged 40-74 years who participated in a biennial National Health Screening Program in 2009-2010 and 2011-2012. Participants were categorized into four groups according to change in MetS status during the two-year interval screening: sustained non-MetS, transition to MetS, transition to non-MetS, and sustained MetS. We calculated multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for BC incidence using the Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: At baseline, MetS was associated with a significantly increased risk of BC (aHR 1.11, 95% CI 1.06-1.17) and so were all of its components. The risk of BC increased as the number of the components increased (aHR 1.46, 95% CI 1.26-1.61 for women with all five components). Compared to the sustained non-MetS group, the aHR (95% CI) for BC was 1.11 (1.04-1.19) in the transition to MetS group, 1.05 (0.96-1.14) in the transition to non-MetS group, and 1.18 (1.12-1.25) in the sustained MetS group. CONCLUSIONS: Significantly increased BC risk was observed in the sustained MetS and transition to MetS groups. These findings are clinically meaningful in that efforts to recover from MetS may lead to reduced risk of BC.

3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7418, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795815

RESUMO

Glaucoma shares common risk factors with chronic kidney disease (CKD) but previous cross-sectional studies have demonstrated discrepancies in the risk of glaucoma in CKD patients. This study enrolled kidney transplantation recipients (KTRs) (n = 10,955), end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients (n = 10,955) and healthy controls (n = 10,955) from National Health Insurance Service database of the Republic of Korea. A Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to calculate the hazard ratios (HR) for primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) incidences. The incidence of POAG was higher in ESRD patients (3.36/1,000 person-years, P < 0.0001) and KTRs (3.22 /1,000 person-years, P < 0.0001), than in healthy controls (1.20/1,000 person-years). However, POAG risk showed no significant increase in either ESRD patients (P = 0.07) or KTRs (P = 0.08) when adjusted for the confounding factors. The incidence of PACG was significantly higher in ESRD patients (0.41/1,000 person-years) than in healthy controls (0.14/1,000 person-years, P = 0.008). The PACG incidence was significantly lower in KTRs than in ESRD patients (HR = 0.35, P = 0.015). In conclusion, this nationwide cohort study demonstrated that kidney transplantation can reduce the risk of PACG but not POAG in ESRD patients.

4.
J Clin Med ; 10(5)2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806552

RESUMO

Obesity has become a pandemic. It is one of the strongest risk-factors of new-onset chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the effects of obesity and abdominal obesity on the risk of developing CKD in young adults has not been elucidated. From a nationwide health screening database, we included 3,030,884 young adults aged 20-39 years without CKD during a baseline examination in 2009-2010, who could follow up during 2013-2016. Patients were stratified into five levels based on their baseline body mass index (BMI) and six levels based on their waist circumference (WC; 5-cm increments). The primary outcome was the development of CKD. During the follow up, until 2016, 5853 (0.19%) participants developed CKD. Both BMI and WC showed a U-shaped relationship with CKD risk, identifying the cut-off values as a BMI of 21 and WC of 72 cm in young adults. The obesity group (odd ratio [OR] = 1.320, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.247-1.397) and abdominal obesity group (male WC ≥ 90, female WC ≥ 85) (OR = 1.208, 95%CI: 1.332-1.290) showed a higher CKD risk than the non-obesity or non-abdominal obesity groups after adjusting for covariates. In the CKD risk by obesity composite, the obesity displayed by the abdominal obesity group showed the highest CKD risk (OR = 1.502, 95%CI: 1.190-1.895), especially in those under 30 years old. During subgroup analysis, the diabetes mellitus (DM) group with obesity or abdominal obesity paradoxically showed a lower CKD risk compared with the non-obesity or non-abdominal obesity group. Obesity and abdominal obesity are associated with increased risk of developing CKD in young adults but a decreased risk in young adults with diabetes.

