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1.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229899, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134997

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate that whether an association between marital status and the female breast cancer risk exists. METHODS: The MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO databases were searched from their inception to July 2019. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used to rate the methodological quality of included studies. Study data were pooled using random-effects meta-analyses to compare the breast cancer risk between unmarried, widowed, divorced or lifelong single women and married women. This study is registered with PROSPERO (number CRD42018112368). RESULTS: Forty-nine publications were included in the meta-analysis. Compared with married women, unmarried and lifelong single women had an elevated risk of breast cancer, and the pooled ORs of case-control studies were 1.20 (95% CI: 1.07 to 1.35) and 1.24 (95% CI: 1.05 to 1.45), respectively. In the subgroup analyses under these two comparisons, hospital-based estimates and multivariate-adjusted estimates demonstrated a strong association, while population-based estimates and age-adjusted estimates produced nonsignificant results. The pooled OR of cohort studies examining the effect of being a lifelong single woman was 1.10 (95% CI: 1.04 to 1.16). Heterogeneity was moderate to substantial across case-control studies (I2: 46% to 82%), which may be partially explained by differences in geographic regions, publication years and control types. Possible publication bias was indicated by the funnel plot and Egger's test (P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Marital status may correlate with the risk of developing female breast cancer. However, suboptimal selection of controls, insufficient exploration of confounding effects, inadequate ascertainment of marital status, and possible publication bias may have limited the quality of the available evidence. Overall, conclusions that marital status is an independent risk factor for breast cancer could not be drawn, and further prospective rigorous cohort studies are warranted.

2.
Gut ; 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169907

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Gut microbiota have been linked to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and colorectal cancer (CRC). Akkermansia muciniphila (A. muciniphila) is a gram-negative anaerobic bacterium that is selectively decreased in the faecal microbiota of patients with IBD, but its causative role and molecular mechanism in blunting colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC) remain inconclusive. This study investigates how A. muciniphila engages the immune response in CAC. DESIGN: Mice were given dextran sulfate sodium to induce colitis, followed by azoxymethane to establish CAC with or without pasteurised A. muciniphila or a specific outer membrane protein (Amuc_1100) treatment. Faeces from mice and patients with IBD or CRC were collected for 16S rRNA sequencing. The effects of A. muciniphila or Amuc_1100 on the immune response in acute colitis and CAC were investigated. RESULTS: A. muciniphila was significantly reduced in patients with IBD and mice with colitis or CAC. A. muciniphila or Amuc_1100 could improve colitis, with a reduction in infiltrating macrophages and CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in the colon. Their treatment also decreased CD16/32+ macrophages in the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) of colitis mice. Amuc_1100 elevated PD-1+ CTLs in the spleen. Moreover, A. muciniphila and Amuc_1100 blunted tumourigenesis by expanding CTLs in the colon and MLN. Remarkably, they activated CTLs in the MLN, as indicated by TNF-α induction and PD-1downregulation. Amuc_1100 could stimulate and activate CTLs from splenocytes in CT26 cell conditioned medium. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that pasteurised A. muciniphila or Amuc_1100 can blunt colitis and CAC through the modulation of CTLs.

3.
Acad Radiol ; 2020 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217055

RESUMO

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Bronchiectasis (BE) is associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but emphysema and small airways disease, main pathologic features of COPD, have been sparsely studied in BE. We aimed to objectively assess those features in smokers with and without radiographic BE and examine its relationships to airflow obstruction and exercise capacity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We measured emphysema and small airways disease on paired inspiratory-expiratory computed tomography (CT) scans with the parametric response map (PRMEMPH and PRMSAD) method in 1184 smokers with and without radiographic BE. PRMSAD and PRMEMPH are expressed as the percentage of lung area. Clinical, spirometry, and exercise capacity data were measured with standardized methods. The differences in PRMSAD and PRMEMPH between subjects with and without radiographic BE were assessed using multivariable linear regression analysis, and their associations with FEV1 and six-minute walk test (6MWT) were assessed with generalized linear models. RESULTS: Out of 1184 subjects, 383 (32%) had radiographic BE. PRMEMPH but not PRMSAD was higher in subjects with radiographic BE than those without radiographic BE in adjusted models. Subjects with radiographic BE and PRMEMPH (defined as ≥5% on paired CTs) had lower FEV1 (least square mean, 1479 mL vs. 2350 mL p < 0.0001) and 6MWT (372 m vs. 426 m p = 0.0007) than those with radiographic BE alone in adjusted models. CONCLUSION: Smokers with radiographic BE have an increased burden of emphysema on paired CTs, and those with radiographic BE and emphysema have lower airflow and exercise capacity.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188797

