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1.
Anal Methods ; 14(2): 114-124, 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34913444

RESUMO

There has been no study on using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to predict the hotness of fresh pepper. This study is aimed at developing a non-destructive and accurate method for determining the hotness of fresh peppers using portable NIRS and the variable selection strategy. Spectra from different locations on samples were obtained non-destructively with a single scan. Quantitative models were established using partial least squares (PLS) with a variable selection method or fusion method. The results showed that near-stalk was the best spectral acquisition location for quantitative analysis. The variable selection strategy allows the selection of targeted characteristic variables and improves the results. A fusion method, namely variable adaptive boosting partial least squares (VABPLS), was selected for optimal prediction of the performance. In the optimized model, the root mean square errors of prediction for the validation set (RMSEPvs) of capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin and pungency degree were 0.295, 0.143 and 47.770, respectively, while the root mean square errors of prediction for the prediction set (RMSEPps) collected one month later were 0.273, 0.346 and 75.524, respectively.

2.
iScience ; 24(12): 103400, 2021 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34849465

RESUMO

Emerging evidence suggests that ADP-ribosylation factor like-4c (Arl4c) may be a potential choice for cancer treatment. However, its role in pancreatic cancer, especially in tumor-stroma interactions and drug resistance, is still unknown. In the current study, we examined the proliferation and drug resistance effect of Arl4c on pancreatic cancer cells. Furthermore, we explored the contribution of Arl4c high expression in pancreatic stellate cell (PSC) activation. We found that high Arl4c expression is associated with cell proliferation, drug resistance, and PSC activation. In detail, Arl4c regulates connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) paracrine, further induces autophagic flux in PSCs, resulting in PSC activation. TGFß1 secreted by activated PSCs enhances cancer cell stem cell properties via smad2 signaling, further increasing cell drug resistance. YAP is an important mediator of the Arl4c-CTGF loop. Taken together, these results suggest that Arl4c is essential for pancreatic cancer progression and may be an effective therapeutic choice.

3.
Pharmaceutics ; 13(12)2021 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34959306

RESUMO

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) precisely controls brain microenvironment and neural activity by regulating substance transport into and out of the brain. However, it severely hinders drug entry into the brain, and the efficiency of various systemic therapies against brain diseases. Modulation of the BBB via opening tight junctions, inhibiting active efflux and/or enhancing transcytosis, possesses the potential to increase BBB permeability and improve intracranial drug concentrations and systemic therapeutic efficiency. Various strategies of BBB modulation have been reported and investigated preclinically and/or clinically. This review describes conventional and emerging BBB modulation strategies and related mechanisms, and safety issues according to BBB structures and functions, to try to give more promising directions for designing more reasonable preclinical and clinical studies.

4.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(33): 10355-10361, 2021 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34904110

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Venom-induced consumption coagulopathy (VICC) is characterized by coagulation dysfunction accompanied by decreased coagulation factor activity and fibrinogen (FBG) concentrations. We report a patient with VICC caused by snake bite who manifested persistent FBG deficiency without abnormal coagulation factor activity. This information may be helpful in diagnosing and treating VICC. CASE SUMMARY: A 49-year-old man who had been bitten by a snake 13 h previously was admitted to the Emergency Department of our hospital with visible swelling of a finger and a bleeding puncture site. The provisional diagnosis was VICC, this being made based on persistent bleeding from the puncture site and subcutaneous hemorrhage. Laboratory evidence of coagulation abnormalities, including fibrinolysis, and findings on thromboelastography confirmed VICC. He had persistent afibrinogenemia requiring intravenous infusions of cryoprecipitate and fresh frozen plasma, together with continuous large doses of human FBG. After this treatment, the patient's right upper limb swelling improved significantly and his subcutaneous hemorrhage resolved. All of his abnormal laboratory findings returned to normal by day 25. During 6 months' of follow-up, the patient had no further hemorrhagic events. CONCLUSION: Hemorrhagic snake venom can result in coagulation dysfunction characterized by persistent FBG deficiency without abnormal coagulation factor activity.

