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1.
Chemistry ; 2020 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32227410

RESUMO

Liquid crystalline block copolymers (LCBCPs) are promising for developing functional materials owing to assembly of better functionality. Taking advantage of difference in reactivity between alkynyl and vinyl over temperature during hydrosilylation, a series of LCBCPs with modular functionalization of block copolymers (BCPs) are reported by independently and site-selectively attaching azobenzene moieties containing alkynyl (LC1) and Si-H (LC2) terminals into well-designed poly(styrene)-block-polybutadienes (PS-b-PBs) and poly(4-vinylphenyldimethylsilane)-block-polybutadienes (PVPDMS-b-PBs) produced from living anionic polymerization (LAP). By the principle of modular functionalization, it is demonstrated that mono-functionalized (PVPDMS-g-LC1)-b-PB and PS-b-(PB-g-LC2) not only maintain independence but also have cooperative contributions to bi-functionalized (PVPDMS-g-LC1)-b-(PB-g-LC2) in terms of mesomorphic performances and microphase separation, which is evident from DSC and POM and identified by powder X-ray diffractions. With the application of new principle of modular functionalization, local-crosslinked liquid crystalline networks (LCNs) with controlled functionality are successfully synthesized, which show well-controlled phase behaviors over molecular compositions.

2.
J Org Chem ; 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32223168

RESUMO

The three-component reactions of α-amino acids, p-quinone monoacetals (or p-quinol ethers) and diarylphosphine oxides have been developed for the synthesis of 3-(diarylphosphinyl) anilides and N-aryl-2-diarylphosphinylpyrrolidines. The transformations may involve the in situ generation of conjugated azomethine ylides or 2-azaallyl anion species from the reaction of α-amino acids and p-quinone monoacetals, which are further trapped by diarylphosphine oxides.

3.
Cell Oncol (Dordr) ; 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130660

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are transcribed pervasively in the genome and act to regulate chromatin remodeling and gene expression. Dysregulated lncRNA expression has been reported in many cancers, but the role of lncRNAs in esophageal cancer (EC) has so far remained poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to understand the effect of lncRNA LINC01234 on EC development through competitively binding to microRNA-193a-5p (miR-193a-5p). METHODS: The Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database was used for microarray-based EC expression profiling. Gain- and loss-of-function analyses were carried out in human EC-derived Eca-109 and EC9706 cells. Expression analyses of miR-193a-5p, LINC01234, CCNE1, caspase-3, p21, Bax, cyclinD1 and Bcl-2 were performed using RT-qPCR and Western blotting. Cell proliferation, colony formation and apoptosis analyses were carried out using MTT, Hoechst 33258 and flow cytometry assays. A xenograft EC model in nude mice was used to evaluate in vivo tumor growth and CCNE1 expression. RESULTS: Microarray-based analyses revealed that LINC01234 expression was increased in primary EC samples, whereas that of miR-193a-5p was decreased. We found that CCNE1 was a target of miR-193a-5p and that LINC01234, in turn, sponges miR-193a-5p. After treatment with si-LINC01234 or miR-193a-5p mimic, EC cells (Eca-109 and EC9706) exhibited cyclinD1 and Bcl-2 downregulation, and caspase-3, p21, Bax and cleaved caspase-3 upregulation. LINC01234 silencing or miR-193a-5p upregulation resulted in decreased proliferation and colony formation, and increased apoptosis of EC cells. In addition, LINC01234 silencing or miR-193a-5p upregulation resulted in reduced in vivo EC tumor growth and CCNE1 expression in nude mice. CONCLUSIONS: We found that silencing of LINC01234 suppresses EC development by inhibiting CCNE1 through competitively binding to miR-193a-5p, which suggests that LINC01234 may represent a novel target for EC therapy.

4.
Pancreas ; 49(3): 420-428, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132514

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In this study, we focused on the function of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in acute pancreatitis (AP), which has been shown to have protective effects in gliomas, hepatocytes, and astrocytes. METHODS: Acute pancreatitis cell line and animal model were induced by administration of lipopolysaccharide and cerulein into the cell supernatant or intraperitoneal injection. Oxidative stress status was evaluated by measuring the level of amylase, C-reactive protein, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, and myeloperoxidase. Morphological alterations in the pancreas were evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin staining, the wet-to-dry weight ratio, and the pathology injury scores. Western blot, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and immunofluorescence staining were performed to analyze the expression of Nrf2, Heme oxygenase 1, and NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1. RESULTS: Overexpression of Nrf2 inhibits oxidative stress and inflammatory responses by inducting the expression of superoxide dismutase as well as reducing the level of amylase, malondialdehyde, and myeloperoxidase in the AR42J rat pancreatic acinar cells in AP. Importantly, overexpression of Nrf2 displayed the same protective effect in vivo. Data from an AP rat model showed that Nrf2 could relieve pancreatic damage. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicated that Nrf2 has a protective role in lipopolysaccharide and cerulein-induced cytotoxicity, providing potential therapeutic strategies for the treatment of AP.