5.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(7)2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808412

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Altered lipid metabolism has been implicated in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study investigated the relationships between lipid profiles and HCC development. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Korean National Health Insurance Service from 2009 to 2017. Cox regression analysis was used to examine the hazard ratios of HCC in 8,528,790 individuals who had undergone health check-ups in 2009. RESULTS: During a median of 7.3 years follow-up, 26,891 incidents of HCCs were identified. The incidence of HCC (per 100,000 person-years) gradually decreased according to the increase in total-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol; the incidence of HCC was 69.2, 44.0, 33.9, and 25.8 in quartile-1 (Q1), Q2, Q3, and Q4 population of total-cholesterol, and 63.6, 44.5, 37.2, and 28.3 in Q1, Q2, Q3, and Q4 population of LDL-cholesterol, respectively. Compared to Q1 of total-cholesterol, subjects in higher total-cholesterol levels were associated with a lower incidence of HCC (multiple covariates-adjusted hazard ratio (aHR): Q2 0.61; Q3 0.46; Q4 0.36). These associations were consistently observed in stratified subgroup analysis by the presence of liver cirrhosis or viral hepatitis. CONCLUSIONS: Low serum lipid levels were significantly associated with the increased risk of developing HCC. A low lipid profile might be an independent risk factor and preclinical marker for HCC.

6.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249819, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831083

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hip fracture incidence is increasing with rapid aging of the population and regular physical activity (RPA) is an important modifiable protective factor for fracture. However, the association between the risk of hip fractures and changes in RPA status in the general population remains unknown. Thus, we explore the association between the risk of hip fracture and changes in RPA status. METHODS: We studied 4,984,144 individuals without fractures within a year whose data were registered in the Korean National Health Insurance Service database. Baseline physical activity level was assessed using a standardized self-reported questionnaire during two consecutive national health screening surveys performed in Korea from 2009 to 2012. The risk of hip fracture between 2013 and 2016 according to change in RPA was prospectively analyzed. Participants were divided into those who were always inactive, became inactive, became active, and were always active. RESULTS: Compared to participants who were always inactive, those who became inactive exhibited a 0.12/1,000 person-years (PY) reduction in hip fracture incidence rate (IR) [aHR: 0.865; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.824-0.908]. Participants who became active, and those who were always active, exhibited a 0.24/1,000 PY reduction in IR (aHR: 0.827; 95% CI: 0.787-0.870) and a 0.39/1,000 PY reduction in IR (aHR: 0.691; 95% CI: 0.646-0.740), respectively. CONCLUSION: Changes in RPA status were associated with the risk of hip fracture; consistent RPA was related to the maximum benefit for risk reduction in the general population.

7.
Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg ; 32(3): 343-350, 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831216

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The inflammatory response after surgery is associated with patient prognosis. Patients who undergo thoracic surgery exhibit a profound systemic inflammatory response due to the surgical procedures used and application of one-lung ventilation. The aim of this study was to compare perioperative inflammatory changes in patients after intubated and non-intubated thoracic surgery for primary lung cancer resection. METHODS: This prospective randomized controlled study included forty patients who underwent surgical resection for stage I non-small-cell lung cancer. Blood samples for cytokine analysis were collected just before induction, at 1 and 24 h after surgery. Levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine and anti-inflammatory cytokines were measured using quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay kits. RESULTS: The basal values of cytokines were comparable between 2 groups. Within each group, the postoperative levels of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α increased, while those of IL-4 and IL-10 did not change significantly. The levels of IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α were significantly lower in group NI at 1 and 24 h postoperatively. Other cytokines did not differ in both groups during postoperative period. The IL-6/IL-10 ratio at 1 h after surgery was lower in non-intubated patients than in intubated patients, but there was no difference at 24 h after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Non-intubated thoracic surgery may attenuate the early inflammatory cytokine changes following major resection for primary lung cancer compared with intubated conventional surgery. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov registry number NCT04007354.

