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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34075670

RESUMO

Ultrafine gold nanoclusters (Au-NCs) are susceptible to migrate and aggregate, even in porosity of many crystalline solids.  N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) are a class of structurally diverse ligands for stabilization of Au-NCs in homogeneous chemistry, showing catalytic reactivity in CO 2 activation. Herein, for the first time, we demonstrate a heterogeneous nucleation approach to stabilize ultrasmall and highly dispersed gold nanoclusters in a metal-free NHC-functionalized porous matrix. The sizes of gold nanoclusters are tunable from 1.3 nm to 1.8 nm based on the interpenetration of metal-organic framework (MOF) topology. Control experiments using amine or imidazolium-functionalized MOFs afforded aggregation of Au species. The resultant Au-NC@MOF composite exhibits steady and excellent activity in photocatalytic CO 2 reduction, superior to the control mixtures without NHC-ligand stabilization.  The mechanistic studies reveal the synergistic catalytic effect of MOFs and Au-NCs through the MOF-NHC-Au covalent bonding bridges.

2.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 278: 114300, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098018

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) is rich in a variety of biologically active ingredients, which shows good effect in the treatment of metabolic diseases. Monascus has lipid-lowering activity and one of its metabolites, lovastatin, is widely used in clinical practice. AIM OF THE STUDY: The main purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of fermented Panax ginseng by Monascus ruber (PM) on lipid metabolism and gut microbiota in rats fed a high-fat diet. MATERIALS AND METHODS: SPF Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups, the therapeutic effect of PM on HFD-induced obesity, hyperlipidemia, hepatic steatosis, and disordered gut microbiota were determined in rats. RESULTS: PM could attenuate features of obesity in rats, decrease serum TC, LDL-C and IgA levels, increase excretion of bile acids in feces. Hepatic histopathologic analysis revealed that PM decrease lipid accumulation in hepatocytes. Consistently, mRNA expression levels of cholesterol metabolism-related genes were regulated in the livers of HFD-fed rats administered with PM. In addition, PM could enhance the diversity and relative abundance of gut microbiota, reduce the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes (F/B) ratio, increase significantly the relative abundance of Prevotella_9, and decrease these of Muribaculaceae. CONCLUSIONS: PM could regulate lipid metabolism and the structure of the gut microbiota in the HFD rats. Our findings provide valuable experience for the development of ginseng. PM could be a potentially effective strategy to prevent and treat metabolic diseases and alleviate the gut microbiota disturbance caused by it.

3.
Soft Matter ; 2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34132309

RESUMO

To investigate the effect of the number of propylene oxide (PO) units on the wettability of surfactants, the wettability of isomeric dodecyl(polyoxyisopropyl)7 sulfate (S-C12PO7S) and isomeric dodecyl(polyoxyisopropyl)13 sulfate (S-C12PO13S) on the surface of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) was investigated. The adsorption behavior on the PMMA surface was analyzed by measuring the surface tension and the contact angle. It is found that the PO group may form hydrogen bonds with the PMMA surface, thus facilitating the hydrophobic tails pointing to the aqueous phase. Moreover, the steric effect of the PO group benefits the formation of semi-micelles above the critical micelle concentration (CMC). Surfactant molecules adsorb on the PMMA surface by polar adsorption below the CMC with hydrophobic tails towards the water. Therefore, the PMMA surface is modified to be more hydrophobic. However, the sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactant with no PO unit does not have hydrophobic modification ability on the PMMA surface. Below the CMC, the adsorption amounts of the S-C12PO7S and S-C12PO13S surfactants at the solid-liquid interface were approximately 1/3 of those at the air-liquid interface. Interestingly, the adsorption behavior changes when the concentration of the surfactants is around the CMC. The hydrophilic heads of the surfactant molecules will point to water, and the surfactant molecules will form semi-micellar aggregates on the PMMA surface. Therefore, the PMMA surface is modified to be hydrophilic above the CMC. What's more, both the hydrophilic modification ability and hydrophobic modification ability of the S-C12PO13S surfactant are stronger than those of the S-C12PO7S surfactant. This means that the number of PO units will affect the wettability ability of the surfactants. Therefore, the S-C12PO13S surfactant possesses smaller contact angles than the S-C12PO7S surfactant at high concentrations.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34145709