RESUMO

Ginseng (G) and Prepared Rehmannia Root (PRR) are commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine for blood supplementation. This study aimed to study G and PRR with different compatibility ratios changes in chemical composition and inhibition of cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression. HPLC was used to determine the chemical constituents of 13 ginsenosides, 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) and verbascoside in different proportions of G-PRR. Balb/C mice were injected intraperitoneally with cyclophosphamide (CTX) to induce bone marrow suppression.The effects of different proportions of G-PRR on peripheral blood, bone marrow nucleated cells, thymus and spleen index of myelosuppressed mice were analyzed. The results showed that the compatibility of G and PRR can promote the dissolution of ginsenosides, and the content of conventional ginsenosides decreased, and the content of rare ginsenosides increased. Different proportions of G-PRR increased the number of peripheral blood and bone marrow nucleated cells in cyclophosphamide-induced bone marrow suppression mice (p<0.01), increased thymus index (p<0.01), decreased spleen index (p<0.01). Different proportions of G-PRR can improve the myelosuppression induced by cyclophosphamide in mice, and the combined effect of G-PRR is better than the single decoction of G and PRR. Among them, G-PRR2:3 and G-PRR1:2 were better than the other groups. These results indicate that different proportion of G-PRR can improve bone marrow suppression, and the combined decoction of G-PRR is better than the separate Decoction in improving bone marrow suppression. This improvement may be related to the changes of the substance basis and active ingredients of G-PRR.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32162970

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The IMPACT trial demonstrated a significant reduction in all-cause mortality (ACM) risk with fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol (FF/UMEC/VI) versus UMEC/VI in patients with COPD at risk of future exacerbations. OBJECTIVE: Report ACM and impact of stepping down therapy, following collection of additional vital status data. METHODS: Patients were randomized 2:2:1 to FF/UMEC/VI 100/62.5/25µg, FF/VI 100/25µg or UMEC/VI 62.5/25µg following a run-in on their COPD therapies. Time to ACM was prespecified. Additional vital status data collection and subsequent analyses were performed post hoc. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We report vital status data for 99.6% of the intention-to-treat population (n=10,355), documenting 98(2.36%) deaths on FF/UMEC/VI, 109(2.64%) on FF/VI, and 66(3.19%) on UMEC/VI. For FF/UMEC/VI, the hazard ratio for death was 0.72 (95%CI: 0.53,0.99;P=0.042) versus UMEC/VI and 0.89 (95%CI: 0.67,1.16;P=0.387) versus FF/VI. Independent adjudication confirmed lower rates of cardiovascular and respiratory death, and death associated with the patient's COPD. CONCLUSIONS: In this secondary analysis of an efficacy outcome from the IMPACT trial, once-daily single-inhaler FF/UMEC/VI triple therapy reduced the risk of ACM versus UMEC/VI in patients with symptomatic COPD and a history of exacerbations. FUNDING: GSK(CTT116855/NCT02164513). This article is open access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32091201

RESUMO

Rechargeable aqueous Zn-MnO2 batteries are a promising candidate for large-scale energy storage systems due to their outstanding advantages, such as high energy density, high safety, low cost, and environmental friendliness. Considering the controversies surrounding the mechanism of this battery containing a mildly acidic electrolyte, the electrochemical behavior of this type of battery using ß-MnO2 as the cathode is systematically investigated. The results indicate that the reversible intercalation of Zn2+ ions into MnO2 is not likely to take place in the aqueous system. We conclude that it is the existence of the water molecule and its participation in the electrochemical reactions, for instance, the reversible insertion of proton into MnO2 and the electrolysis of water, that makes the mechanism of aqueous Zn-MnO2 batteries complicated. Besides, the capacity fading of this mildly acidic Zn-MnO2 battery is assigned to the generation of the inert layer of Zn4SO4(OH)6·nH2O and the ZnMn2O4 on the cathode via electrochemical conversion reactions, the dissolution of the active material during discharging, and the release of gases. When Mn2+ ions are available in the electrolyte, they will be electrodeposited on the cathode during charging, and the kinetics of the electrochemical reactions of the electrode is improved, leading to the higher electrochemical performance of the battery.

