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1.
BMJ Open ; 10(6): e036468, 2020 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554728

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: South Asia is home to more than 300 million smokeless tobacco (ST) users. Bangladesh, India and Pakistan as signatories to the Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC) have developed policies aimed at curbing the use of tobacco. The objective of this study is to assess the compliance of ST point-of-sale (POS) vendors and the supply chain with the articles of the FCTC and specifically with national tobacco control laws. We also aim to assess disparities in compliance with tobacco control laws between ST and smoked tobacco products. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The study will be carried out at two sites each in Bangladesh, India and Pakistan. We will conduct a sequential mixed-methods study with five components: (1) mapping of ST POS, (2) analyses of ST samples packaging, (3) observation, (4) survey interviews of POS and (5) in-depth interviews with wholesale dealers/suppliers/manufacturers of ST. We aim to conduct at least 300 POS survey interviews and observations, and 6-10 in-depth interviews in each of the three countries. Data collection will be done by trained data collectors. The main statistical analysis will report the frequencies and proportions of shops that comply with the FCTC and local tobacco control policies, and provide a 95% CI of these estimates. The qualitative in-depth interview data will be analysed using the framework approach. The findings will be connected, each component informing the focus and/or design of the next component. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approvals for the study have been received from the Health Sciences Research Governance Committee at the University of York, UK. In-country approvals were taken from the National Bioethics Committee in Pakistan, the Bangladesh Medical Research Council and the Indian Medical Research Council. Our results will be disseminated via scientific conferences, peer-reviewed research publications and press releases.

2.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 15(1): 155, 2020 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32571425

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currarino syndrome (CS) is a specific complex of congenital caudal anomalies, including anorectal malformations, presacral mass and sacral anomalies. Mutations in the MNX1 gene are closely related to CS and occur in almost all familial cases and less than half of sporadic patients. We investigated the spectrum of MNX1 pathogenic variants and associated clinical features in Chinese patients with CS. RESULTS: Seventeen index patients from 16 families were recruited from 2015 to 2018. All patients were diagnosed with CS and treated at the Capital Institute of Pediatrics Affiliated Children's Hospital. Genetic testing was applied to identify mutations in CS patients and their relatives by whole-exome sequencing and Sanger sequencing. Functional verification was performed for a recurrent noncanonical splice site variant in MNX1 with a minigene splicing assay. In 17 CS patients, 14 were complete CS and 3 were mild CS. Nine variants in MNX1 were identified in 11 patients, and these included two frameshift mutations (p.Leu223Leufs*61, p.X402Serfs*70), four nonsense mutations (p.Gly42X, p.Cys88X, p.Gln24X, p.Cys241X), one missense mutation (p.Trp288Leu), one splice region variant (c.691 + 3G > T) and one polyalanine polymorphism (p.Ala135insAlaAla). Seven of these nine variants have never been reported. Pathogenic MNX1 mutations were found in 100% (4/4) of familial and 46% (6/13) of sporadic patients. CONCLUSION: Our study expanded the mutation spectrum of MNX1 and provided clinical and genetic analyses of seventeen CS patients from mainland China.

3.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 161: 122-131, 2020 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512100

RESUMO

In this paper, the electronspun Polylactic acid (PLA)/TiO2 nanofluids (nfs) fibrous membrane with good toughness, hydrophilicity and antibacterial activities are fabricated by taking full advantages of solvent-free TiO2 nfs with amphiphilicity and ionic conductivity. The resulting PLA/TiO2 nfs fibrous membrane exhibits excellent mechanical performance with a tensile strength and elongation at break of 3.68 MPa and 97.32 MPa at 5 wt% loading, respectively, which is 4 and 8 times higher than that of pure PLA, respectively. Additionally, TiO2 nfs can migrate onto the surface of PLA fibers during electrospun process, which significantly enhanced hydrophilicity, antistatic property, moisture sorption capacity and wicking properties of PLA fabrics. Meanwhile, the membrane also showed ultrafast water filtration of 3500 L m-2 h-1 driven by gravity force, which is 10-12 times higher than that of commercial ultrafiltration membrane. After ion-exchange reaction with salt solution, excellent antibacterial activity (against E. coli and S. aureus was 95% and 99.9%, respectively) and separation efficiency (above 90% on E. coli) of the obtained fabrics are also achieved. Overall, organic nfs are an idea candidate for fabricating hydrophilic PLA based biodegradable fabric that can be applied in contaminated water treatment, antibacterial textiles and biodegradable absorption materials.