5.
Curr Pharm Des ; 2020 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32175833

RESUMO

The relationships between inflammation and tumor are very complex: inflammation maybe induce cancer, on the other hand, cancer cells would release inflammatory cytokines into microenvironment around them. So it is hard to identify cancer and inflammation, especially early tumor and chronic inflammation in clinical patients screening. Conditional reprogrammed cells (CRCs) allow establishing a stable cell cultures of normal and tumor epithelial cells from patients' tissues. This new technique of living tissue culture can retain the genotype and phenotype of tumor cells and normal cells, and realize cell growth. It can provide reliable cell culture detection to screen early cancer from chronic inflammation and even constructing models in vivo for cancer chemotherapy-resistant patients.

6.
Pharmacol Res ; 155: 104738, 2020 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32151681

RESUMO

Breast cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related death among women worldwide, and its incidence is also increasing. High recurrence rate and metastasis rate are the key causes of poor prognosis and death. It is suggested that abnormal glycosylation plays an important role in the growth, invasion, metastasis and resistance to therapy of breast cancer cells. Meanwhile, it can be used as the biomarkers for the early detection and prognosis of breast cancer and the potential attractive targets for drug treatment. However, only a few attentions have been paid to the molecular mechanism of abnormal glycosylation in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of breast cancer cells and the related intervention of drugs. This manuscript thus investigated the relationship between abnormal glycosylation, the EMT, and breast cancer metastasis. Then, the process of abnormal glycosylation, the classification and their molecular regulatory mechanisms of breast cancer were analyzed in detail. Last, potential drugs are introduced in different categories, which are expected to reverse or intervene the abnormal glycosylation of breast cancer. This review is conducive to an in-depth understanding of the metastasis and drug resistance of breast cancer cells, which will provide new ideas for the clinical regulation of glycosylation and related drug treatments in breast cancer.

7.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 126: 110049, 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172063

RESUMO

Influenza viruses are responsible for severe respiratory tract infections of individuals and may cause pandemics with a high risk of mortality and morbidity. Although vaccination is a primary means for prevention of influenza virus infections, poor vaccine performance or inadequate immune responses limits the efficacy of current vaccines and raises question regarding whether a better correlates of protection procedures should be performed. Here, we want to evaluate whether mixed polysaccharides (MPs) derived from shiitake mushroom, poriacocos, ginger, and dried tangerine peel could promote the immune response of inactivated influenza vaccine. Firstly, MPs were given to mice each day and for a total of 30 days, during which two immunizations were performed on mice on days 14 and 21. The results showed that serum total IgG and IgG2a levels were increased in MPs-treated mice on day 30. Following A/WSN/33 (H1N1) virus challenge, we found that MPs pretreatment in mice could increase mice weight gain and attenuate their clinical symptoms. Additional protective factors were also observed including prevention of excessive lung inflammation, promotion of CD19+ and CD278+ cell proportions in lung, elimination of virus in lung, and elevation of IFN-γ levels in serum. The current study demonstrate that MPs from shiitake mushroom, poriacocos, ginger, and dried tangerine peel could promote the immune efficacy and alleviate lung inflammation in mice with vaccines against H1N1 virus infection by activating both humoral and cellular immunity.