7.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 20(1): 11, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer cachexia is a severe condition that leads to the death of advanced cancer patients, and approximately 50~80% of cancer patients have cancer cachexia. Ginseng extract has been reported to have substantial anticancer and immune-enhancing effects; however, no study has reported the use of ginseng alone to treat cancer cachexia. Our study's purpose was to investigate the therapeutic effects of ginseng-related monomers or mixtures on a cancer cachexia mouse model. METHODS: We selected BALB/c mice and injected the mice subcutaneously with C26 colon cancer cells to construct a cancer cachexia experimental animal model. The water extract of ginseng (WEG), two types of ginseng extracts (ginsenosides at doses of 5 mg/kg (GE5) and 50 mg/kg (GE50)) and ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1) were used to treat cancer cachexia mice. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were used to analyze the inhibitory effects on two key inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). RESULTS: Our experimental results show that GE5, GE50 and Rb1 significantly reduced the levels of TNF-α (P < 0.01) and IL-6 (P < 0.01), which are closely related to cancer cachexia; however, WEG, GE5, GE50 and Rb1 did not significantly improve the gastrocnemius muscle weight or the epididymal fat weight of mice with cancer cachexia. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that GE5, GE50 and Rb1 may be useful for reducing symptoms due to inflammation by reducing the TNF-α and IL-6 cytokine levels in cancer cachexia mice, thereby ameliorating the symptoms of cancer cachexia. Our results may be beneficial for future studies on the use of Chinese herbal medicines to treat cancer cachexia.

8.
Cell Death Dis ; 11(2): 104, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029710

RESUMO

Caveolin-1 (CAV1) is a crucial regulator of lipid accumulation and metabolism. Previous studies have shown that global Cav1 deficiency affects lipid metabolism and hepatic steatosis. We aimed to analyze the consequences of hepatocyte-specific Cav1 knockout under healthy conditions and upon non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) development. Male and female hepatocyte-specific Cav1 knockout (HepCAV1ko) mice were fed a methionine/choline (MCD) deficient diet for 4 weeks. MCD feeding caused severe hepatic steatosis and slight fibrosis. In addition, liver function parameters, i.e., ALT, AST, and GLDH, were elevated, while cholesterol and glucose level were reduced upon MCD feeding. These differences were not affected by hepatocyte-specific Cav1 knockout. Microarray analysis showed strong differences in gene expression profiles of livers from HepCAV1ko mice compared those of global Cav1 knockout animals. Pathway enrichment analysis identified that metabolic alterations were sex-dimorphically regulated by hepatocyte-specific CAV1. In male HepCAV1ko mice, metabolic pathways were suppressed in NAFLD, whereas in female knockout mice induced. Moreover, gender-specific transcription profiles were modulated in healthy animals. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that hepatocyte-specific Cav1 knockout significantly altered gene profiles, did not affect liver steatosis and fibrosis in NAFLD and that gender had severe impact on gene expression patterns in healthy and diseased hepatocyte-specific Cav1 knockout mice.

9.
Radiology ; 295(1): 218-226, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013794

RESUMO

Background CT is used to quantify abnormal changes in the lung parenchyma of smokers that might overlap chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but studies on the progression of expiratory air trapping in smokers are scarce. Purpose To evaluate the relationship between longitudinal changes in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and CT-quantified emphysema and air trapping in smokers. Materials and Methods Cigarette smokers with and those without COPD participating in the multicenter observational COPDGene study were evaluated. Subjects underwent inspiratory and expiratory chest CT and spirometry at baseline and 5-year follow-up. Emphysema was quantified by using adjusted lung density (ALD). Air trapping was quantified by using mean lung density at expiratory CT and CT-measured functional residual capacity-to-total lung volume ratio. Linear models were used to regress quantitative CT measurements taken 5 years apart, and models were fit with and without adding FEV1 as a predictor. Analyses were stratified by Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stage (GOLD 0, no COPD; GOLD 1, mild COPD; GOLD 2, moderate COPD; GOLD 3, severe COPD; GOLD 4, very severe COPD). Subjects with preserved FEV1-to-forced vital capacity ratio and reduced FEV1 percentage predicted were categorized as having preserved ratio impaired spirometry (PRISm). Results A total of 4211 subjects (503 with PRISm; 2034 with GOLD 0, 388 with GOLD 1, 816 with GOLD 2, 381 with GOLD 3, 89 with GOLD 4) were evaluated. ALD decreased by 1.7 g/L (95% confidence interval [CI]: -2.5, -0.9) in subjects with GOLD 0 at baseline and by 5.3 g/L (95% CI: -6.2, -4.4) in those with GOLD 1-4 (P < .001 for both). When adjusted for changes in FEV1, corresponding numbers were -2.2 (95% CI: -3.0, -1.3) and -4.6 g/L (95% CI: -5.6, -3.4) (P < .001 for both). Progression in air trapping was identified only in GOLD stage 2-4. Approximately 33%-50% of changes in air trapping in GOLD stages 2-4 were accounted for by changes in FEV1. Conclusion CT measures of emphysema and air trapping increased over 5 years in smokers. Forced expiratory volume in one second accounted for less than 10% of emphysema progression and less than 50% of air trapping progression detected at CT. © RSNA, 2020 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2181, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019939