4.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 18(1): 92, 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546174

RESUMO

Cell membrane- covered drug-delivery nanoplatforms have been garnering attention because of their enhanced bio-interfacing capabilities that originate from source cells. In this top-down technique, nanoparticles (NPs) are covered by various membrane coatings, including membranes from specialized cells or hybrid membranes that combine the capacities of different types of cell membranes. Here, hybrid membrane-coated doxorubicin (Dox)-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) NPs (DPLGA@[RAW-4T1] NPs) were fabricated by fusing membrane components derived from RAW264.7(RAW) and 4T1 cells (4T1). These NPs were used to treat lung metastases originating from breast cancer. This study indicates that the coupling of NPs with a hybrid membrane derived from macrophage and cancer cells has several advantages, such as the tendency to accumulate at sites of inflammation, ability to target specific metastasis, homogenous tumor targeting abilities in vitro, and markedly enhanced multi-target capability in a lung metastasis model in vivo. The DPLGA@[RAW-4T1] NPs exhibited excellent chemotherapeutic potential with approximately 88.9% anti-metastasis efficacy following treatment of breast cancer-derived lung metastases. These NPs were robust and displayed the multi-targeting abilities of hybrid membranes. This study provides a promising biomimetic nanoplatform for effective treatment of breast cancer metastasis.

5.
J Biomed Mater Res A ; 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32500940

RESUMO

On this basis, A novel recombinant human-like collagen (RHLC)/silk fibroin scaffold material with high porosity and controllable aperture was prepared. The compatibility of osteoblasts (OB) with the blends was tested in vitro. The morphology, adhesion and growth of scaffold cells were observed by scanning electron microscope and laser confocal microscope. Extensive measurements, including 3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazole-2-acyl]-2, 5-diphenyl tetrabrominate assays, intracellular total protein content, and alkaline phosphatase activity assays were performed after 7 days of culture. Survival and protein content increased in RHLC/fibroin stents. LSCM and SEM results confirmed that the cells grew better in the mixed scaffolds than in the pure silk scaffolds, and showed that the cells were easy to adhere and diffuse in the RHLC/ silk scaffolds. RHLC/ silk fibroin scaffolds are promising biomaterials for bone tissue engineering. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

7.
Plant J ; 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32432801

RESUMO

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in plant resistance to pathogen infection via interactions with microRNAs (miRNAs). LncRNAs are cleaved by miRNAs to produce phased siRNAs (phasiRNAs), function as competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) as decoys for mature-miRNAs, thus inhibiting their expression, and contain pre-miRNA sequences to produce mature-miRNAs. However, whether lncRNAs and miRNAs mediate other molecular mechanisms during plant resistance to pathogens is unknown. In this study, as a positive regulator, Sly-lncRNA15492 from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Zaofen No.2) plants affected tomato resistance to Phytophthora infestans. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments and RLM-5' RACE also revealed that Sly-miR482a was negatively involved in tomato resistance by targeting Sly-NBS-LRR genes and that silencing of Sly-NBS-LRR1 decreased tomato resistance. Sly-lncRNA15492 inhibited the expression of mature-Sly-miR482a, whose precursor was located within the antisense sequence of Sly-lncRNA15492. Further degradome analysis and additional RLM-5' RACE experiments verified that mature-Sly-miR482a could also cleave Sly-lncRNA15492. These results provide a way by which lncRNAs might inhibit precursor miRNA expression through antisense strands of lncRNAs, and demonstrate that Sly-lncRNA15492 and Sly-miR482a mutually inhibit the maintenance of Sly-NBS-LRR1 homeostasis during as part of tomato resistance to P. infestans.