5.
Macromol Rapid Commun ; : e2100690, 2021 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34743372

RESUMO

The morphological transformation from microspheres to helical supramolecular nanofibers with controllable handedness is achieved by the introduction of molecular chirality based on amino acid derivatives (TDAP), and the chirality of the supramolecular architectures that are achieved is nullified through the coassembly of the equivalent TDAP enantiomers. The molecular detection of achiral melamine based on the R-TDAP-COOH supramolecular system is achieved by the appearance of helicity and inversion.

6.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 762247, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34805229

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), which can enhance antitumor immunity and inhibit cancer growth, have revolutionized the treatment of multiple cancers and dramatically decreased mortality. However, treatment with ICIs is directly associated with immune-related adverse events (irAEs) because of inflammation in off-target organs and autoimmunity resulting from non-specific immune activation. These irAEs can cause rheumatic diseases and manifestations such as inflammatory arthritis, polymyalgia rheumatica, myositis, vasculitis, Sicca and Sjogen's syndrome, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Early diagnosis and treatment of these adverse events will improve outcomes and quality of life for cancer patients. The treatment of rheumatic diseases induced by ICIs requires multidisciplinary cooperation among physicians. Furthermore, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood and it is difficult to predict and evaluate these side effects precisely. In this review, we summarize available studies and findings about rheumatic irAEs, focusing mainly on the clinical manifestations, epidemiology, possible mechanisms, and guiding principles for treating these irAEs.

7.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 696802, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34646130

RESUMO

Background: Wutou Decoction (WTD), as a classic prescription, has been generally used to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA) for two thousand years in China. However, the potential protective effects of WTD on rheumatoid arthritis and its possible mechanism have rarely been reported. Purpose: The aim of this study was to explore the possible mechanism of WTD against RA and a promising alternative candidate for RA therapy. Methods: A model of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) was constructed in rats to assess the therapeutic effects of WTD. Histopathological staining, immunofluorescence, and western blotting of synovial sections were conducted to detect the antiangiogenic effects of WTD. Then, cell viability assays, flow cytometry, scratch healing assays, and invasion assays were conducted to explore the effects of WTD on MH7A human fibroblast-like synoviocyte (FLS) cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion in vitro. The ability of WTD to induce blood vessel formation after MH7A cell and human umbilical vein endothelial cell line (HUVEC) coculture with WTD intervention was detected by a tube formation assay. The mechanisms of WTD were screened by network pharmacology and confirmed by in vivo and in vitro experiments. Results: WTD ameliorated the symptoms and synovial pannus hyperplasia of CIA rats. Treatment with WTD inhibited MH7A cell proliferation, migration, and invasion and promoted MH7A apoptosis. WTD could inhibit MH7A cell expression of proangiogenic factors, including VEGF and ANGI, to induce HUVEC tube formation. Furthermore, the PI3K-AKT-mTOR-HIF-1α pathway was enriched as a potential target of WTD for the treatment of RA through network pharmacology enrichment analysis. Finally, it was confirmed in vitro and in vivo that WTD inhibits angiogenesis in RA by interrupting the PI3K-AKT-mTOR-HIF-1α pathway. Conclusion: WTD can inhibit synovial hyperplasia and angiogenesis, presumably by inhibiting the migration and invasion of MH7A cells and blocking the production of proangiogenic effectors in MH7A cells. The possible underlying mechanism by which WTD ameliorates angiogenesis in RA is the PI3K-AKT-mTOR-HIF-1α pathway.