8.
BMC Pharmacol Toxicol ; 21(1): 21, 2020 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32178737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the fact that histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have been tested to treat various cardiovascular diseases, the effects of selective HDAC6 inhibitor ACY1215 on infarct size during cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury still remain unknown. In the present study we aimed to investigate the effects of ACY1215 on infarct size in rats with cardiac IR injury, as well as to examine the association between HDAC6 inhibitors and the gene expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), a key regulator of cellular responses to hypoxia. METHODS: By using computational analysis of high-throughput expression profiling dataset, the association between HDAC inhibitors (pan-HDAC inhibitors panobinostat and vorinostat, and HDAC6 inhibitor ISOX) and their effects on HIF-1α gene-expression were evaluated. The male Wistar rats treated with ligation of left coronary artery followed by reperfusion were used as a cardiac IR model. ACY1215 (50 mg/kg), pan-HDAC inhibitor MPT0E028 (25 mg/kg), and vehicle were intraperitoneally injected within 5 min before reperfusion. The infarct size in rat myocardium was determined by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. The serum levels of transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were also determined. RESULTS: The high-throughput gene expression assay showed that treatment of ISOX was associated with a more decreased gene expression of HIF-1α than that of panobinostat and vorinostat. Compared to control rats, ACY1215-treated rats had a smaller infarct size (49.75 ± 9.36% vs. 19.22 ± 1.70%, p < 0.05), while MPT0E028-treated rats had a similar infarct size to control rats. ACY-1215- and MPT0E028-treated rats had a trend in decreased serum TGF-ß levels, but not statistically significant. ACY1215-treated rats also had higher serum CRP levels compared to control rats (641.6 µg/mL vs. 961.37 ± 64.94 µg/mL, p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our research indicated that HDAC6 inhibition by ACY1215 might reduce infarct size in rats with cardiac IR injury possibly through modulating HIF-1α expression. TGF-ß and CRP should be useful biomarkers to monitor the use of ACY1215 in cardiac IR injury.

9.
Mol Pharm ; 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32186879

RESUMO

It is a challenging task to suppress the bitterness of liquid preparations, especially for children. Bitter molecules are highly dispersible in liquids, leading to a strong and instant stimulation of the bitter receptors. At present, there is no effective way to correct this issue except for adding sweeteners, resulting in an unsatisfying taste. Based on the three-point contact theory, which is a universally accepted mechanism of bitterness formation, a new idea and application of amphiphilic block copolymers (ABCs) for bitterness suppression was proposed for the first time. We found that ABCs could widely inhibit the bitterness of four typical bitter substances. The mechanism is that ABCs self-assemble to form association colloids, which attract bitter components and reduce their distribution in the molecular form in solution. The bitter components were demonstrated to automatically embed in the spiral hydrophobic cavity of the hydrophobic chain of the ABCs, and their special interaction dispersed the positive electrostatic potential of bitter groups. The combination did not affect the pharmacokinetic parameters and pharmacodynamics of bitter drugs. These findings highlight the novel application of ABCs for the inhibition of bitterness and illuminate the underlying inhibition mechanisms.

10.
Gene ; 742: 144603, 2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198126

RESUMO

Adverse environmental conditions, such as salinity, cold, drought, heavy metals, and pathogens affect the yield and quality of Salvia miltiorrhiza, a well-known medicinal plant used for the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), a key enzyme of antioxidant system in plants, plays a vital role in protecting plants against various biotic and abiotic stresses via scavenging the reactive oxygen species produced by organisms. However, little is known about the SOD gene family in S. miltiorrhiza. In this study, eight SOD genes, including three Cu/Zn-SODs, two Fe-SODs and three Mn-SODs, were identified in the S. miltiorrhiza genome. Their gene structures, promoters, protein features, phylogenetic relationships, and expression profiles were comprehensively investigated. Gene structure analysis implied that most SmSODs have different introns/exons distrbution patterns. Many cis-elements related to different stress responses or plant hormones were found in the promoter of each SmSOD. Expression profile analysis indicated that SmSODs exhibited diverse responses to cold, salt, drought, heavy metal, and plant hormones. Additionally, 31 types of TFs regulating SmSODs were predicted and analyzed. These findings provided valuable information for further researches on the functions and applications of SmSODs in S. miltiorrhiza growth and adaptation to stress.

11.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(3): e1008437, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176741

RESUMO

Magnaporthe oryzae causes rice blast disease, but little is known about the dynamic restructuring of the actin cytoskeleton during its polarized tip growth and pathogenesis. Here, we used super-resolution live-cell imaging to investigate the dynamic organization of the actin cytoskeleton in M. oryzae during hyphal tip growth and pathogenesis. We observed a dense actin network at the apical region of the hyphae and actin filaments originating from the Spitzenkörper (Spk, the organizing center for hyphal growth and development) that formed branched actin bundles radiating to the cell membrane. The actin cross-linking protein Fimbrin (MoFim1) helps organize this actin distribution. MoFim1 localizes to the actin at the subapical collar, the actin bundles, and actin at the Spk. Knockout of MoFim1 resulted in impaired Spk maintenance and reduced actin bundle formation, preventing polar growth, vesicle transport, and the expansion of hyphae in plant cells. Finally, transgenic rice (Oryza sativa) expressing RNA hairpins targeting MoFim1 exhibited improved resistance to M. oryzae infection, indicating that MoFim1 represents an excellent candidate for M. oryzae control. These results reveal the dynamics of actin assembly in M. oryzae during hyphal tip development and pathogenesis, and they suggest a mechanism in which MoFim1 organizes such actin networks.