8.
J Therm Biol ; 89: 102532, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32364978

RESUMO

Heat stress reduces oocyte competence, thereby causing lower fertility in animals. Chronic and acute heat stresses cause extensive morphological damage in animals, but few reports have focused on the effects of chronic and acute heat stresses on ovarian function and heat shock protein (HSP) gene expression during ovarian injury. In this study, we subjected female mice to chronic and acute heat stresses; we then calculated the ovary index, examined ovary microstructure, and measured the expression of multiple HSP family genes. Chronic heat stress reduced whole-body and ovarian growth but had little effect on the ovarian index; acute heat stress did not alter whole-body or ovarian weight. Both chronic and acute heat stresses impaired ovary function by causing the dysfunction of granular cells. Small HSP genes increased rapidly after heat treatment, and members of the HSP40, HSP70, and HSP90 families were co-expressed to function in the regulation of the heat stress response. We suggest that the HSP chaperone machinery may regulate the response to heat stress in the mouse ovary.

10.
Ann Palliat Med ; 9(3): 681-699, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32389011

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to clarify whether adjuvant therapy is suitable for less advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients postoperatively. METHODS: Data from 973 patients were collected. The prognosis and clinicopathological traits of these patients were calculated in both the TNM I and IIA stages. Meanwhile, 2 separate nomograms were applied in terms of the variables with a multivariate P value <0.05 in the Cox proportional hazard regression model. RESULTS: There were 471 and 502 patients in the I and IIA stage respectively; among all enrolled patients, 641, 130, 73, and 129 patients were in the no-treatment, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and chemoradiotherapy groups, respectively. Adjuvant therapy was drawn as the independent prognostic factors for stage I (P=0.026; HR =1.081, 95% CI: 1.093, 1.308) and IIA patients (P<0.001; HR =0.788, 95% CI: 0.693, 0.896). Radiotherapy consistently obtained the best prognosis for patients when compared with the other 3 groups in the I and IIA stage. Patients in I stage had the worst prognosis after receiving chemoradiotherapy, and still, the small survival benefits of chemoradiotherapy were seen in patients of IIA stage. Two separate nomograms for the I and IIA stage were constructed. The C-index was 0.665 (95% CI: 0.569, 0.761) in the I stage and 0.645 (95% CI: 0.567, 0.723) in the IIA stage. Meanwhile, the calibration curves for predicting 3-year and 5-year survival for I and IIA patients agreed well with the actual observations. CONCLUSIONS: Among less advanced ESCC patients, adjuvant therapy was not only found to be an independent factor but also proved to be of importance in patient prognosis, and radiotherapy is recommended.

11.
Pharm Biol ; 58(1): 410-416, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32429787

RESUMO

Context: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that originates from central nervous system lesions or recessions. Current estimates suggest that this disease affects over 35 million people worldwide. However, lacking effective drugs is the biggest handicap in treating AD. In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Polygala tenuifolia Willd. (Polygalaceae) is generally used to treat insomnia, memory dysfunction and neurasthenia.Objective: This review article explores the role of P. tenuifolia and its active components in anti-Alzheimer's disease.Methods: Literature for the last ten years was obtained through a search on PubMed, SciFinder, CNKI, Google Scholar, Web of Science, Science Direct and China Knowledge Resource Integrated with the following keywords: Polygala tenuifolia, polygalasaponin XXXII (PGS 32), tenuifolin, polygalacic acid, senegenin, tenuigenin, Alzheimer's disease.Results: Polygala tenuifolia and its active components have multiplex neuroprotective potential associated with AD, such as anti-Aß aggregation, anti-Tau protein, anti-inflammation, antioxidant, anti-neuronal apoptosis, enhancing central cholinergic system and promote neuronal proliferation.Conclusions: Polygala tenuifolia and its active components exhibit multiple neuroprotective effects. Hence, P. tenuifolia is a potential drug against Alzheimer's disease, especially in terms of prevention.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424964

