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1.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(5): 1034-1042, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787094

RESUMO

Phyllanthus emblica is a kind of traditional medicine and medicinal and edible plant, with rich variety resources and high development value. It is a key poverty alleviation variety in China at present. As P. emblica processing industry is rising gradually in recent years, in order to fully develop and utilize its industrial resources, this paper systematically introduces current comprehensive development and utilization of P. emblica, discusses the problems in P. emblica processing industry, and puts forward comprehensive development and utilization strategies and industrial models in terms of cultivation, breeding, grading, quality evaluation and waste recycling, so as to provide a certain reference for promoting the high-quality development of P. emblica industry in China.


Assuntos
Medicina , Phyllanthus emblica , China , Medicina Tradicional , Melhoramento Vegetal , Extratos Vegetais
2.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(4): 1781-1790, 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742813

RESUMO

With the Liaohe River basin as the research object, the morphology, abundance, and distribution characteristics of micro(meso) plastics of soil in Liaohe River basin were studied based on the density flotation principle and the technique of stereo microscope and micro-FTIR and the significant factors affecting the distribution of the micro(meso)plastics and their potential sources were reasonably speculated. The results indicated that the average abundance of the soil micro(meso)plastic is (145.83±211.46) n·kg-1. The most abundant types of micro(meso)plastics are debris (46.00%), <1000 µm (39.57%), PP (41.71%), and white (46.86%). Among them, Rayon, PES, and PET micro(meso)plastics are primarily in the shape of fibrous (>85%), PE is mostly in the shape of film and fragments (96.91%), PP is mainly in the shape of fragments (85.62%), and PS is primarily in the shape of foam. Industrial activities (express delivery companies, plastic factories, and clothing factories), agricultural activities (plastic mulch, sewage irrigation, and sludge composting), population density, and sewage treatment plants, etc, may lead to higher levels of micro(meso)plastic abundance in the soil of the study area. Plastic products (pesticide bottles, chemical fertilizer packaging bags, woven bags, and plastic agricultural films), sewage discharge and irrigation, and foam materials used for packaging and decoration are the potential sources of soil micro(meso)plastic in the region.

3.
Org Lett ; 23(6): 2342-2346, 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33683897

RESUMO

Rifamycins have been clinically utilized against mycobacterial infections for more than 50 years; however, their biosynthesis has not been fully elucidated. Here, on the basis of in vivo gene deletions, in vitro enzyme assays, isotope labeling, and site-directed mutations, we found that a flavin-dependent monooxygenase encoded by a rifamycin biosynthetic gene cluster, Rif-Orf17, not only converted the naphthoquinone chromophore of rifamycin S into benzo-γ-pyrone but also linearized rifamycin SV through phenolic hydroxylation. Both oxidation routes lead to inactivation of rifamycins.

4.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(4): 1010-1016, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645107

RESUMO

The pharmacokinetics of traditional Chinese medicine is a subject that studies the dynamic changes of the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of complex components of traditional Chinese medicine, which is an important method for elucidating the pharmacodynamic material basis, action characteristics, and compatibility mechanisms of traditional Chinese medicine. However, given on the fact that traditional Chinese medicine is a multi-dimensional and complex system with multiple components, multiple pathways, multiple targets, and an unclear pharmacodynamic material basis, the research on the pharmacokinetics of traditio-nal Chinese medicine has become a scientific and technological problem. Although the pharmacokinetics of traditional Chinese medicine has achieved remarkable development with the emergence of new theories, methods and technologies, there are still some problems in the application of the research direction of the pharmacokinetics of traditional Chinese medicine judging from the current application of the National Natural Science Foundation of China. Therefore, this article discussed the current research status on pharmacokinetics of traditional Chinese medicines by analyzing the projects funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China in the past 5 years from 2016 to 2020, mainly including the application and funding analysis, main research contents of the projects in pharmacokinetics of traditional Chinese medicines. And the research hotspots, difficulties and deficiencies were focused in order to provide certain reference for researchers engaged in pharmacokinetics of traditional Chinese medicine.