8.
Front Oncol ; 11: 728583, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34671554

RESUMO

Background: Perineural invasion (PNI) is an important pathologic feature of pancreatic cancer, and the incidence of PNI in pancreatic cancer is 70%-100%. PNI is associated with poor outcome, metastasis, and recurrence in pancreatic cancer patients. There are very few treatments for PNI in pancreatic cancer. Honokiol (HNK) is a natural product that is mainly obtained from Magnolia species and has been indicated to have anticancer activity. HNK also has potent neurotrophic activity and may be effective for suppressing PNI. However, the potential role of HNK in the treatment of PNI in pancreatic cancer has not been elucidated. Methods: In our study, pancreatic cancer cells were treated with vehicle or HNK, and the invasion and migration capacities were assessed by wound scratch assays and Transwell assays. A cancer cell-dorsal root ganglion coculture model was established to evaluate the effect of HNK on the PNI of pancreatic cancer. Western blotting was used to detect markers of EMT and neurotrophic factors in pancreatic tissue. Recombinant TGF-ß1 was used to activate SMAD2/3 to verify the effect of HNK on SMAD2/3 and neurotrophic factors. The subcutaneous tumor model and the sciatic nerve invasion model, which were established in transgenic engineered mice harboring spontaneous pancreatic cancer, were used to investigate the mechanism by which HNK inhibits EMT and PNI in vivo. Results: We found that HNK can inhibit the invasion and migration of pancreatic cancer cells. More importantly, HNK can inhibit the PNI of pancreatic cancer. The HNK-mediated suppression of pancreatic cancer PNI was partially mediated by inhibition of SMAD2/3 phosphorylation. In addition, the inhibitory effect of HNK on PNI can be reversed by activating SMAD2/3. In vivo, we found that HNK can suppress EMT in pancreatic cancer. HNK can also inhibit cancer cell migration along the nerve, reduce the damage to the sciatic nerve caused by tumor cells and protect the function of the sciatic nerve. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that HNK can inhibit the invasion, migration, and PNI of pancreatic cancer by blocking SMAD2/3 phosphorylation, and we conclude that HNK may be a new strategy for suppressing PNI in pancreatic cancer.

9.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 23(8): 814-820, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511171

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To study the survival rate and the incidence of complications of very preterm infants and the factors influencing the survival rate and the incidence of complications. METHODS: The medical data of the very preterm infants with a gestational age of <32 weeks and who were admitted to the Department of Neonatology in 11 hospitals of Jiangsu Province in China from January 2018 to December 2019 were retrospectively reviewed. Their survival rate and the incidence of serious complications were analyzed. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the risk factors for death and serious complications in very preterm infants. RESULTS: A total of 2 339 very preterm infants were enrolled, among whom 2 010 (85.93%) survived and 1 507 (64.43%) survived without serious complications. The groups with a gestational age of 22-25+6 weeks, 26-26+6 weeks, 27-27+6 weeks, 28-28+6 weeks, 29-29+6 weeks, 30-30+6 weeks, and 31-31+6 weeks had a survival rate of 32.5%, 60.6%, 68.0%, 82.9%, 90.1%, 92.3%, and 94.8% respectively. The survival rate tended to increase with the gestational age (P<0.05) and the survival rate without serious complications in each gestational age group was 7.5%, 18.1%, 34.5%, 52.2%, 66.7%, 75.7%, and 81.8% respectively, suggesting that the survival rate without serious complications increased with the gestational age (P<0.05). The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that high gestational age, high birth weight, and prenatal use of glucocorticoids were protective factors against death in very preterm infants (P<0.05), and 1-minute Apgar score ≤3 was a risk factor for death in very preterm infants (P<0.05); high gestational age and high birth weight were protective factors against serious complications in very preterm infants who survived (P<0.05), while 5-minute Apgar score ≤3 and maternal chorioamnionitis were risk factors for serious complications in very preterm infants who survived (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The survival rate is closely associated with gestational age in very preterm infants. A low 1-minute Apgar score (≤3) may increase the risk of death in very preterm infants, while high gestational age, high birth weight, and prenatal use of glucocorticoids are associated with the reduced risk of death. A low 5-minute Apgar score (≤3) and maternal chorioamnionitis may increase the risk of serious complications in these infants, while high gestational age and high birth weight may reduce the risk of serious complications.


Assuntos
Doenças do Prematuro , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
10.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 11(9)2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578697

RESUMO

This article assembles a distributed feedback (DFB) cavity on the sidewalls of the optical fiber by using very simple fabrication techniques including two-beam interference lithography and dip-coating. The DFB laser structure comprises graduated gratings on the optical fiber sidewalls which are covered with a layer of colloidal quantum dots. Directional DFB lasing is observed from the fiber facet due to the coupling effect between the grating and the optical fiber. The directional lasing from the optical fiber facet exhibits a small solid divergence angle as compared to the conventional laser. It can be attributed to the two-dimensional light confinement in the fiber waveguide. An analytical approach based on the Bragg condition and the coupled-wave theory was developed to explain the characteristics of the laser device. The intensity of the output coupled laser is tuned by the coupling coefficient, which is determined by the angle between the grating vector and the fiber axis. These results afford opportunities to integrate different DFB lasers on the same optical fiber sidewall, achieving multi-wavelength self-aligned DFB lasers for a directional emission. The proposed technique may provide an alternative to integrating DFB lasers for applications in networking, optical sensing, and power delivery.