RESUMO

A surface-enhanced Raman scattering-chiral anisotropy (SERS-ChA) effect is reported that combines chiral discrimination and surface Raman scattering enhancement on chiral nanostructured Au films (CNAFs) equipped in the normal Raman scattering Spectrometer. The CNAFs provided remarkably higher enhancement factors of Raman scattering (EFs) for particular enantiomers, and the SERS intensity was proportional to the enantiomeric excesses (ee) values. Except for molecules with mesomeric species, all of the tested enantiomers exhibited high SERS-ChA asymmetry factors (g), ranging between 1.34 and 1.99 regardless of polarities, sizes, chromophores, concentrations and ee. The effect might be attributed to selective resonance coupling between the induced electric and magnetic dipoles associated with enantiomers and chiral plasmonic modes of CNAFs.

13.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236248

RESUMO

Chiral mesostructured TiO2 films (CMTFs) were synthesized by a hydrothermal method using l/d-mannitol as the symmetry-breaking agent and titanium foil as both the substrate and inorganic precursor. Five levels of hierarchical chirality exist in the CMTFs, exhibiting optical activity (OA) at ∼350 nm attributed to the electronic transitions in a dissymmetric electric field.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32285170

RESUMO

Though therapy that promotes anti-tumor response about CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) has shown great potential, clinical responses to CD8+ TILs immunotherapy vary considerably, largely because of different subpopulation of CD8+ TILs exhibiting different biological characters. To define the relationship between subpopulation of CD8+ TILs and the outcome of antitumor reaction, the phenotype and function of CD103+ CD8+ TILs in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) were investigated. CD103+ CD8+ TILs were presented in ESCC, which displayed phenotype of tissue-resident memory T cells and exhibited high expression of immune checkpoints (PD-1, TIM-3). CD103+ CD8+ TILs were positively associated with the overall survivals of ESCC patients. This population of cells elicited potent proliferation and cytotoxic cytokine secretion potential. In addition, CD103+ CD8+ TILs were elicited potent anti-tumor immunity after anti-PD-1 blockade and were not affected by chemotherapy. This study emphasized the feature of CD103+ CD8+ TILs in immune response and identified potentially new targets in ESCC patients.

15.
Disabil Rehabil Assist Technol ; : 1-8, 2020 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32255698

RESUMO

Purpose: To determine the extent to which Occupational Therapists (OTs) in Nova Scotia (NS) conduct wheelchair skills training, the nature of training and the OTs' perceptions on training.Materials and methods: Anonymous online survey.Results: We received 110 responses from OTs living in NS and involved in direct patient care, 96 (93%) of whom reported helping clients obtain manual wheelchairs. Of the OTs who responded to the question "…do you typically provide wheelchair-skills training…?", 40 (43.5%) answered "Yes, usually" for clients and 40 (46.0%) for caregivers. The median duration of training sessions for clients and caregivers was 30 and 20 min; the median number of sessions was 2 and 1. Regarding the importance of training, 65 (73.9%) OTs answered "Very important" and 22 (25%) "Somewhat important" for clients and 55 (64.0%) answered "Very important" and 29 (33.7%) "Somewhat important" for caregivers. About one-third of OTs considered themselves adequately prepared for the trainer role. A variety of barriers and facilitators to training were identified. Trainers were significantly more likely than non-trainers to consider wheelchair skills training as important (p = .0003 for clients and p = .0039 for caregivers) and to consider themselves adequately prepared for the trainer role (p = .002 for clients and .003 for caregivers).Conclusions: Only a minority of NS OTs usually provide wheelchair-skills training for clients or their caregivers and the training provided is minimal, despite a majority who consider such training to be important. Only about one-third of OTs feel prepared for the training role.Implications for rehabilitationOnly a minority of Occupational Therapists (OTs) in Nova Scotia, Canada usually provide wheelchair-skills training for clients or their caregivers.The training that is provided is minimal.A majority of OTs consider such training to be important.Only about one-third of OTs feel prepared for the training role.