Assuntos
Administração Financeira , Disciplinas das Ciências Naturais , China , Fundações , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
5.
Brain Res Bull ; 171: 16-24, 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705858

RESUMO

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a prevalent, chronic, and recurrent disease. At least one-third of patients have treatment-resistant depression; therefore, there is an urgent need for novel drug development. Cumulative studies have suggested an inflammatory mechanism for the pathophysiology of MDD. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GLP) is an anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory agent. Here, we found that an injection of GLP led to a rapid and robust antidepressant effect after 60 min in the tail suspension test. This antidepressant effect remained after 5 days of treatment with GLP in the forced swim test. Unlike psychostimulants, GLP did not show a hyperactive effect in the open field test. After 60 min or 5 days of treatment, GLP exhibited an antidepressant effect in a chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) depression animal model. Moreover, after 5 days of treatment, GLP attenuated the expression of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1ß and TNF-α, enhanced the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and the neurotrophic factor BDNF, and inhibited the activation of microglia and proliferation of astrocytes in the hippocampus of CSDS mice. In addition, after 5 days of treatment, GLP significantly enhanced GluA1 S845 phosphorylation as well as GluA1 and GluA2 expression levels in the hippocampus of CSDS mice. To determine whether the antidepressant effect was mediated by Dectin-1, we found that GLP treatment enhanced Dectin-1 expression in the hippocampus in CSDS mice, and the Dectin-1-specific inhibitor laminarin almost completely blocked the antidepressant effect of GLP. This study identified GLP, an agonist of Dectin-1, as a novel and rapid antidepressant with clinical potential and multiple beneficial mechanisms, particularly in regulating the neuroimmune system and, subsequently, AMPA receptor function.

6.
Mol Immunol ; 134: 86-99, 2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740580

RESUMO

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), an emerging porcine enteropathogenic coronavirus, causes acute watery diarrhea and vomiting in piglets. Here, we isolated a strain of PDCoV from intestinal content of a piglet with severe watery diarrhea on a farm located in Henan Province, named PDCoV strain HNZK-02. Subsequently, the complete genomes of cell-cultured PDCoV HNZK-02 passage 5 and 15 were sequenced and analyzed. There was a continuous 3-nucleotide deletion and 7 amino acid changes in S genes when compared with the other reported PDCoVs. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq)-based transcriptome analysis was used to quantitatively identify differentially expressed genes after PDCoV infection in ST cells. In total, 523 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, including 62 upregulated genes and 457 downregulated genes. The 62 upregulated genes were associated with TNF signaling pathway, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, IL-17 signaling, chemokine signaling pathway and NF-κB signaling pathway. The significant expressing changed genes, including three antiviral genes (Mx1, OASL, OAS1) and three inflammatory chemokine related genes (CCL5, CXCL8, CXCL10) were further validated using quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) assay. It showed the consistent expression patterns of the candidate genes with those from RNA-seq. Our results demonstrated that PDCoV infection activates NF-κB signaling pathway and leads to the expression of inflammatory factors, which may be related to TLRs but TLR2 is not a critical factor.In general, these results can help us to confirm the molecular regulation mechanism and also provide us a comprehensive resource of PDCoV infection.

7.
Epilepsy Behav ; 117: 107884, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brainstem raphe nucleus (BRN) hypoechogenicity in transcranial sonography (TCS) has been demonstrated in patients with major depression, possibly representing a sonographic manifestation of serotonergic dysfunction in depression. Most patients with epilepsy with comorbid depression exhibit hypoechogenic BRN in TCS. However, the role of BRN in the pathogenesis of epilepsy is unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the correlation of BRN echogenicity with epilepsy itself, and the echogenicity of other midbrain structures and the size of lateral ventricle (LV) will also be evaluated in patients with epilepsy. METHODS: Thirty-six patients with epilepsy without depression and 37 healthy controls were recruited. Sonographic echogenicity of BRN, caudate nucleus (CN), lentiform nucleus (LN), substantia nigra (SN), and the width of frontal horns of the lateral ventricles (LV) and the third ventricle (TV) were evaluated with TCS. The frequency of interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) was assessed with ambulatory electroencephalogram (AEEG). RESULTS: Hypoechogenicity of BRN was depicted in 36.1% of patients with epilepsy and 18.9% of controls, showing no significant difference. Patients with epilepsy with BRN hypoechogenicity had higher epileptic discharge index (EDI) than those with normal BRN echogenecity. Especially, higher EDI in patients with BRN hypoechogenicity was observed during the sleep period but not during awake period. The width of TV was significantly larger in patients with epilepsy than that in controls. We did not find any difference between patients with epilepsy and controls in the echogenicity of CN, LN, and SN, as well as in the width of frontal horn of LV. CONCLUSIONS: Hypoechogenic BRN is correlated with a high frequency of epileptic discharges in electroencephalogram (EEG), especially during sleep period but not during awake period, indicating that BRN alterations may play a potential role in the pathogenesis of epilepsy in association with sleep cycle.