11.
Acta Pharm Sin B ; 11(8): 2306-2325, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34522589

RESUMO

Blood-brain barrier (BBB) strictly controls matter exchange between blood and brain, and severely limits brain penetration of systemically administered drugs, resulting in ineffective drug therapy of brain diseases. However, during the onset and progression of brain diseases, BBB alterations evolve inevitably. In this review, we focus on nanoscale brain-targeting drug delivery strategies designed based on BBB evolutions and related applications in various brain diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, stroke, traumatic brain injury and brain tumor. The advances on optimization of small molecules for BBB crossing and non-systemic administration routes (e.g., intranasal treatment) for BBB bypassing are not included in this review.

12.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 644724, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34336871

RESUMO

The COVID-19 outbreak has brought great challenges to healthcare resources around the world. Patients with COVID-19 exhibit a broad spectrum of clinical characteristics. In this study, the Factor Analysis of Mixed Data (FAMD)-based cluster analysis was applied to demographic information, laboratory indicators at the time of admission, and symptoms presented before admission. Three COVID-19 clusters with distinct clinical features were identified by FAMD-based cluster analysis. The FAMD-based cluster analysis results indicated that the symptoms of COVID-19 were roughly consistent with the laboratory findings of COVID-19 patients. Furthermore, symptoms for mild patients were atypical. Different hospital stay durations and survival differences among the three clusters were also found, and the more severe the clinical characteristics were, the worse the prognosis. Our aims were to describe COVID-19 clusters with different clinical characteristics, and a classifier model according to the results of FAMD-based cluster analysis was constructed to help provide better individualized treatments for numerous COVID-19 patients in the future.

13.
Inflammation ; 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34409550

RESUMO

Emodin is a natural bioactive compound from traditional Chinese herbs that exerts anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, hepatoprotective, and neuroprotective effects. However, the protective effects of emodin in acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity are not clear. The present study examined the effects of emodin on APAP-induced hepatotoxicity and investigated the potential molecular mechanisms. C57BL/6 mice were pretreated with emodin (15 and 30 mg/kg) for 5 consecutive days and then given APAP (300 mg/kg) to establish an APAP-induced liver injury model. Mice were sacrificed to detect the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and albumin (ALB) and the liver tissue levels of glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Histological assessment, Western blotting, and ELISA were performed. Emodin pretreatment significantly reduced the levels of ALT, AST, and ALP; increased the levels of ALB; alleviated hepatocellular damage and apoptosis; attenuated the exhaustion of GSH and SOD and the accumulation of MDA; and increased the expression of antioxidative enzymes, including nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), and NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1 (NQO1). Emodin also inhibited the expression of NLRP3 and reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory factors, including interleukin-1 beta (IL-1ß), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Emodin inhibited interferon (IFN)-α, cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS), and its downstream signaling effector stimulator of interferon genes (STING) expression to protect the liver against APAP-induced inflammatory responses and apoptosis. These results suggest that emodin protected hepatocytes from APAP-induced liver injury via the upregulation of the Nrf2-mediated antioxidative stress pathway, the inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome, and the downregulation of the cGAS-STING signaling pathway.