16.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 526(3): 841-847, 2020 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32278550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In-stent restenosis (ISR) is a complex disease that occurs after coronary stenting procedures. The development of quality materials and improvement of our understanding on significant factors regulating ISR are essential for enhancing prognosis. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are the main constituent cells of blood vessel walls, and dysfunction of VMSCs can exacerbate ISR. Accordingly, in this study, we explored the influence of wrinkled material topography on the biological functions of VSMCs. METHODS: Polydimethylsiloxane with a wrinkled topography was synthesized using elastomer base and crosslinking and observed by atomic force microscopy. VSMC proliferation, apoptosis, and morphology were determined by Cell Counting Kit-8 assays, fluorescence-assisted cell sorting, and phalloidin staining. α-Smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), major histocompatibility complex (MHC), and calponin 1 (CNN-1) expression levels were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Moreover, p53 and cleaved caspase-3 expression levels were evaluated by western blotting in VSMCs to assess apoptotic induction. RESULTS: Surface topographies were not associated with a clear orientation or elongation of VSMCs. The number of cells was increased on wrinkled surfaces (0.7 µm in amplitude, and 3 µm in wavelength [W3]) compared with that on other surfaces, contributing to continuously increased cell proliferation. Moreover, interactions of VSMCs with the W3 surface suppressed phenotypic switching, resulting in ISR via regulation of α-SMA, calponin-1, and SM-MHC expression. The surface with an amplitude of 0.05 µm and a wavelength of 0.5 µm (W0.5) promoted apoptosis by inducing caspase 3 and p53 activities. CONCLUSION: Introduction of aligned topographies on biomaterial scaffolds could provide physical cues to modulate VSMC responses for engineering vascular constructs. Materials with wrinkled topographies could have applications in the development of stents to reduce ISR.

17.
JMIR Med Inform ; 8(5): e17334, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32347800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since the early 1970s, health care provision has experienced rapid growth in the investment and adoption of health information technologies (HITs). However, the development and deployment of HITs has often been conducted in silos, at different organizational levels, within different regions, and in various health care settings; this has resulted in their infrastructures often being difficult to manage or integrate. Health information standards (ie, the set norms and requirements that underpin the deployment of HITs in health care settings) are expected to address these issues, yet their adoption remains to be frustratingly low among health care information technology vendors. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to synthesize a comprehensive framework of factors that affect the adoption and deployment of health information standards by health care organizations. METHODS: First, electronic databases, including Web of Science, Scopus, and PubMed, were searched for relevant articles, with the results being exported to the EndNote reference management software. Second, study selection was conducted according to pre-established inclusion and exclusion criteria. Finally, a synthesized best fit framework was created, which integrated a thematic analysis of the included articles. RESULTS: In total, 35 records were incorporated into the synthesized framework, with 4 dimensions being identified: technology, organization, environment, and interorganizational relationships. The technology dimension included relative advantage, complexity, compatibility, trialability, observability, switching cost, standards uncertainty, and shared business process attributes. The organization dimension included organizational scale, organizational culture, staff resistance to change, staff training, top management support, and organizational readiness. The environment dimension included external pressure, external support, network externality, installed base, and information communication. Finally, the interorganizational relationships dimension included partner trust, partner dependence, relationship commitment, and partner power. CONCLUSIONS: The synthesized framework presented in this paper extends the current understanding of the factors that influence the adoption of health information standards in health care organizations. It provides policy and decision makers with a greater awareness of factors that hinder or facilitate their adoption, enabling better judgement and development of adoption intervention strategies. Furthermore, suggestions for future research are provided.