8.
Plant Cell Environ ; 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33576018

RESUMO

Transposable elements exist widely throughout plant genomes and play important roles in plant evolution. Auxin is an important regulator that is traditionally associated with root development and drought stress adaptation. The DEEPER ROOTING 1 (DRO1) gene is a key component of rice drought avoidance. Here, we identified a transposon that acts as an autonomous auxin-responsive promoter and its presence at specific genome positions conveys physiological adaptations related to drought avoidance. Rice varieties with a high and auxin-mediated transcription of DRO1 in the root tip show deeper and longer root phenotypes and are thus better adapted to drought. The INDITTO2 transposon contains an auxin response element and displays auxin-responsive promoter activity; it is thus able to convey auxin regulation of transcription to genes in its proximity. In the rice Acuce, which displays DRO1-mediated drought adaptation, the INDITTO2 transposon was found to be inserted at the promoter region of the DRO1 locus. Transgenesis-based insertion of the INDITTO2 transposon into the DRO1 promoter of the non-adapted rice variety Nipponbare was sufficient to promote its drought avoidance. Our data identify an example of how transposons can act as promoters and convey hormonal regulation to nearby loci, improving plant fitness in response to different abiotic stresses.

9.
ACS Nano ; 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33620212

RESUMO

The discovery of Dirac semimetal has stimulated bourgeoning interests for exploring exotic quantum-transport phenomena, holding great promise for manipulating the performance of photoelectric devices that are related to nontrivial band topology. Nevertheless, it still remains elusive on both the device implementation and immediate results, with some enhanced or technically applicable electronic properties signified by the Dirac fermiology. By means of Pt doping, a type-II Dirac semimetal Ir1-xPtxTe2 with protected crystal structure and tunable Fermi level has been achieved in this work. It has been envisioned that the metal-semimetal-metal device exhibits an order of magnitude performance improvement at terahertz frequency when the Fermi level is aligned with the Dirac node (i.e., x ∼ 0.3) and a room-temperature photoresponsivity of 0.52 A·W-1 at 0.12 THz and 0.45 A·W-1 at 0.3 THz, which benefited from the excitation of type-II Dirac fermions. Furthermore, van der Waals integration with Dirac semimetals exhibits superb performance with noise equivalent power less than 24 pW·Hz-0.5, rivaling the state-of-the-art detectors. Our work provides a route to explore the nontrivial topology of Dirac semimetal for addressing targeted applications in imaging and biomedical sensing across a terahertz gap.

10.
J Nat Prod ; 84(2): 483-494, 2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544615

RESUMO

Twelve new hypothemycin-type resorcylic acid lactones, three 10-membered (1-3) and nine 14-membered (4-12), together with seven known analogues (13-19), were obtained from the solid rice-based culture of Podospora sp. G214. Their structures were elucidated utilizing spectroscopic analysis, and the absolute configurations were determined by modified Mosher's method, Mo2(OAc)4-induced electronic circular dichroism experiments, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compounds 1, 5, 10, and 12-19 exhibited potent immunosuppressive activities against concanavalin A-induced T cell proliferation with IC50 values ranging from 6.0 to 25.1 µM and lipopolysaccharide-induced B cell proliferation with IC50 values ranging from 6.2 to 29.1 µM. Further studies revealed that 1 induced apoptosis in activated T cells through the JNK-mediated mitochondrial pathway.