8.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 638615, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33776934

RESUMO

Aims: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has a dynamic disease course, therefore repeated measurements of NAFLD status could have benefits rather than single one. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of persistent NAFLD on the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke and all-cause mortality by using repeated measurement of fatty liver index (FLI). Methods: About 3 million subjects who had undergone the health screening four times from 2009 until 2013 were included. NAFLD was defined as an FLI ≥60. FLI points were defined as the number of times participants meeting the criteria of NAFLD (0-4). Outcomes included all-cause mortality, MI, and stroke. Results: The higher the FLI points, the higher the risk of all-cause mortality, MI, and stroke (P for trend <0.001, all). Subjects with four FLI points had a higher risk of all-cause mortality (aHR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.75-1.98; P < 0.001), incidence of MI (aHR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.21-1.40; P < 0.001), and stroke (aHR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.19-1.37; P < 0.001) after adjustment for age, sex, smoking, alcohol consumption, income, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, body mass index, and physical activity. When the 1st and the last FLI were compared, the "incident NAFLD" group had a higher risk for death compared to the "no NAFLD" group (aHR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.37-1.55), and the "regression of NAFLD" group had a decreased risk for death compared to the "persistent NAFLD" group (aHR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.77-0.89). Conclusion: Repeated evaluations of NAFLD status based on FLI measurements could help physicians identify higher-risk groups in terms of mortality, MI, and stroke. The association between FLI worsening or improvement and outcomes also suggests clinical benefits of the prevention and treatment of NAFLD.

9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(13): e25293, 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787616

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Data on the overall epidemiology and temporal trends of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring hemodialysis in Korea are scarce. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and incidence of ESRD requiring hemodialysis in Korea between 2002 and 2017.Using the National Health Insurance Service database, we analyzed data from the entire Korean population between 2002 and 2017. Hemodialysis patients were identified using rare incurable disease codes (V001) or prescription of medical fee codes of hemodialysis (O7020 and O7021). We only included patients who had been maintained on hemodialysis for more than 90 days from the date of dialysis initiation, to exclude patients who required short-term dialysis for acute kidney injury, conversion to peritoneal dialysis, or kidney transplantation.During the 16-year follow-up, the number of hemodialysis patients in Korea has steadily increased from 11,215 in 2002 to 67,486 in 2017. The mean age of these patients has gradually increased from 55.57 ±â€Š13.31 years in 2002 to 62.13 ±â€Š13.23 years in 2017. In 2017, the crude prevalence rate of hemodialysis was 1303.4 per million population. Overall, the number of men tended to be somewhat higher than that of women, and the proportion of men increased slightly from 55.56% in 2002 to 58.45% in 2017. The proportion of diabetic patients increased rapidly from 23.84% to 47.84%, and the percentage of dyslipidemic patients rose from 18.9% to 86.7%. The number of incident hemodialysis patients increased significantly from 4406 in 2003 to 12,134 in 2014, and then decreased to 8090 in 2017. In the incident cases of hemodialysis, the observed increase in the proportion of male patients and in diabetes and dyslipidemia were similar to that of prevalent patients. The more recent era of hemodialysis initiation, the better 5-year survival rates were observed.The prevalence and incidence of hemodialysis in Korea gradually increased between 2002 and 2017. The proportion of men, and patients with diabetes and dyslipidemia requiring hemodialysis also increased continuously. The survival rate of hemodialysis patients was gradually improving. These findings may serve as a reference for future epidemiological studies on hemodialysis in Korea.