RESUMO

Adsorptive separation is an appealing technology for propylene and propane separation; however, the challenge lies in the design of efficient adsorbents which can distinguish the two molecules having very similar properties. Here we report a kinetically amplified separation by creating wiggling mesopores in structurally robust carbon monoliths. The wiggling mesopores with alternating wide and narrow segments afford a surface area of 413 m 2 g -1 and a tri-modal pore size distribution centered at 1.5, 4.2 and 6.6 nm, respectively. The synergistically kinetic and equilibrium effects were observed and quantitatively assessed, which together ensured a remarkable propylene/propane selectivity up to 39. This selectivity outperformed not only the available carbon adsorbents but also highly competitive among the dominated crystalline porous adsorbents. In addition, the wiggling mesoporous carbon monoliths showed an excellent axial and radial compressive strength of around 5.5 MPa and 221 N cm -1 , respectively, which ensured its great potential in practical molecular separations.

5.
Org Biomol Chem ; 2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34047329

RESUMO

An unprecedented [2,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement reaction of quaternary 2,3-allenylammonium ylides, generated in situ from tertiary 2,3-allenylamines and arynes, has been established. With 2-(trimethylsilyl)aryl triflates as aryne precursors, a range of tertiary 2,3-allenylamines bearing an electron-withdrawing group at the α-position smoothly participated in the aryne-mediated [2,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement at room temperature, delivering structurally diverse 2-vinylallyamines or 1-amino-1,3-dienes in moderate to excellent yields. The reaction proceeds in the absence of strong bases and transition metals, is compatible with moisture and air, and tolerates a wide variety of functional groups.

6.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 599: 556-565, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33964700

RESUMO

Zinc-based energy storage systems (zinc-air, zinc-nickel and zinc-ion batteries and zinc-ion hybrid supercapacitors (ZHSs) are considered as promising power sources for wide applications from personal electronic devices to electric vehicles. However, these systems, especially the Zn-based hybrid supercapacitors, display unsatisfying power density and energy density, which should be enhanced for their large-scale applications. In this work, aqueous alkaline zinc-carbon hybrid supercapacitors (A-ZCHS) were designed, consisting of B, N dual doped carbon cathode, Zn anode and KOH electrolyte. The B, N dual doped carbon was prepared via thermal treatment of metal-organic frameworks and boric acid, which exhibits abundant hierarchical pore structure (micropore, mesopore and macropore) and suitable defect construction, promoting ion diffusion/charge transfer and providing more rapid surface pseudocapacitance reaction. More obviously, when the optimized B, N dual doped carbon was used as cathode in A-ZCHS and ZHS, more capacitive charge storage and rapider electrochemical kinetics can be observed in A-ZCHS than in ZHS. Therefore, the optimized A-ZCHS displays a high energy density of 115.7 Wh kg-1 at the power density of 711.6 W kg-1 with excellent stability, which is much better than most of ZHSs reported previously. The A-ZCHS should be a promising candidate for energy storage applications.