11.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33633363

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibition is an important strategy in cancer therapy. Blockade of CTLA-4 and PD-1/PD-L1 is well developed in clinical practice. In the last few years, LAG-3 has received much interest as an emerging novel target in immunotherapy. It was recently reported that FGL1 is a major ligand of LAG-3, which is normally secreted by the liver but is upregulated in several human cancers. FGL1 is a crucial biomarker and target for cancer immunotherapy. As the efficacy of immunotherapy is limited to specific types of patients, the subset of patients needs to be selected appropriately to receive precise treatment according to different biomarkers. To date, there is no test to accurately assess FGL1 expression levels. Nanobodies have some outstanding features, such as high stability, solubility and affinity for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Here, we report the development and validation of a rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective nanobody-based immunoassay for the detection of FGL1 in human serum. In this study, human FGL1 recombinant protein was expressed and purified for the first time as an immunized antigen. Then, we constructed a nanobody phage display library and screened several nanobodies that bind FGL1 with high affinity. We selected two nanobodies targeting different epitopes of FGL1, one as a capture and the other conjugated with HRP as a probe. The double nanobody-based sandwich ELISA to detect the concentration of FGL1 showed a good response relationship in the range of 15.625-2000 ng/mL, and the recoveries from the spiked sample were in the range of 78% and 100%. This assay could be used as a potential approach for evaluating FGL1 expression for patient stratification and for predicting the therapeutic efficacy of targeting the LAG3/FGL1 axis.

12.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 253: 119573, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618264

RESUMO

Regulating the folding state by denaturants is essential for the structure and function of proteins. Poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPAM) is usually regarded as a model for protein denaturation. The effects of urea, as a denaturant, on the aggregations of PNIPAM was studied by temperature-dependent near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, and particularly the variation of water structures was analyzed. The NIR spectra of the polymer-urea solutions containing different polymer concentrations were measured at different temperatures. N-way principal component analysis (NPCA) was performed to observe the spectral information. Three principal components (PCs) containing the spectral information of CH groups were obtained, showing three kinds of CH in the system. Obvious dehydration of the three CH groups occurs at 27.5 °C in solution, but the temperature turns to 27 °C for two kinds of the CH and 26.5 °C for the third one, respectively, in the urea-add solution. The effect of urea on the formation of the intramolecular hydrogen bonds that promotes polymer folding is suggested. The spectral information of NH in urea molecule indicates that the direct interaction of urea and polymer facilitates the stability of the polymer globule state. Furthermore, the spectral information of OH shows that the release of the water molecules with three hydrogen bonds (S3), which may connect the NH and CO groups in PNIPAM in solution, leads to the phase transition. When urea is added, urea may reduce the content of the S3 water to facilitate the release, making the phase transition at a low temperature.

13.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 185: 114422, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482151

RESUMO

Multiple sclerosis (MS), as an inflammatory demyelinating disorder of central nervous system, is the leading cause of non-traumatic neurologic disability in young adults. The pathogenesis of MS remains unknown, however, a dysregulation of glia-neuroimmune signaling plays a key role during progressive disease stage. Most of the existing drugs are aimed at the immune system, but there is no approved drug by promoting remyelination after demyelination so far. There is a great interest in identifying novel agents for treating MS bytargeting to switch the immune imbalance from pro-inflammation and apoptosis to anti-inflammation and regeneration during remyelination phase. Here, we reported that ganoderic acid A (GAA) significantly enhanced the remyelination and rescued motor deficiency in two animal models of MS, including cuprizone-induced demyelination and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) 35-55-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model. In these two independent MS animal models, GAA modulated neuroimmune to enhance the anti-inflammatory and regeneration markers IL-4 and BDNF, inhibited inflammatory markers IL-1ß and IL-6, followed by down-regulation of microglia activation and astrocyte proliferation. Pharmacological and genetic ablation of farnesoid-X-receptor (FXR) abolished GAA-induced remyelination and restoration of motor deficiency in MS mice. Thus, GAA is a novel and potential therapeutic agent that can rescue MS neuroimmune imbalance and remyelination through an FXR receptor-dependent mechanism. Clinical investigation on the therapeutic effect of GAA in improving remyelination of the MS patients to rescue the motor function is warranted.