10.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(7): e019764, 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787312

RESUMO

Background Hypertension among young adults is common. However, the effect of isolated systolic hypertension (ISH), isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH), or systolic and diastolic hypertension (SDH) among young adults on chronic kidney disease (CKD) development is unknown. Methods and Results From a nationwide health screening database, we included 3 030 884 participants aged 20 to 39 years who were not taking antihypertensives at baseline examination in 2009 to 2010. Participants were categorized as having normal blood pressure (BP), elevated BP, stage 1 IDH, stage 1 ISH, stage 1 SDH, stage 2 IDH, stage 2 ISH, and stage 2 SDH. The primary outcome was incident CKD. A total of 5853 (0.19%) CKD events occurred. With normal BP as the reference, multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) (95% CIs) for CKD were 1.14 (95% CI, 1.04-1.26), elevated BP; 1.19 (95% CI, 1.10-1.28), stage 1 IDH; 1.24 (95% CI, 1.08-1.42), stage 1 ISH; 1.39 (95% CI, 1.28-1.51), stage 1 SDH; 1.88 (95% CI, 1.63-2.16), stage 2 IDH; 1.84 (95% CI, 1.54-2.19), stage 2 ISH; 2.70 (95% CI, 2.44-2.98), stage 2 SDH. The HRs for CKD were attenuated in the patients who were antihypertensive and began medication within 1 year of medical checkup than in those without antihypertensives. Conclusions Among Korean young adults, those with elevated BP, stage 1 IDH, stage 1 ISH, stage 1 SDH, stage 2 IDH, stage 2 ISH, and stage 2 SDH were associated with a higher CKD risk than those with normal BP. The CKD risk in ISH and IDH groups was similar but lower than that in the SDH group. Antihypertensives attenuated the risk of CKD in young adults with hypertension.

11.
Retina ; 2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33675332

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the association between female reproductive factors and the incidence of exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD). METHODS: A total of 1,297,388 postmenopausal women over 50 years of age who participated in both national health screening and cancer screening in 2009 were identified using the Korea National Health Insurance System database. Data on female reproductive factors were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Patients were followed up until 2018, and the incident cases of exudative AMD were identified. The hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for exudative AMD were estimated using the multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard model. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 7.27 years, 4,086 patients were newly diagnosed with exudative AMD. The hazard ratio (95% confidence intervals) for exudative AMD was 1.14 (1.01-1.31) for a reproductive period ≥ 40 years compared to a reproductive period < 30 years, and 1.72 (1.48-2.00) for patients with ≥ 5 years of hormone replacement therapy (HRT), and 1.29 (1.09-1.52) for those with 2-5 years of HRT compared to those who never underwent HRT. CONCLUSION: Female reproductive factors were associated with the risk of exudative AMD. Greater lifetime exposure to endogenous and exogenous estrogen was associated with a higher incidence of exudative AMD.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33730289

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The risk of gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) can be mitigated by proton pump inhibitor (PPI) co-therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) treated with anticoagulants. We aimed to evaluate the effect of PPIs on the risk of GIB in Asian patients with AF, treated with oral anticoagulants (OACs), and with a prior history of upper GIB. METHODS: Using a nationwide claims database, OAC-naïve patients with AF and a history of upper GIB before initiating OAC treatment between January 2010 and April 2018 were included. Patients were categorized into 10 groups according to the index OAC (warfarin, rivaroxaban, dabigatran, apixaban, and edoxaban) and whether or not they received PPI co-therapy, and were followed up for incidence of major GIB. RESULTS: Among a total of 42,048 patients, 40% were prescribed PPIs as co-therapy with OACs. Over a median 0.6 years (interquartile ranges 0.2-1.7 years) of follow-up, rivaroxaban use without PPIs showed the highest crude incidence of major GIB (2.62 per 100 person-years), followed by the use of warfarin without a PPI (2.20 per 100 person-years). Compared to the patients without PPI use, PPI co-therapy was associated with a significantly lower risk of major GIB, by 40% and 36%, in the rivaroxaban and warfarin groups, respectively. In dabigatran, apixaban, and edoxaban users, PPI co-therapy did not show a significant reduction in the risk of major GIB. CONCLUSION: Among patients with AF receiving anticoagulant treatment and with a prior history of upper GIB, PPI co-therapy was associated with a significant reduction in the risk of major GIB in patients treated with rivaroxaban and warfarin.