7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9810, 2021 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33963244

RESUMO

Platycodin D and platycoside E are two triterpenoid saponins in Platycodon grandiflorus, differing only by two glycosyl groups structurally. Studies have shown ß-Glucosidase from bacteria can convert platycoside E to platycodin D, indicating the potential existence of similar enzymes in P. grandiflorus. An L9(34) orthogonal experiment was performed to establish a protocol for calli induction as follows: the optimal explant is stems with nodes and the optimum medium formula is MS + NAA 1.0 mg/L + 6-BA 0.5 mg/L to obtain callus for experimental use. The platycodin D, platycoside E and total polysaccharides content between callus and plant organs varied wildly. Platycodin D and total polysaccharide content of calli was found higher than that of leaves. While, platycoside E and total polysaccharide content of calli was found lower than that of leaves. Associating platycodin D and platycoside E content with the expression level of genes involved in triterpenoid saponin biosynthesis between calli and leaves, three contigs were screened as putative sequences of ß-Glucosidase gene converting platycoside E to platycodin D. Besides, we inferred that some transcription factors can regulate the expression of key enzymes involved in triterpernoid saponins and polysaccharides biosynthesis pathway of P. grandiflorus. Totally, a candidate gene encoding enzyme involved in converting platycoside E to platycodin D, and putative genes involved in polysaccharide synthesis in P. grandiflorus had been identified. This study will help uncover the molecular mechanism of triterpenoid saponins biosynthesis in P. grandiflorus.

8.
J Hazard Mater ; 417: 125993, 2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33990040

RESUMO

The removal mechanism from the reductive dechlorination of trichloroethylene (TCE) by zero valent magnesium (ZVMg) in aqueous solution is systematically studied. Following the preparation and characterization of ball-milled micro ZVMg with graphite (ZVMg/C) particles, this paper evaluated the TCE reaction rates, pathways, utilization rates and aging effects of ZVMg/C particles in aqueous solution under uncontrolled pH conditions. Overall, 38 µM of TCE was transformed by 10 g/L of ZVMg/C to methane (62.51%) and n-hexane (11.86%) and ethane (7.40%) and other alkene and alkyne products through the catalytic hydrogenation pathway. The measured surface area normalized pseudo-first order rate constants (KSA) were up to 9.31 × 10-2 L/m2/h and the utilization rate of Mg0 accounted for around 60%. The KSA were decreased to 1.90 × 10-2 L/m2/h in case of ZVMg/C being exposed in the atmosphere for 6 days due to 7.3% reduction in the utilization rate of Mg0 from the initial 85.2%, and 5.11 × 10-2 L/m2 h in case of ZVMg/C aged in water for one day. The removal efficiencies of approximately 56%, 58% and 87% by 10 g/L of ZVMg/C were achieved in the contaminated groundwater comprising 38 µM of TCE, 43 µM of 1,2-dichlorobenzene and 8.12 µM of trichlormethane. Therefore, it is concluded that ZVMg/C is viewed as a potential and effective remediation reagent for the groundwater remediation.

9.
IEEE Trans Med Imaging ; PP2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34038358

RESUMO

Estimating effective connectivity from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) time series data has become a very hot topic in neuroinformatics and brain informatics. However, it is hard for the current methods to accurately estimate the effective connectivity due to the high noise and small sample size of fMRI data. In this paper, we propose a novel framework for estimating effective connectivity based on recurrent generative adversarial networks, called EC-RGAN. The proposed framework employs the generator that consists of a set of effective connectivity generators based on recurrent neural networks to generate the fMRI time series of each brain region, and uses the discriminator to distinguish between the joint distributions of the real and generated fMRI time series. When the model is well-trained and generated fMRI data is similar to real fMRI data, EC-RGAN outputs the effective connectivity by means of the causal parameters of the effective connectivity generators. Experimental results on both simulated and real-world fMRI time series data demonstrate the efficacy of our proposed framework.