14.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(16): 20511-20533, 2021 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34432649

RESUMO

Interferon (IFN) signaling pathways play crucial roles in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Prior studies have mainly studied mixed alterations in the IFN signaling pathway in RA, but these studies have not been sufficient to elucidate how imbalanced IFN signaling subtly influences immune cells. Single-cell RNA (scRNA) sequencing makes it possible to better understand the alternations in the interferon signaling pathways in RA. In the present study, we found that IFN signaling pathways were activated in natural killer (NK) cells, monocytes, T cells, B cells, and most immune cell subclasses in RA. We then explored and analyzed the connections between abnormal IFN signaling pathways and cellular functional changes in RA. Single-Cell rEgulatory Network Inference and Clustering (SCENIC) analysis and gene regulatory network (GRN) construction were also performed to identify key transcription factors in RA. Finally, we also investigated altered IFN signaling pathways in multiple RA peripheral blood samples, which indicated that abnormal IFN signaling pathways were universally observed in RA. Our study contributes to a better understanding of the delicate and precise regulation of IFN signaling in the immune system in RA. Furthermore, common alternations in IFN signaling pathway-related transcription factors could help to identify novel therapeutic targets for RA treatment.

15.
Adv Mater ; 33(37): e2102778, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34318541

RESUMO

Bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells (OSCs) have achieved great success because they overcome the shortcomings of short exciton diffusion distances. With the progress in material innovation and device technology, the efficiency of BHJ devices is continually being improved. For some special photovoltaic material systems, it is difficult to manipulate the miscibility and morphology of blend films, and this results in moderate, even poor device performance. Quasiplanar heterojunction (Q-PHJ) OSCs have been proposed to exploit the excellent photovoltaic properties of these materials. An OSC with BTIC-BO-4Cl has a 3D interpenetrating network structure with multiple channels that can facilitate the exciton diffusion and charge transport, and BTIC-BO-4Cl is therefore a good candidate for Q-PHJ OSCs. In this work, a D18:BTIC-BO-4Cl-based Q-PHJ device is fabricated. The exciton diffusion lengths of D18 and BTIC-BO-4Cl are in accord with the requirements of the Q-PHJ device and the efficiency of Q-PHJ device is as high as 17.60%. This study indicates that the Q-PHJ architecture can replace the BHJ architecture to produce excellent OSCs for certain unique donors and acceptors, providing an alternative approach to photovoltaic material design and device fabrication.

16.
Front Immunol ; 12: 689044, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34248976

RESUMO

Autoimmune diseases are a worldwide health problem with growing rates of morbidity, and are characterized by breakdown and dysregulation of the immune system. Although their etiology and pathogenesis remain unclear, the application of dietary supplements is gradually increasing in patients with autoimmune diseases, mainly due to their positive effects, relatively safety, and low cost. Quercetin is a natural flavonoid that is widely present in fruits, herbs, and vegetables. It has been shown to have a wide range of beneficial effects and biological activities, including anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, and neuroprotection. In several recent studies quercetin has reportedly attenuated rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis, and systemic lupus erythematosus in humans or animal models. This review summarizes the evidence for the pharmacological application of quercetin for autoimmune diseases, which supports the view that quercetin may be useful for their prevention and treatment.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Autoimunes/tratamento farmacológico , Quercetina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antirreumáticos/farmacologia , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Humanos , Quercetina/farmacologia
17.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 678409, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34290608

RESUMO

Immunotherapy, which takes advantage of the immune system to eliminate cancer cells, has been widely studied and applied in oncology. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) prevent the immune system from being turned off before cancer cells are eliminated. They have proven to be among the most promising and effective immunotherapies, with significant survival benefits and durable responses in diverse tumor types. However, an increasing number of retrospective studies have found that some patients treated with ICIs experience unusual responses, including accelerated proliferation of tumor cells and rapid progression of the disease, with poor outcomes. Such unexpected adverse events are termed hyperprogressive disease (HPD), and their occurrence suggests that ICIs are detrimental to a subset of cancer patients. HPD is common, with an incidence ranging between 4 and 29% in several cancer types. However, the mechanisms of HPD remain poorly understood, and no clinical predictive factors of HPD have been identified. In this review, we summarize current findings, including retrospective studies and case reports, and focus on several key issues including the defining characteristics, predictive biomarkers, potential mechanisms of HPD, and strategies for avoiding HPD after ICI treatment.