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

11.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228857, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053643

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has become a pressing health problem facing the world today due to its high morbidity, high mortality, and late discovery. As a diagnostic criteria of HCC, the exact threshold of Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is controversial. Therefore, this study was aimed to systematically estimate the performance of AFP in diagnosing HCC and to clarify its optimal threshold. METHODS: Medline and Embase databases were searched for articles indexed up to November 2019. English language studies were included if both the sensitivity and specificity of AFP in the diagnosis of HCC were provided. The basic information and accuracy data included in the studies were extracted. Combined estimates for sensitivity and specificity were statistically analyzed by random-effects model using MetaDisc 1.4 and Stata 15.0 software at the prespecified threshold of 400 ng/mL, 200 ng/mL, and the range of 20-100 ng/mL. The optimal threshold was evaluated by the area under curve (AUC) of the summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC). RESULTS: We retrieved 29,828 articles and included 59 studies and 1 review with a total of 11,731 HCC cases confirmed by histomorphology and 21,972 control cases without HCC. The included studies showed an overall judgment of at risk of bias. Four studies with AFP threshold of 400 ng/mL showed the summary sensitivity and specificity of 0.32 (95%CI 0.31-0.34) and 0.99 (95%CI 0.98-0.99), respectively. Four studies with AFP threshold of 200 ng/mL showed the summary sensitivity and specificity of 0.49 (95%CI 0.47-0.50) and 0.98 (95%CI 0.97-0.99), respectively. Forty-six studies with AFP threshold of 20-100 ng/mL showed the summary sensitivity and specificity of 0.61 (95%CI 0.60-0.62) and 0.86 (95%CI 0.86-0.87), respectively. The AUC of SROC and Q index of 400 ng/mL threshold were 0.9368 and 0.8734, respectively, which were significantly higher than those in 200 ng/mL threshold (0.9311 and 0.8664, respectively) and higher than those in 20-100 ng/mL threshold (0.8330 and 0.7654, respectively). Furthermore, similar result that favored 400 ng/mL were shown in the threshold in terms of AFP combined with ultrasound. CONCLUSION: AFP levels in serum showed good accuracy in HCC diagnosis, and the threshold of AFP with 400 ng/mL was better than that of 200 ng/mL in terms of sensitivity and specificity no matter AFP is used alone or combined with ultrasound.

12.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 201(1): 473-481, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31891318

RESUMO

Rationale: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations are associated with disease progression, higher healthcare cost, and increased mortality. Published predictors of future exacerbations include previous exacerbation, airflow obstruction, poor overall health, home oxygen use, and gastroesophageal reflux.Objectives: To determine the value of adding blood biomarkers to clinical variables to predict exacerbations.Methods: Subjects from the SPIROMICS (Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcomes Measures in COPD Study) (n = 1,544) and COPDGene (Genetic Epidemiology of COPD) (n = 602) cohorts had 90 plasma or serum candidate proteins measured on study entry using Myriad-RBM multiplex panels. We defined total exacerbations as subject-reported worsening in respiratory health requiring therapy with corticosteroids and/or antibiotics, and severe exacerbations as those leading to hospitalizations or emergency room visits. We assessed retrospective exacerbations during the 12 months before enrollment and then documented prospective exacerbations in each cohort. Exacerbations were modeled for biomarker associations with negative binomial regression including clinical covariates (age, sex, percent predicted FEV1, self-reported gastroesophageal reflux, St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire score, smoking status). We used the Stouffer-Liptak test to combine P values for metaanalysis.Measurements and Main Results: Between the two cohorts, 3,471 total exacerbations (1,044 severe) were reported. We identified biomarkers within each cohort that were significantly associated with a history of exacerbation and with a future exacerbation, but there was minimal replication between the cohorts. Although established clinical features were predictive of exacerbations, of the blood biomarkers only decorin and α2-macroglobulin increased predictive value for future severe exacerbations.Conclusions: Blood biomarkers were significantly associated with the occurrence of exacerbations but were not robust between cohorts and added little to the predictive value of clinical covariates for exacerbations.