10.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 223, 2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34039371

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a model for inflammatory demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), a group of autoimmune diseases characterized by inflammatory infiltration, demyelination, and axonal damage. miR-20a is dysregulated in patients with CNS inflammatory demyelinating diseases; however, the function of miR-20a remains unclear. In this study, we intended to explore the role of miR-20a in EAE. METHODS: The expression of miR-20a was detected by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) in EAE mice and patients with MOG antibody-associated demyelinating diseases. CD4+ T cells of EAE mice were sorted, stimulated, and polarized with miR-20a knockdown. Activation and differentiation of CD4+ T cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. The expression of target gene Map3k9 was detected by qRT-PCR and western blot experiments. The binding of miR-20a to the 3' UTR of Map3k9 was tested by luciferase assays. The feasibility of miR-20a as a therapeutic target to alleviate the severity of EAE was explored by intravenous administration of miR-20a antagomirs to EAE mice. RESULTS: miR-20a was upregulated in splenocytes and lymph node cells, CD4+ T cells, and spinal cords of EAE mice. Moreover, miR-20a knockdown did not influence the activation of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells but promoted their differentiation into Treg cells. Map3k9 was predicted to be a target gene of miR-20a. The expressions of Map3k9 and miR-20a were negatively correlated, and miR-20a knockdown increased the expression of Map3k9. In addition, miR-20a binded to the 3' UTR of Map3k9, and simultaneous knockdown of miR-20a and Map3k9 counteracted the enhanced differentiation of Tregs observed when miR-20a was knocked down alone. Furthermore, injection of miR-20a antagomirs to EAE mice reduced the severity of the disease and increased the proportion of Treg cells in peripheral immune organs. CONCLUSIONS: miR-20a suppresses the differentiation of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells into Tregs in EAE by decreasing the expression of Map3k9. miR-20a antagomirs alleviate EAE, suggesting a new therapy for EAE and CNS inflammatory demyelinating diseases.

11.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 627917, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33968796

RESUMO

Candida albicans (C. albicans) is an opportunistic human fungal pathogen that can cause severe infection in clinic. Its incidence and mortality rate has been increasing rapidly. Amphotericin B (AMB), the clinical golden standard antifungal agent, has severe side effects that limit its clinical application. Thus, lowering the concentration and increasing the efficacy of AMB in a combinatorial antifungal therapy have been pursued by both industry and academia. Here we identify that fingolimod (FTY720), an immunomodulatory drug used for oral treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, can potentiate the efficacy of AMB against C. albicans growth synergistically. Furthermore, we observe an antifungal efficacy of FTY720 in combination with AMB against diverse fungal pathogens. Intriguingly, cells treated with both drugs are hypersensitive to endothelial endocytosis and macrophage killing. This is later found to be due to the hyperaccumulation of reactive oxygen species and the corresponding increase in activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in the cells that received combinatorial treatment. Therefore, the combination of AMB and FTY720 provides a promising antifungal strategy.

12.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 154: 112245, 2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940107

RESUMO

Dietary pattern and cooking methods are important factors to determine the nutrients supplementation for male reproduction. Methionine and choline are two methyl donors in daily diet, which could mediate the lipid metabolism, but their effects on the sperms are not clear. In this study, we fed the mice with methionine-choline deficient (MCD) diet or the baked MCD diet for 6 weeks to evaluate this dietary pattern and the appended high temperature cooking on the spermatogenesis. The results have shown that MCD diet induced testis degradation and the damage of spermatocytes, reduced sperm vitality, motility, but elevated sperm deformity. Additionally, baking of MCD diet aggravated the testis injury, further reduced sperm density, sperm motility, and decreased normal sperm morphology dramatically. These changes were not related to the blood-testis barrier nor the Leydig cells dysfunction, but related to spermatocytes lost and apoptosis. The spermatocyte apoptosis was mediated by reticulum stress, including GRP78, XBP-1 and CHOP gene expression. Our study has shown the importance of methionine and choline in diet, and emphasized the crucial role of cooking condition, which are dietary factors to influence the quality of sperms.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33887098

RESUMO

Biological scaffolds with hyperbolic surfaces, especially single gyroid and single-diamond structures, have sparked immense interest for creating novel materials due to their extraordinary physical properties. However, the ability of nature to create these unbalanced surfaces has not been achieved in either lyotropic liquid crystals or block copolymer phases due to their thermodynamical instability in these systems. Here, we report the synthesis of a porous silica scaffold with a single-diamond-surface structure fabricated by self-assembly of the poly(ethylene oxide)-b-polystyrene-b-poly(L-lactide) and silica precursors in a mixed solvent of tetrahydrofuran and water. The single-diamond structure with tetrahedral interconnected frameworks was revealed by the electron crystallographic reconstruction. We assume that the formation of single networks is induced by the structural transition and related to the energetic change due to the fluctuations of the Gaussian curvature. This work may provide new insights into these biologically relevant surfaces and related self-assembly systems.