13.
Ophthalmic Epidemiol ; : 1-13, 2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33726622

RESUMO

Purpose: Visual impairment (VI) is highly prevalent in the elderly and is associated with functional decline. Previous research demonstrated an association between VI and cardiovascular events, but investigations have yet to be conducted in general population samples. We evaluated the relationship between visual acuity (VA) and development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in a nationwide Korean population.Methods: This is a nationwide retrospective cohort study. We used the National Health Information Database of the National Health Insurance Service of Korea to identify subjects who participated in the National Health Insurance Service health screening program in 2012. We monitored 5,941,761 subjects for the development of cardiovascular diseases for a period of 5 years.Results: After adjustments for age, sex, and other covariates, with subjects having a visual acuity better than 20/20 as the reference group, the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidential intervals (CI) for acute myocardial infarction and stroke were visual acuity between 20/20 and 20/60, 1.073 (95% CI 1.053, 1.094) and 1.151 (95% CI 1.132, 1.171), respectively; for visual acuity between 20/60 and 20/200, 1.236 (95% CI 1.197, 1.277), and 1.336 (95% CI 1.302, 1.371), respectively; and for visual acuity worse than 20/200, 1.325 (95% CI 1.285, 1.366) and 1.383 (95% CI 1.349, 1.418), respectively.Conclusion: Subjects with lower VA had higher risks of acute myocardial infarction and stroke. These results suggest that low VA is an independent risk factor for CVD.

14.
J Diabetes Investig ; 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662172

RESUMO

AIMS/INTRODUCTION: We estimated the hazards of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and early all-cause mortality in Korean adults according to the presence of recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes (type 2 diabetes for <5 years) and insulin use. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort database (2002-2015) for this longitudinal population-based study. Among adults aged ≥40 years without baseline CVD, individuals without diabetes or with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes were selected (N = 363,919). The hazard ratios (HRs) for myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and all-cause mortality during follow-up were analyzed according to three groups categorized by the presence of type 2 diabetes and insulin use. RESULTS: Within a mean 7.8 years, there were 5,275 MIs, 7,220 strokes, and 15,834 deaths. The hazards for outcomes were higher in the insulin-treated type 2 diabetes group than in the non-diabetes group [HR (95% CI): 2.344 (1.870-2.938) for MI, 2.420 (1.993-2.937) for stroke, and 3.037 (2.706-3.407) for death], higher in the non-insulin-treated type 2 diabetes group than in the non-diabetes group [HR (95% CI): 1.284 (1.159-1.423) for MI, 1.435 (1.320-1.561) for stroke, and 1.135 (1.067-1.206) for death], and higher in the insulin-treated type 2 diabetes group than in the non-insulin-treated type 2 diabetes group [HR (95% CI): 1.914 (1.502-2.441) for MI, 1.676 (1.363-2.060) for stroke, and 2.535 (2.232-2.880) for death]. CONCLUSIONS: Recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients showed increased risks of incident CVDs and premature mortality, and insulin-treated group demonstrated an additional increase in the risks of these outcomes in adults with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes, suggesting the need for intensified cardio-protective interventions for adults with insulin-treated type 2 diabetes.