12.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32162789

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to elucidate the role of decorin, a small leucine-rich proteoglycan, in the degradation of cartilage matrix during the progression of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA). METHODS: The destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) surgery was applied to 3-month-old decorin-null and inducible decorin knockout mice to induce PTOA. The resulted OA phenotype was evaluated by assessing joint morphology and sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) staining via histology (n = 6/group), surface collagen fibril nanostructure via scanning electron microscopy (n = 4), tissue modulus via atomic force microscopy-nanoindentation (n ≥ 5) and subchondral bone structure via micro-computed tomography (n = 5). Femoral head cartilage explants from wild-type and decorin-null mice were subjected to the stimuli of inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) in vitro (n = 6). The resulting chondrocyte response to IL-1ß and release of sGAGs were quantified. RESULTS: In both decorin-null and inducible decorin knockout mice, the absence of decorin results in accelerated sGAG loss and formation of highly aligned collagen fibrils on cartilage surface relative to the control (p < 0.05). Also, decorin-null mice developed more salient osteophytes, illustrating more severe OA. In cartilage explants, with IL-1ß treatment, loss of decorin did not alter the expression of either anabolic or catabolic genes. However, a greater proportion of sGAGs was released to the media from decorin-null explants, in both live and devitalized conditions (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: In PTOA, decorin delays the loss of fragmented aggrecan and fibrillation of cartilage surface, and thus, plays a protective role in ameliorating cartilage degeneration.

13.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 5081, 2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32193473

RESUMO

In the process of investigating the antifungal structure-activity relationships (SAR) of borrelidin and discovering antifungal leads, a semisynthetic borrelidin analogue, BN-3b with antifungal activity against Candida albicans, was achieved. In this study, we found that oxidative damage induced by endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays an important role in the antifungal activity of BN-3b. Further investigation indicated that BN-3b stimulated ROS accumulation, increased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and decreased reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Moreover, BN-3b decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and ATP generation. Ultrastructure analysis revealed that BN-3b severely damaged the cell membrane of C. albicans. Quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis revealed that virulence factors of C. albicans SAPs, PLB1, PLB2, HWP1, ALSs, and LIPs were all down-regulated after BN-3b exposure. We also found that BN-3b markedly inhibited the hyphal formation of C. albicans. In addition, in vivo studies revealed that BN-3b significantly prolonged survival and decreased fungal burden in mouse model of disseminated candidiasis.

14.
J Bone Miner Res ; 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32154948

RESUMO

CXCL12 is abundantly expressed in reticular cells associated with the perivascular niches of the bone marrow (BM) and is indispensable for B lymphopoiesis. Cxcl12 promotes osteoclastogenesis and has been implicated in pathologic bone resorption. We had shown earlier that estrogen receptor α deletion in osteoprogenitors and estrogen deficiency in mice increase Cxcl12 mRNA and protein levels in the BM plasma, respectively. We have now generated female and male mice with conditional deletion of a Cxcl12 allele in Prrx1 targeted cells (Cxcl12∆Prrx1 ) and show herein that they have a 90% decrease in B lymphocytes but increased erythrocytes and adipocytes in the marrow. Ovariectomy increased the expression of Cxcl12 and B-cell number in the Cxcl12f/f control mice, but these effects were abrogated in the Cxcl12∆Prrx1 mice. Cortical bone mass was not affected in Cxcl12∆Prrx1 mice. Albeit, the cortical bone loss caused by ovariectomy was greatly attenuated. Most unexpectedly, the rate of bone turnover in sex steroid-sufficient female or male Cxcl12∆Prrx1 mice was dramatically increased, as evidenced by a more than twofold increase in several osteoblast- and osteoclast-specific mRNAs, as well as increased mineral apposition and bone formation rate and increased osteoclast number in the endosteal surface. The magnitude of the Cxcl12∆Prrx1 -induced changes were much greater than those caused by ovariectomy or orchidectomy in the Cxcl12f/f mice. These results strengthen the evidence that CXCL12 contributes to the loss of cortical bone mass caused by estrogen deficiency. Moreover, they reveal for the first time that in addition to its effects on hematopoiesis, CXCL12 restrains bone turnover-without changing the balance between resorption and formation-by suppressing osteoblastogenesis and the osteoclastogenesis support provided by cells of the osteoblast lineage. © 2020 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