15.
Front Immunol ; 12: 665147, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33912192

RESUMO

Antibodies against checkpoint inhibitors such as anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and its ligand anti-programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) have shown clinical efficacy in the treatment of multiple cancers. However, there are only a few studies on biomarkers for these targeted immunotherapies, especially in peripheral blood. We first studied the role of interferon-induced protein-10 (IP10) combined with interleukin-8 (IL-8) in peripheral blood as a biomarker of immune-combined chemotherapy for lung cancer and multiple cancers. We used the high-throughput cytokine detection platform and performed bioinformatics analysis of blood samples from 67 patients with lung cancer and 24 with multiple cancers. We selected the ratio of IP-10 to IL-8 (S2/S0, ratio of changes at 10-12 weeks after treatment to baseline) to predict the response to immunotherapy combined with chemotherapy and evaluate the survival of lung cancer patients and mixed cancer patients. In patients treated with the combination therapy, the specificity and sensitivity of IL-8 and IP10 together as predictors were improved compared with those of IL-8 and IP10 alone. Our conclusion was verified in not only lung cancer but also multiple cancer research cohorts. We then further validated the predictive effect of biomarkers in different histologic types of NSCLC and chemotherapy combined with different PD-1 drug groups. Subsequent validation should be conducted with a larger number of patients. The proposed marker IP10 (S2/S0)/IL-8 (S2/S0), as a predictive immunotherapy biomarker, has broad prospects for future clinical applications in treating patients with multiple intractable neoplasms.

16.
BMC Womens Health ; 21(1): 167, 2021 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33879147

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Catamenial pneumothorax is characterized by spontaneous recurring pneumothorax during menstruation, which is a common clinical manifestation of thoracic endometriosis syndrome. There are still controversies about its pathogenesis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 43-year-old woman with a history of endometriosis came to our hospital due to recurring pneumothorax during menstruation. Uniportal Video-assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery (VATS) exploration was performed on the eve of menstruating. We thoroughly explored the diaphragm, visceral and parietal pleura: The lung surface was scattered with yellowish-brown implants; no bullae were found; multiple diaphragmatic defects were found on the dome. And surprisingly, we caught a fascinating phenomenon: Bubbles were slipping into pleural cavity through diaphragmatic defects. We excised the diaphragmatic lesions and wedge resected the right upper lung lesion; cleared the deposits and flushed the thoracic cavity with pure iodophor. Diaphragmatic lesions confirmed the presence of endometriosis, and interestingly enough, microscopically, endometrial cells were shedding with impending menses. After a series of intraoperative operations and postoperative endocrine therapy, the disease did not recur after a period of follow-up. CONCLUSION: We have witnessed the typical signs of catamenial pneumothorax at the accurate timing: Not only observed the process of gas migration macroscopically, but also obtained pathological evidence of diaphragmatic periodic perforation microscopically, which is especially precious and confirms the existing theory that retrograde menstruation leads to diaphragmatic endometriosis, and the diaphragmatic fenestration is obtained due to the periodic activities of ectopic endometrium.