13.
Theranostics ; 10(3): 1197-1212, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31938060

RESUMO

Objective: Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) undergo the phenotypic changes from contractile to synthetic state during vascular remodeling after ischemia. SIRT1 protects against stress-induced vascular remodeling via maintaining VSMC differentiated phenotype. However, the effect of smooth muscle SIRT1 on the functions of endothelial cells (ECs) has not been well clarified. Here, we explored the role of smooth muscle SIRT1 in endothelial angiogenesis after ischemia and the underlying mechanisms. Methods: We performed a femoral artery ligation model using VSMC specific human SIRT1 transgenic (SIRT1-Tg) and knockout (KO) mice. Angiogenesis was assessed in in vivo by quantification of the total number of capillaries, wound healing and matrigel plug assays, and in vitro ECs by tube formation, proliferation and migration assays. The interaction of HIF1α with circRNA was examined by using RNA immunoprecipitation, RNA pull-down and in situ hybridization assays. Results: The blood flow recovery was significantly attenuated in SIRT1-Tg mice, and markedly improved in SIRT1-Tg mice treated with SIRT1 inhibitor EX527 and in SIRT1-KO mice. The density of capillaries significantly decreased in the ischemic gastrocnemius of SIRT1-Tg mice compared with SIRT1-KO and WT mice, with reduced expression of VEGFA, which resulted in decreased number of arterioles. We identified that the phenotypic switching of SIRT1-Tg VSMCs was attenuated in response to hypoxia, with high levels of contractile proteins and reduced expression of the synthetic markers and NG2, compared with SIRT1-KO and WT VSMCs. Mechanistically, SIRT1-Tg VSMCs inhibited endothelial angiogenic activity induced by hypoxia via the exosome cZFP609. The cZFP609 was delivered into ECs, and detained HIF1α in the cytoplasm via its interaction with HIF1α, thereby inhibiting VEGFA expression and endothelial angiogenic functions. Meantime, the high cZFP609 expression was observed in the plasma of the patients with atherosclerotic or diabetic lower extremity peripheral artery disease, associated with reduced ankle-brachial index. Knockdown of cZFP609 improved blood flow recovery after hindlimb ischemia in SIRT1-Tg mice. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that SIRT1 may impair the plasticity of VSMCs. cZFP609 mediates VSMCs to reprogram endothelial functions, and serves as a valuable indicator to assess the prognosis and clinical outcomes of ischemic diseases.

14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(2)2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31936558

RESUMO

Stemazole exerts potent pharmacological effects against neurodegenerative diseases and protective effects in stem cells. However, on the basis of the current understanding, the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of stemazole in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease have not been fully elucidated. In this study, a network pharmacology-based strategy integrating target prediction, network construction, gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses, and molecular docking was adopted to predict the targets of stemazole relevant to the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and to further explore the involved pharmacological mechanisms. The majority of the predicted targets were highly involved in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase (AKT1), caspase-3 (CASP3), caspase-8 (CASP8), mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 (MAPK8), and mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 (MAPK14) are the core targets regulated by stemazole and play a central role in its anti-apoptosis effects. This work provides a scientific basis for further elucidating the mechanism underlying the effects of stemazole in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 191: 110210, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958624