15.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 68(3): 244-250, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115531

RESUMO

Aspidosperma alkaloids, a subclass of monoterpenoid indole alkaloids rich in the Apocynaceae plants, possess remarkable antitumor activities, but the underlying mechanisms have rarely been reported. In the current project, 11-methoxytabersonine (11-MT), an aspidosperma-type alkaloid isolated from Tabernaemontana bovina, significantly inhibited the viability of two human lung cancer cell lines A549 and H157, and the molecular mechanisms were thus investigated. The results showed that 11-MT killed lung cancer cells via induction of necroptosis in an apoptosis-independent manner. In addition, 11-MT strongly induced autophagy in the two cell lines, which played a protective role against 11-MT-induced necroptosis. Finally, the autophagy caused by 11-MT was found to be via activation of the AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathways in both cells. Taken together, 11-MT exhibited an antitumor mechanism different from that of previously reported analogues and could have the potential to serve as a lead compound for the development of new chemotherapy for lung cancer.

16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(8): e19189, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32080102

RESUMO

Studies on the relationship between ABCB1 3435C>T polymorphism (rs1045642) and colorectal cancer (CRC)susceptibility have yielded inconclusive results. To clarify this issue, we undertook a meta-analysis to investigate the relationship between rs1045642 and CRC risk.Three electronic scientific publication databases (Cochrane Library, Pubmed, Embase) were screened using specific search terms. Relevant literature was identified using literature traceability methods. Selected publications were evaluated according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Effect size information (odds ratio and the corresponding 95% confidence interval [CI]) was obtained following quality assessment and data extraction from the included publications, and a meta-analysis conducted. Statistical analysis was performed with the Stata sofz (Version 13.0) software.Overall, 17 case-control studies involving 7129 CRC patients and 7710 healthy control subjects satisfied the criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis. There was no significant association between ABCB1 3435C>T polymorphism and CRC risk in any of the genetic models. In the CC versus CT model (I = 20.9%, Pheterogeneity = .276), CC versus CT + TT model (I = 45.6%, Pheterogeneity = .102) and CT versus CC + TT model (I = 17.8%, Pheterogeneity = .298) analyses, between-study heterogeneities were detected as significant in Asian populations. In the CT versus TT model (I = 24%, Pheterogeneity = .254) and CC + CT versus TT model (I = 0, Pheterogeneity = .55), between-study heterogeneities were found to be significant in groups of different populations.The meta-analysis described here suggests that the ABCB1 3435C>T polymorphism is not related to CRC susceptibility.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1549, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005877

RESUMO

The growth trajectory of Chinese preschoolers still remains unclear. Our objective was to determine whether there was an association between adverse pregnancy outcomes and overweight offspring. We analyzed population-based retrospective cohort data from the Medical Birth Registry of Xiamen, which comprised 33,157 children examined from 1 to 6 years of age. Longitudinal analyses were used to evaluate the growth trajectories of offspring body mass index (BMI). Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the effects of two adverse pregnancy outcomes, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and being large-for-gestational age (LGA), on childhood overweight. Offspring of mothers with GDM and LGA has a higher annual BMI z-score from 1 to 6 years of age (all P < 0.05). But, a higher annual BMI z-score was only observed in children aged 1-5 years in models 1-3. Overall BMI z-score of offspring aged 1-6 who were born to mothers with GDM and LGA were also higher in models 1-3 (all P < 0.05). Additionally, offspring of mothers with GDM and LGA had a higher risk for overweight in model 1, from 1 to 6 years of age (odds ratio (OR), 1.814; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.657-1.985; P < 0.0001). However, this association was attenuated after adjusting for maternal pre-pregnancy BMI (OR, 1.270; 95% CI, 0.961-1.679; P = 0.0930). Offspring of mothers with GDM and LGA had a higher BMI z-score and increased risk for overweight. Indeed, intrauterine exposure to maternal GDM and LGA could bias offspring to overweight, whereas maternal pre-pregnancy BMI may play a key role in offspring overweight for children born to mothers with GDM and LGA.