Assuntos
Endometriose , Pneumotórax , Adulto , Endometriose/complicações , Endometriose/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Menstruação , Pneumotórax/etiologia , Pneumotórax/cirurgia , Cirurgia Torácica Vídeoassistida
17.
Plant Physiol ; 185(4): 1745-1763, 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793936

RESUMO

Many plant species open their leaves during the daytime and close them at night as if sleeping. This leaf movement is known as nyctinasty, a unique and intriguing phenomenon that been of great interest to scientists for centuries. Nyctinastic leaf movement occurs widely in leguminous plants, and is generated by a specialized motor organ, the pulvinus. Although a key determinant of pulvinus development, PETIOLULE-LIKE PULVINUS (PLP), has been identified, the molecular genetic basis for pulvinus function is largely unknown. Here, through an analysis of knockout mutants in barrelclover (Medicago truncatula), we showed that neither altering brassinosteroid (BR) content nor blocking BR signal perception affected pulvinus determination. However, BR homeostasis did influence nyctinastic leaf movement. BR activity in the pulvinus is regulated by a BR-inactivating gene PHYB ACTIVATION TAGGED SUPPRESSOR1 (BAS1), which is directly activated by PLP. A comparative analysis between M. truncatula and the non-pulvinus forming species Arabidopsis and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) revealed that PLP may act as a factor that associates with unknown regulators in pulvinus determination in M. truncatula. Apart from exposing the involvement of BR in the functionality of the pulvinus, these results have provided insights into whether gene functions among species are general or specialized.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33844380

RESUMO

Controlling crystal size and shape of zeolitic materials is an effective way to promote their mass transport and catalytic properties. Herein, we report a single step, Na+ - and porogen- free crystallization of MFI hierarchical architecture made up of aligned nanocrystals with reduced b-axis thickness (5-23 nm) and adjustable Si/Al ratios between 35 to 120, employing the commonly used tetrapropylammonium hydroxide (TPAOH) and tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBAOH) as structure-directing agents (SDAs). Homogeneous nucleation driven by both SDAs and subsequent SDA-exchange induced dissolution-recrystallization are responsible for the formation of such structure. The enhanced textural and diffusion properties account for a notable exaggeration of propene selectivity and catalyst lifetime in dimethyl ether-to-olefins (DTO) conversion. This protocol is extendable to the rational synthesis of other hierarchical zeolites through crystallization process control.

19.
Cells ; 10(3)2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802813

RESUMO

Spermatogenesis is a complex and dynamic process which is precisely controlledby genetic and epigenetic factors. With the development of new technologies (e.g., single-cell RNA sequencing), increasingly more regulatory genes related to spermatogenesis have been identified. In this review, we address the roles and mechanisms of novel genes in regulating the normal and abnormal spermatogenesis. Specifically, we discussed the functions and signaling pathways of key new genes in mediating the proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis of rodent and human spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), as well as in controlling the meiosis of spermatocytes and other germ cells. Additionally, we summarized the gene regulation in the abnormal testicular microenvironment or the niche by Sertoli cells, peritubular myoid cells, and Leydig cells. Finally, we pointed out the future directions for investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying human spermatogenesis. This review could offer novel insights into genetic regulation in the normal and abnormal spermatogenesis, and it provides new molecular targets for gene therapy of male infertility.

20.
Brief Bioinform ; 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822887

RESUMO

It is pivotal and remains challenge for cancer precision treatment to identify the survival outcome interactions between genes, cells and drugs. Here, we present siGCD, a web-based tool for analysis and visualization of the survival interaction of Genes, Cells and Drugs in human cancers. siGCD utilizes the cancer heterogeneity to simulate the manipulated gene expression, cell infiltration and drug treatment, which overcomes the data and experimental limitations. To illustrate the performance of siGCD, we identified the survival interaction partners of EGFR (gene level), T cells (cell level) and sorafenib (drug level), and our prediction was consistent with previous reports. Moreover, we validate the synergistic effect of regorafenib and glyburide, and found that glyburide could significantly improve the regorafenib response. These results demonstrate that siGCD could benefit cancer precision medicine in a wide range of advantageous application scenarios including gene regulatory network construction, immune cell regulatory gene identification, drug (especially multiple target drugs) response biomarker screening and combination therapeutic design.

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