18.
Cell Death Dis ; 11(3): 159, 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32123165

RESUMO

Hereditary distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) is a rare disease of H+ excretion defect of α-intercalated cells in renal collecting duct, caused by decreased V-ATPase function due to mutations in the ATP6V1B1 or ATP6V0A4 genes. In the present study, a genetic family with 5 members of the complete dRTA phenotype were found with distal tubule H+ secretion disorder, hypokalemia, osteoporosis, and kidney stones. A variant NM_020632.2:c.1631C > T (p.Ser544Leu) in exon 16 on an ATP6V0A4 gene associated with dRTA was detected by next generation sequencing target region capture technique and verified by Sanger sequencing, which suggested that except for one of the patients who did not receive the test, the other four patients all carried the p.S544L heterozygote. In transfected HEK293T cells, cells carrying p.S544L-mut showed early weaker ATPase activity and a slower Phi recovery rate after rapid acidification. By immunofluorescence localization, it was observed that the expression level of p.S544L-mut on the cell membrane increased and the distribution was uneven. Co-immunoprecipitation showed the a4 subunit of ATP6V0A4/p.S544L-mut could not bind to the B1 subunit, which might affect the correct assembly of V-ATPase. The present study of dRTA family suggests that the p.S544L variant may be inherited in a dominant manner.

19.
Int J Pharm ; 580: 119225, 2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32173500

RESUMO

D-borneolum is commonly used as a permeation enhancer in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) formulas for transdermal application. Additionally, two other sources of borneolums were recorded in the 2015 edition of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (ChP), including L-borneolum and borneolum syntheticum. To guide the selection and application of borneolum, the safety and enhancing effect of three sources of borneolums were investigated on transdermal permeation of compounds with different octanol-water partition coefficient (log P) values and molecular weights (MWs). Both the results of cellular cytotoxicity and in vitro transdermal permeation experiments showed that all three sources of borneolums could be applied in TDDS as permeation enhancers. Moreover, all three sources of borneolums achieved optimal permeation-enhancing performances on transdermal drugs with lower log P values as well as higher MWs. Further study was carried out to elucidate the potential molecular mechanism of borneolum enhancing transdermal drug delivery via transmission electron microscope (TEM) and coarse-grained molecular dynamic (CG-MD) simulation. Borneolum significantly promoted transdermal delivery of drugs via changing the dense morphology of the stratum corneum (SC), disturbing the ordered arrangement of ceramide (CER) and free fatty acid (FFA) molecules in lipid layers, and further increasing the diffusion rate of drugs in the lipid layers.

20.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol ; 75(5): 475-482, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141988

RESUMO

Nitrate esters have been used in clinical practice for more than one century for the treatment of angina. Their clinical effectiveness is due to vasodilator activity in arteries through a method of delivering nitric oxide or a nitric oxide-like compound. Recently, an increasing numbers of functions of this molecule in biology and pathophysiology have been discovered. Macrophage polarization shift in epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) has been demonstrated to be correlated with the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD). In this study, we aimed to investigate whether nitrate esters could improve coronary atherosclerosis through inhibition of macrophage polarization shift in EAT. A case-control study enrolled 48 subjects in 2 groups: CAD patients with or without nitrate esters treatment. Infiltration of M1/M2 macrophages and the expressions of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in EAT and subcutaneous white adipose tissue were investigated by immunohistochemical stain among subjects undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. The expression levels of metabolic genes were investigated by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We found that nitrate ester treatment significantly inhibited NF-кB activity and decreased macrophage infiltration and M1/M2 macrophage ratio in EAT in patients with CAD. The expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines were significantly decreased, along with significantly elevated expressions of anti-inflammatory cytokines in CAD patients with nitrate ester treatment, corresponding EAT dysfunction was ameliorated and the severity of patients with CAD (Gensini score) was significantly decreased. The protective effects on macrophage polarization and EAT function through NF-кB activity inhibition suggested a potential mechanism of nitrate esters in alleviating the severity of CAD.

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