18.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol ; : 1-11, 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062653

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vehicle-induced air pollution may increase the prevalence and severity of asthma. Pollens are important sources of outdoor allergens associated with asthma. Outdoor pollution may influence the structure of pollen grains, resulting in enhanced immune reactions. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the impact that artemisia pollen extracts exposed to diesel emissions (APEDE) may induce - allergic airway inflammation, pulmonary pathology and immune imbalance - in mice. METHODS: Sixty male Balb/c mice were equally randomized into 5 groups, sensitized with 30 µL artemisia pollen extracts (APE) or APEDE adsorbed on 2 mg aluminum hydroxide gel by intraperitoneal injection on day 0, 7, 14, and 22, and challenged intranasally once per day with 30 µL APE or APEDE from day 29 to 36. The controlling group used phosphate-buffered saline as control. RESULTS: In mice immunized and challenged by APEDE, the clinical phenotype of eosinophils, neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), tracheal wall thickness, airway smooth muscle thickness and airway resistance increased significantly. Pathophysiological parameters such as interleukin (IL)-17A and tumour necrosis factor-α production in BALF and serum, and the ratio of Th17/Treg cells in CD4+ cells increased significantly, while IL-10 in BALF and serum and the ratio of Treg cells decreased significantly. It was further found that the expression of oxidative stress marker 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) and the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) were significantly increased. The correlation analysis showed that the expression of 3-NT was positively correlated with the activation of NF-κB. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggested that pollens exposed to diesel exhaust enhance allergic responses, which may contribute to an increased prevalence of allergic diseases in urban environments with serious exhaust emissions.

19.
Clin Rheumatol ; 2020 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036586

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The diagnosis of relapsing polychondritis (RP) is often mistaken or delayed. In this retrospective cohort, we aimed to unveil the causes responsible for such phenomenon, to determine the associated factors, and to compare diagnosis in clinical settings with the current diagnostic criteria. METHOD: Eighty-seven RP patients followed-up by rheumatologists from January 1, 2008, to October 31, 2018, were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 50 male and 37 female patients were included with a mean age of 45.9 ± 14.5 years. Ninety-three percent were initially admitted by non-rheumatologic specialists .Twenty-eight percent were correctly diagnosed, while 72% were misdiagnosed at the first visits, all by non-rheumatologic specialists. Patients admitted by non-rheumatologic specialists had increased odds of misdiagnosis (odds ratio [OR] = 1.3, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.1-1.7, P = 0.000). Fifty-seven (65.5%) patients did not meet with Michet or Damiani criteria, with 16 (18.4%) patients diagnosed as partial RP and 41( 47.1%) patients diagnosed as limited RP. CONCLUSIONS: Incorrect and delayed diagnosis of RP is common in our cohort, and insufficient awareness of the disease in non-rheumatologic specialists at least partially contributes to this. It is imperative to revise the current criteria for early diagnosis.Key Points• Diagnosing relapsing polychondritis (RP) in early stage remains challenging after all these years, especially among non-rheumatologic specialists, indicating the importance of teaching non-rheumatologic specialists to improve their understanding of this rare disease.• Many RP patients did not fully meet with the current criteria, suggesting that revision of the current criteria is imperative for early diagnosis of this rare disease.

20.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 189: 110874, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087531

RESUMO

Here, PEI@PMMA microspheres were prepared by grafting polyethyleneimine (PEI) on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) magnetic microspheres and successfully used to immobilize lipase. The results showed that PEI@PMMA microspheres had strongly adsorbed lipase (49.1 mg/g microsphere) via electrostatic attraction. To prevent lipase shedding, the adsorbed lipase was further crosslinked with PEI on microspheres using glutaraldehyde as crosslinker. Consequently, PEI-crosslinked lipase (2.14 U/mg) exhibited 2.6 times and 1.4 times higher activity respectively than the directly covalent lipase (0.82 U/mg) and the crosslinked lipase aggregates (1.57 U/mg), which was close to the activity of adsorbed lipase (2.20 U/mg). Conformational analysis from FTIR spectroscopy showed that PEI-crosslinked lipase retained its natural structure well. And the α-helix structure seemed to play a key role in enhancing lipase activity. Furthermore, the effects of various parameters on crosslinking reaction were investigated. Also, PEI-crosslinked lipase revealed higher pH and thermal stability. The Michaelis constant (Km) was increased and the optimum temperature of lipase was widened observably after crosslinking with PEI on PEI@PMMA magnetic microspheres.

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