18.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 11(6)2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207843

RESUMO

Among the efforts to improve the performances of microlasers, optimization of the gain properties and cavity parameters of these lasers has attracted significant attention recently. Distributed feedback lasers, as one of the most promising candidate technologies for electrically pumped microlasers, can be combined with dual-gratings. This combination provides additional freedom for the design of the laser cavity. Here, a holographic dual-grating is designed to improve the distributed feedback laser performance. The holographic dual-grating laser consists of a colloidal quantum dot film with two parallel gratings, comprising first-order (210 nm) and second-order (420 nm) gratings that can be fabricated easily using a combination of spin coating and interference lithography. The feedback and the output from the cavity are controlled using the first-order grating and the second-order grating, respectively. Through careful design and analysis of the dual-grating, a balance is achieved between the feedback and the cavity output such that the lasing threshold based on the dual-grating is nearly half the threshold of conventional distributed feedback lasers. Additionally, the holographic dual-grating laser shows a high level of stability because of the high stability of the colloidal quantum dots against photobleaching.

19.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 23(6): 593-598, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130781

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical features of preterm infants with a birth weight less than 1 500 g undergoing different intensities of resuscitation. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed for the preterm infants with a birth weight less than 1 500 g and a gestational age less than 32 weeks who were treated in the neonatal intensive care unit of 20 hospitals in Jiangsu, China from January 2018 to December 2019. According to the intensity of resuscitation in the delivery room, the infants were divided into three groups:non-tracheal intubation (n=1 184), tracheal intubation (n=166), and extensive cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR; n=116). The three groups were compared in terms of general information and clinical outcomes. RESULTS: Compared with the non-tracheal intubation group, the tracheal intubation and ECPR groups had significantly lower rates of cesarean section and use of antenatal corticosteroid (P < 0.05). As the intensity of resuscitation increased, the Apgar scores at 1 minute and 5 minutes gradually decreased (P < 0.05), and the proportion of infants with Apgar scores of 0 to 3 at 1 minute and 5 minutes gradually increased (P < 0.05). Compared with the non-tracheal intubation group, the tracheal intubation and ECPR groups had significantly higher mortality rate and incidence rates of moderate-severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia and serious complications (P < 0.05). The incidence rates of grade Ⅲ-Ⅳ intracranial hemorrhage and retinopathy of prematurity (stage Ⅲ or above) in the tracheal intubation group were significantly higher than those in the non-tracheal intubation group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: For preterm infants with a birth weight less than 1 500 g, the higher intensity of resuscitation in the delivery room is related to lower rate of antenatal corticosteroid therapy, lower gestational age, and lower birth weight. The infants undergoing tracheal intubation or ECRP in the delivery room have an increased incidence rate of adverse clinical outcomes. This suggests that it is important to improve the quality of perinatal management and delivery room resuscitation to improve the prognosis of the infants.


Assuntos
Cesárea , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Peso ao Nascer , China , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Acta Pharm Sin B ; 11(5): 1341-1354, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34094838

RESUMO

Breast cancer brain metastases (BCBMs) are one of the most difficult malignancies to treat due to the intracranial location and multifocal growth. Chemotherapy and molecular targeted therapy are extremely ineffective for BCBMs due to the inept brain accumulation because of the formidable blood‒brain barrier (BBB). Accumulation studies prove that low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) is promising target for BBB transcytosis. However, as the primary clearance receptor for amyloid beta and tissue plasminogen activator, LRP1 at abluminal side of BBB can clear LRP1-targeting therapeutics. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP1) is highly enriched in metastatic niche to promote growth of BCBMs. Herein, it is reported that nanoparticles (NPs-K-s-A) tethered with MMP1-sensitive fusion peptide containing HER2-targeting K and LRP1-targeting angiopep-2 (A), can surmount the BBB and escape LRP1-mediated clearance in metastatic niche. NPs-K-s-A revealed infinitely superior brain accumulation to angiopep-2-decorated NPs-A in BCBMs bearing mice, while comparable brain accumulation in normal mice. The delivered doxorubicin and lapatinib synergistically inhibit BCBMs growth and prolongs survival of mice bearing BCBMs. Due to the efficient BBB penetration, special and remarkable clearance escape, and facilitated therapeutic outcome, the fusion peptide-based drug delivery strategy may serve as a potential approach for clinical management of BCBMs.

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