14.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(15): 8198-8202, 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480082

RESUMO

Organic ferroelectrics are highly desirable for their light weight, mechanical flexibility and biocompatibility. However, the rational design of organic ferroelectrics has always faced great challenges. Anilinium bromide (AB) has two structures reported in the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre, which might be an mmmF2/m type ferroelastic (AB-1). When we studied its ferroelasticity, we were surprised to discover that there was another crystal (AB-2) in H2 O besides this one, and they were very difficult to separate. By changing the solvent, we found that AB-1 crystals could be formed in ethanol, where ferroelastic domains were visualized by polarized light microscopy, and AB-2 crystals could be obtained from various crystallization solvents of methanol, isopropanol, N-butanol, acetonitrile, dimethyl sulfoxide, and N,N-dimethylformamide, which undergo a ferroelectric phase transition with mm2Fm, showing clear ferroelectricity in two phases. To our knowledge, the regulation of ferroelasticity to ferroelectricity by solvent selective effect is unprecedented in the field of ferroelectrics. This work reveals the important role of solvent effect in organic ferroelectrics.

15.
Mol Cell ; 81(5): 922-939.e9, 2021 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434505

RESUMO

R-2-hydroxyglutarate (R-2HG), a metabolite produced by mutant isocitrate dehydrogenases (IDHs), was recently reported to exhibit anti-tumor activity. However, its effect on cancer metabolism remains largely elusive. Here we show that R-2HG effectively attenuates aerobic glycolysis, a hallmark of cancer metabolism, in (R-2HG-sensitive) leukemia cells. Mechanistically, R-2HG abrogates fat-mass- and obesity-associated protein (FTO)/N6-methyladenosine (m6A)/YTH N6-methyladenosine RNA binding protein 2 (YTHDF2)-mediated post-transcriptional upregulation of phosphofructokinase platelet (PFKP) and lactate dehydrogenase B (LDHB) (two critical glycolytic genes) expression and thereby suppresses aerobic glycolysis. Knockdown of FTO, PFKP, or LDHB recapitulates R-2HG-induced glycolytic inhibition in (R-2HG-sensitive) leukemia cells, but not in normal CD34+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, and inhibits leukemogenesis in vivo; conversely, their overexpression reverses R-2HG-induced effects. R-2HG also suppresses glycolysis and downregulates FTO/PFKP/LDHB expression in human primary IDH-wild-type acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells, demonstrating the clinical relevance. Collectively, our study reveals previously unrecognized effects of R-2HG and RNA modification on aerobic glycolysis in leukemia, highlighting the therapeutic potential of targeting cancer epitranscriptomics and metabolism.


Assuntos
Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato/genética , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Glutaratos/farmacologia , Glicólise/genética , Lactato Desidrogenases/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Fosfofrutoquinase-1 Tipo C/genética , Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato/antagonistas & inibidores , Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Fluoruracila/farmacologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glicólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Células K562 , Lactato Desidrogenases/antagonistas & inibidores , Lactato Desidrogenases/metabolismo , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Fosforilação Oxidativa/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfofrutoquinase-1 Tipo C/antagonistas & inibidores , Fosfofrutoquinase-1 Tipo C/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Análise de Sobrevida , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
16.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(3): 4605-4616, 2021 01 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495418

RESUMO

The absence of a gold standard for treating pulmonary fibrosis makes its management challenging. We established a rat model to study the effect of resveratrol (Res) on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Rats were randomly divided into control, model, low-Res, middle-Res, high-Res, and dexamethasone groups and treated with various concentrations of these drugs. Rats showed typical features of pulmonary fibrosis; i.e., alveolitis, fibrous hyperplasia, and fibrosis on days 7, 14, and 28, respectively. Expression of HIF-1α and NF-κB was higher in the middle-Res, high-Res, and dexamethasone groups than in the control group, but was less than that in the model and low Res groups. We conclude that different levels of HIF-1α and NF-κB expression at different stages of pulmonary fibrosis in rats is positively correlated with the disease severity. Furthermore, resveratrol alleviates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis by suppressing HIF-1α and NF-κB expression, indicating its potential as a promising therapeutic drug candidate.