15.
J Clin Med ; 10(4)2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669473

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The impact of proteinuria and its severity on the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has not yet been studied. We aimed to determine the association between proteinuria measured by urine dipstick tests and the development of IBD. METHODS: This nationwide population-based study was conducted using the Korean National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) database. A total of 9,917,400 people aged 20 years or older who had undergone a national health examination conducted by the NHIS in 2009 were followed up until 2017. The study population was classified into four groups-negative, trace, 1+, and ≥ 2+-according to the degree of proteinuria measured by the urine dipstick test. The primary endpoint was newly diagnosed IBD, Crohn's disease (CD), or ulcerative colitis (UC) during the follow-up period. RESULTS: Compared with the dipstick-negative group, the incidence of CD significantly increased according to the degree of proteinuria (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] with 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 [0.703-1.451], 1.515 [1.058-2.162], and 2.053 [1.301-3.24] in the trace, 1+, and ≥ 2+ dipstick groups, respectively; p for trend 0.007). However, there was no significant difference in the incidence of UC according to the degree of proteinuria (aHR with 95% CI, 1.12 [0.949-1.323], 0.947 [0.764-1.174], and 1.009 [0.741-1.373] in the trace, 1+, and ≥ 2+ dipstick groups, respectively; p for trend 0.722). In the subgroup analysis, dipstick-positive proteinuria independently increased the incidence of CD regardless of the subgroup. However, dipstick-positive proteinuria was associated with the risk of UC in those with diabetes mellitus and not in those without diabetes mellitus (aHR, 1.527 vs. 0.846; interaction p-value 0.004). The risk of CD was increased or decreased according to proteinuria changes but not associated with the risk of UC. CONCLUSION: Proteinuria, measured by the dipstick test, is strongly associated with the development of CD.

16.
BMC Nephrol ; 22(1): 85, 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33691641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical frailty has previously been associated with adverse clinical outcomes in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). This study aimed to determine whether impaired physical performance at baseline is associated with the incidence of ESRD, using a nationwide database. METHODS: The timed up-and-go (TUG) test was used to assess physical frailty in 1,552,781 66-year-old individuals, using health examination database records from the Korean National Health Insurance Service. As a primary endpoint, incident ESRD was defined operationally using healthcare claims data from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service. RESULTS: Our results showed that baseline kidney function was significantly worse in individuals with TUG results of > 10 s compared to individuals with an intact TUG performance (≤10 s). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a stepwise dose-response relationship between baseline physical performance and the incidence rate of ESRD (log-rank test P-value of < 0.001). An increasing ESRD incidence rate trend with poor physical performance remained significant after adjusting for characteristics such as baseline glomerular filtration rate and proteinuria. CONCLUSION: Poor baseline physical performance was associated with an increased risk of ESRD, suggesting possible interactions between systemic frailty and vascular aging processes.

17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4854, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33649405

RESUMO

We investigated sex-related differences in the prognosis of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) using the Korea National Health Insurance Service database. From 2010 to 2016, 9524 patients diagnosed with HCM and had more than 1-year follow-up period were analyzed. The primary endpoint was the composite of cardiovascular death or new-onset heart failure (HF) admission. Propensity score-matching analysis was performed to adjust for different baseline characteristics. With a 4.4-years' median follow-up interval (range 2.0-6.6 years) and male predominance (77.6%), women with HCM were older (52.6 ± 9.7 vs. 51.4 ± 9.1, p < 0.001), had lower incomes, more comorbidities based on Charlson comorbidity index. Women with HCM had a higher incidence of the primary endpoint than men (incidence rate: 34.15 vs. 22.83 per 1000 person-years, log-rank p < 0.001). Multivariable Cox analysis showed that female sex was a poor prognostic factor for the primary endpoint (HR 1.43, 95% CI 1.24-1.64, p < 0.001). This was mainly driven by a higher incidence of new-onset HF admission (HR 1.55, 95% CI 1.34-1.80). However, there was no difference in the incidence of cardiovascular death between the sexes. This result was concordant in the propensity score-matched cohort. In conclusion, women with HCM have worse prognosis, which was mainly driven by a higher new-onset HF admission.