RESUMO

Arsenic (As)-contaminated soils occur widely worldwide. In the present study, three low-cost Fe/Al-based materials, including red soil (RS), sponge iron filter (SIF) and Al-based water treatment sludge (WTS), were applied as amendments to remediate As-contaminated soils under anoxic conditions. After 180 d of incubation, the proportion of the sum of nonspecifically absorbed As (F1) and specifically absorbed As (F2) to the total As was reduced by 6%, 52% and 13% with 5% of RS, SIF and WTS addition, respectively, compared to the control soil (31%). The results showed that among the three amendments, SIF was the most effective at decreasing As bioaccessibility in soils. Compared with RS and WTS, SIF intensified the decrease of labile fractions and the increase of unlabile fractions, and the redistribution of the amorphous oxide-bound fraction (F3) and crystalline hydrous oxide-bound fraction (F4) occurred in the SIF-amended soil. Moreover, the As stabilization processes were divided into two stages in the control and RS-amended soil, while the processes were divided into three stages in both SIF- and WTS-treated soil. The As stabilization processes in all treated soils were characterized by the transformation of labile fractions into more immobilizable fractions, except for F4 transforming into F3 in the first stage in SIF-amended soil. Correspondingly, inner-surface complexation and occlusion within Fe/Al hydroxides were the common driving mechanisms for the transformation of As fractions. Therefore, taking into consideration the results of this study, SIF could be a more promising alternative than the other two materials to passivate As in anoxic soils.

18.
Mol Med Rep ; 21(3): 1043-1050, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31922239

RESUMO

Oxidative stress is a pathophysiological condition resulting in neurotoxicity, which is possibly associated with neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, the antioxidative effects of the antioxidant astaxanthin (AXT) in combination with huperzine A (HupA), which is used as a cholinesterase inhibitor for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, were investigated. PC12 cells were treated with either tert­butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP), or with the toxic version of ß­amyloid, Aß25­35, to induce oxidative stress and neurotoxicity. Cell viability, morphology, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were determined, while neuroprotection was also monitored using an MTT assay. It was found that combining AXT with HupA significantly increased the viability of PC12 cells, prevented membrane damage (as measured by LDH release), attenuated intracellular ROS formation, increased SOD activity and decreased the level of MDA after TBHP exposure when compared to these drugs administered alone. Pretreatment with HupA and AXT decreased toxic damage produced by Aß25­35. These data indicated that combining an antioxidant with a cholinesterase inhibitor increases the degree of neuroprotection; with future investigation this could be a potential therapy used to decrease neurotoxicity in the brain.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995399

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Smoking results in at least a decade lower life expectancy. Mortality among current smokers is two to three times as high as never smokers. DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification of the human genome that has been associated with both cigarette smoking and mortality. OBJECTIVES: We sought to identify DNA methylation marks in blood predictive of mortality in a subset of the COPDGene study, representing 101 deaths among 667 current and former smokers. METHODS: We assayed genome-wide DNA methylation in non-Hispanic white smokers with and without COPD using blood samples from the COPDGene enrollment visit. We tested whether DNA methylation was associated with mortality in models adjusted for COPD status, age, sex, current-smoking status, and pack-years of cigarette smoking. Replication was performed in a subset of 231 individuals from the ECLIPSE study. RESULTS: We identified seven CpG sites associated with mortality (FDR < 20%) that replicated in the ECLIPSE cohort (p < 0.05). None of these marks were associated with longitudinal lung function decline in survivors, smoking history or current smoking status. However, differential methylation of two replicated PIK3CD sites were associated with lung function at enrollment (p < 0.05). We also observed associations between DNA methylation and gene expression for the PIK3CD sites. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to identify variable DNA methylation associated with all-cause mortality in smokers with and without COPD. Evaluating predictive epigenomic marks of smokers in peripheral blood may allow for targeted risk stratification and aid in delivery of future tailored therapeutic interventions.

20.
DNA Cell Biol ; 39(3): 398-403, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31976761

RESUMO

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is considered a main cause for vision loss in diabetes. To our knowledge, there were no studies on the association of genetic variants with DR in Chinese Hui nationality. In our research, 34 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were reported to be associated with DR in other ethnics were genotyped in 123 subjects with DR and 12 subjects without DR among Chinese Hui population using MassARRAY system. Association analysis performed by PLINK showed three SNP loci rs2300782, rs2292239, and rs10491034 were correlated with DR incidence. Furthermore, the genotype frequency analysis and association analysis of SNP with DR stage revealed the GT and TT genotypes of rs2292239, CC genotype of rs2300782, and GG genotype of rs10491034 were risk genotypes and associated with the severity of DR, which may be helpful for the study of DR susceptibility in Chinese Hui population. Our study indicates the rs2300782 of gene CAMK4, rs2292239 of gene ERBB3, and rs10491034 of gene ARHGAP22 are associated with DR incidence and severity among Chinese Hui population.


Assuntos
Proteína Quinase Tipo 4 Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/genética , Retinopatia Diabética/genética , Proteínas Ativadoras de GTPase/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptor ErbB-3/genética , Idoso , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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