17.
J Org Chem ; 86(3): 3081-3088, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435674

RESUMO

For the first time, H3PO3 was used as both the reducing reagent and the promotor in the reductive benzylation reactions with aryl aldehydes. By using a H3PO3/I2 combination, various aromatic aldehydes underwent iodination reactions and Friedel-Crafts type reactions with arenes via benzyl iodide intermediates, readily producing benzyl iodides and diarylmethanes in good yields. Intramolecular cyclization reactions also took place, giving the corresponding cyclic compounds. This new strategy features easy-handling, low-cost, and metal-free conditions.

18.
Acad Radiol ; 2021 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33504445

RESUMO

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to explore conventional MRI features that can accurately differentiate central nervous system embryonal tumor, not otherwise specified (CNS ETNOS) from glioblastoma (GBM) in adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Preoperative conventional MRI images of 30 CNS ETNOS and 98 GBMs were analyzed by neuroradiologists retrospectively to identify valuable MRI features. Five blinded neuroradiologists independently reviewed all these MRI images, and scored MRI features on a five-point scale. Kendall's coefficient of concordance was used to measure inter-rater agreement. Diagnostic value was assessed by the area under the curve (AUC) of receiver operating curve, and sensitivity and specificity were also calculated. RESULTS: Seven MRI features, including isointensity on T1WI, T2WI, and FLAIR, ill-defined margin, severe peritumoral edema, ring enhancement, and broad-based attachment sign, were helpful for the differential diagnosis of these two entities. Among these features, ring enhancement showed the highest inter-rater concordance (0.80). Ring enhancement showed the highest AUC value (0.79), followed by severe peritumoral edema (0.67). The combination of seven features showed the highest AUC value (0.86), followed by that of three features (ill-defined margin, severe peritumoral edema, and ring enhancement) (0.83). CONCLUSION: Enhancement pattern, peritumoral edema, and margin are valuable for the discrimination between CNS ETNOS and GBM in adults.

19.
Eur J Nutr ; 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33439332

RESUMO

Phyllanthus emblica is a fruit widely consumed in subtropical areas, which is rich in polyphenols and other nutrients. There are increasing evidences that as a daily and nutritious fruit, it may have a positive role in controlling diabetic complications. According to the new study, its mechanisms include enhancing the functioning of insulin, reducing insulin resistance, activating the insulin-signaling pathway, protecting ß-cells, scavenging free radicals, alleviating inflammatory reactions, and reducing the accumulation of advanced glycation end products. Owing to its few side effects, and low price, it should be easily accepted by patients and has potential for preventing diabetes. Taken together, Phyllanthus emblica may be an ideal fruit for controlling diabetic complications. This review highlights the latest findings of the role of Phyllanthus emblica in anti-diabetes and its complications, especially clarifies the molecular mechanism of the chemical components related to this effect, and prospects some existing problems and future research directions.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421578

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Delay in diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) is an important but under-appreciated problem. Our study aimed to analyse the patient pathway and possible risk factors of long diagnostic delay (LDD). METHODS: We enrolled 400 new bacteriologically diagnosed patients with pulmonary TB from 20 hospitals across China. LDD was defined as an interval between the initial care visit and the confirmation of diagnosis exceeding 14 days. Its potential risk factors were investigated by multivariate logistic regression and multilevel logistic regression. Hospitals in China were classified by increasing size, from level 0 to level 3. TB laboratory equipment in hospitals was also evaluated. RESULTS: The median diagnostic delay was 20 days (IQR: 7-72 days), and 229 of 400 patients (57.3%, 95%CI 52.4-62.1) had LDD; 15% of participants were diagnosed at the initial care visit. Compared to level 0 facilities, choosing level 2 (OR 0.27, 95%CI 0.12-0.62, p 0.002) and level 3 facilities (OR 0.34, 95%CI 0.14-0.84, p 0.019) for the initial care visit was independently associated with shorter LDD. Equipping with smear, culture, and Xpert at initial care visit simultaneously also helped to avoid LDD (OR 0.28, 95%CI 0.09-0.82, p 0.020). The multilevel logistic regression yielded similar results. Availability of smear, culture, and Xpert was lower in level 0-1 facilities than in level 2-3 facilities (p < 0.001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Most patients failed to be diagnosed at the initial care visit. Patients who went to low-level facilities initially had a higher risk of LDD. Improvement of TB laboratory equipment, especially at low-level facilities, is urgently needed.

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