18.
Diabetes Metab J ; 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662197

RESUMO

Background: This study aimed to evaluate the dose-dependent effects of smoking on risk of diabetes among those quitting smoking. Methods: We analyzed clinical data from a total of 5,198,792 individuals age 20 years or older who received health care check-up arranged by the national insurance program of Korea between 2009 and 2016 using the Korean National Health Insurance Service database. Cumulative smoking was estimated by pack-years. Smokers were classified into four categories according to the amount of smoking: light smokers (0.025 to 5 smoking pack-years), medium smokers (5 to 14 smoking pack-years), heavy smokers (14 to 26 smoking pack-years), and extreme smokers (more than 26 smoking pack-years). Results: During the study period, 164,335 individuals (3.2% of the total population) developed diabetes. Compared to sustained smokers, the risk of diabetes was significantly reduced in both quitters (hazard ratio [HR], 0.858; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.838 to 0.878) and nonsmokers (HR, 0.616; 95% CI, 0.606 to 0.625) after adjustment for multiple risk factors. The risk of diabetes gradually increased with amount of smoking in both quitters and current smokers. The risk of diabetes in heavy (HR, 1.119; 95% CI, 1.057 to 1.185) and extreme smokers (HR, 1.348; 95% CI, 1.275 to 1.425) among quitters was much higher compared to light smokers among current smokers. Conclusion: Smoking cessation was effective in reducing the risk of diabetes regardless of weight change. However, there was a potential dose-dependent association between smoking amount and the development of diabetes. Diabetes risk still remained in heavy and extreme smokers even after smoking cessation.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653813

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although diabetes is a well-known risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), exactly which metabolic parameters of diabetes are associated with HCC remains unexplored. In this study, we investigated the relationship between glucose variability (GV) and HCC in diabetic patients through a nationwide population-based study. METHODS: A population-based cohort study including 674,178 diabetic subjects participating in more than 3 health examinations within 5 years from the index year (2009-2010) were followed until the end of 2017. The coefficient of variation, standard deviation, variability independent of the mean, and average real variability were calculated as GV indices. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 6.7 years, there were 5,494 cases of HCC. When classified groups according to glucose level, the highest risk for HCC was observed when the basal blood glucose level was 180 mg/dL or greater [adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.08-1.31]. We observed increasing trends for the relationship between GV and HCC in multivariable Cox proportional analyses. The risk of HCC increased by 27% (aHR 1.27, 95% CI, 1.17-1.38) for the highest quartile of GV relative to the lowest quartile. These findings were consistent regardless of the presence of chronic viral hepatitis or cirrhosis, alcohol consumption, or body mass index. CONCLUSIONS: GV is an independent predictor of HCC, even after adjusting for confounding factors. There was a linear relationship between increase in GV and prevalence of HCC. IMPACT: Visit-to-visit GV might be helpful for identifying diabetic patients at high risk of HCC.

20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5888, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33723349

RESUMO

Although depression and glaucoma share several common pathophysiology, the risk of glaucoma in patients with depression has not been reported. Thus, we investigated the effect of depressive symptom and depressive disorder on glaucoma incidence. In this nationwide population-based cohort study, all subjects receiving the National Screening Program at the age of 66 during 2009-2014 were included. These subjects were divided into depression group and no depression group based on subjective depressive symptoms and clinically diagnosed depressive disorder and were tracked until 2017 for development of glaucoma. Of the 922,769 subjects included in the study, 191,636 (20.77%) subjects were categorized as depression group. Subjects with depression showed increased hazard of developing glaucoma (adjusted HR = 1.12[95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09-1.15]) than those without depression. The risk of glaucoma increased sequentially from those with no depression to those with subjective depressive symptom (adjusted HR = 1.09[95% CI, 1.06-1.13]), those with clinically diagnosed depressive disorder (adjusted HR = 1.23[95% CI, 1.14-1.32]), and those with both subjective depressive symptom and clinically diagnosed depressive disorder (adjusted HR = 1.36[95% CI, 1.22-1.52]). Our analyses suggest that individuals with depression had a greater risk of developing glaucoma than those without depression. Subjective depressive symptoms and clinically diagnosed depressive disorder independently and synergistically increased the risk of glaucoma incidence.

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