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1.
Acta Crystallogr C Struct Chem ; 75(Pt 9): 1220-1227, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484809

RESUMO

A new mononuclear europium complex incorporating the (+)-di-p-toluoyl-D-tartaric acid (D-H2DTTA) ligand, namely, catena-poly[tris{µ2-3-carboxy-2,3-bis[(4-methylphenyl)carbonyloxy]propanoato}tris(methanol)europium(III)], [Eu(C20H17O8)3(CH3OH)3]n, (I), has been synthesized and characterized by IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, powder X-ray diffraction and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The structure analysis indicates that complex (I) crystallizes in the trigonal space group R3 and exhibits an infinite one-dimensional chain structure, in which the Eu3+ ion is surrounded by six O atoms from six D-HDTTA- ligands and three O atoms from three coordinated methanol molecules, thus forming a tricapped trigonal prism geometry. The D-H2DTTA ligand is partially deprotonated and adopts a µ1,6-coordination mode via two carboxylate groups to link adjacent Eu3+ ions, affording an infinite one-dimensional propeller-shaped coordination polymer chain along the c axis, with an Eu...Eu distance of 7.622 (1) Å. Moreover, C-H...π interactions lead to the formation of helical chains running along the c axis and the whole structure displays a snowflake pattern in the ab plane. The circular dichroism spectrum confirms the chirality of complex (I). The solid-state photoluminescence properties were also investigated at room temperature and (I) exhibits characteristic red emission bands derived from the Eu3+ ion (CIE 0.63, 0.32), with a reasonably long lifetime of 0.394 ms, indicating effective energy transfer from the ligand to the metal centre. In addition, a magnetic investigation reveals single-ion magnetic behaviour. The spin-orbit coupling parameter (λ) between the ground and excited states is fitted to be 360 (2) cm-1 through Zeeman perturbation. Therefore, complex (I) may be regarded as a chiral optical-magneto bifunctional material.

3.
Anal Chem ; 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475538

RESUMO

In this work, hydrazine-functionalized perylene diimide derivative supramolecular (HPDS), a novel self-enhanced donor-acceptor-donor (D-A-D) type aggregates with excellent photoelectric activity, was synthesized by a facile one-pot green route and further applied in construction of coreactant-free photoelectrochemical (PEC) biosensor for ultrasensitive DNA assay. Impressively, the HPDS formed by D-A-D units not only possessed effectively shorted electron-transfer path between donor and acceptor, but also presented a desiring aggregate state via the π-π stacking of perylene core and hydrogen bonding of the terminal moiety, thereby acquiring a high density electron flow for generating the extremely high PEC signal. Experimental data showed that the well film-formed HPDS aggregate could produce an exciting photocurrent intensity about 6-fold stronger than that of precursor perylene dianhydride with donor N2H4 in detection buffer and even 12-fold than that of perylene dianhydride only. In this respect, the resultant HPDS aggregate as a novel self-enhanced PEC signal tag was adopted to fabricate the coreactant-free PEC biosensor with the help of target dual-recycling-induced bipedal DNA walker cascade amplification strategy for ultrasensitive DNA (a fragment of TP53 gene) assay. The proposed biosensor showed a high sensitivity with a low detection limit down to femtomole level, providing a new avenue for sensitive bioanalysis and clinical diagnosis.

4.
Neurobiol Dis ; 132: 104602, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476380

RESUMO

Cerebellar Purkinje cell (PC) loss is a consistent pathological finding in autism. However, neural mechanisms of PC-dysfunction in autism remain poorly characterized. Glutamate receptor interacting proteins 1/2 (Grip1/2) regulate AMPA receptor (AMPAR) trafficking and synaptic strength. To evaluate role of PC-AMPAR signaling in autism, we produced PC-specific Grip1/2 knockout mice by crossing Grip2 conventional and Grip1 conditional KO with L7-Cre driver mice. PCs in the mutant mice showed normal morphology and number, and a lack of Grip1/2 expression. Rodent behavioral testing identified normal ambulation, anxiety, social interaction, and an increase in repetitive self-grooming. Electrophysiology studies revealed normal mEPSCs but an impaired mGluR-LTD at the Parallel Fiber-PC synapses. Immunoblots showed increased expression of mGluR5 and Arc, and enhanced phosphorylation of P38 and AKT in cerebellum of PC-specific Grip1/2 knockout mice. Results indicate that loss of Grip1/2 in PCs contributes to increased repetitive self-grooming, a core autism behavior in mice. Results support a role of AMPAR trafficking defects in PCs and disturbances of mGluR5 signaling in cerebellum in the pathogenesis of repetitive behaviors.

5.
Drug Test Anal ; 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486294

RESUMO

The small molecule, stemazole, has significant therapeutic effects on neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), due to its neuroprotective effects and remarkable survival-promoting activity in stem cells. However, pharmacokinetic properties of stemazole were unclear. In this study, a rapid and effective ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed to detect stemazole. The detector was operated in the positive-ion mode with an electrospray ionization (ESI) interface in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Chromatographic separation was performed on an Acquity UPLC® BEH C18 column with gradient elution. Stemazole was extracted from plasma following a one-step protein precipitation method. The method was fully validated for its selectivity, specificity, and sensitivity. The calibration curve range of 5-1125 ng/mL showed good linearity for stemazole. Intra-day and inter-day precision rates were less than 10%, and accuracy ranged from 95.87% to 105.23%. The pharmacokinetic profiles were illustrated through the newly developed method for the first time. The absolute oral bioavailability of stemazole is 32.10%. Therefore, it is feasible as an oral medication, which greatly facilitates its broad application. The biological distribution of tritium-labeled stemazole in mice was studied, and the results showed that stemazole was absorbed rapidly and distributed widely, mainly in the liver and kidneys. A specific amount was also detected in the brain, which provides a prerequisite for the use of stemazole to treat neurodegenerative diseases. This work represents first description of the pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, and tissue distribution of stemazole and will lay the foundation for further investigation and drug development.

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BMJ Open ; 9(8): e024968, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399446

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: As the early stage of coronary heart disease (CHD), borderline coronary lesion (BCL) is defined as a 30%-70% diameter stenosis. Previous studies have demonstrated that BCL may progress to acute coronary syndrome easily. However, routine medications available for the treatments of BCL have some limitations. Xuanbi antong granule (XAG) has been used for the treatment of BCL in China for many years. Previous studies have shown that XAG has effectiveness in improving clinical symptoms and quality of life in patients with CHD. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of XAG in patients with BCL. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a multicentre, randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial. A total of 300 participants will be randomly assigned to the intervention group and the placebo group. Based on routine medications, the intervention group will be treated with XAG and the placebo group will be treated with XAG placebo. All participants will receive a 6-month treatment and then be followed-up for another 6 months. The primary outcomes are the changes of target plaque characteristics (including target plaque volume, degree of stenosis, CT value and calcification score) measured by dual source CT angiography. The secondary outcomes include blood lipid indicators, efficacy of angina symptoms, Seattle Angina Questionnaire, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and occurrence of major adverse cardiac events. All the data will be recorded in electronic case report forms and analysed by SPSS V.20.0. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study has been approved by Research Ethics Committee of Guang'anmen Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences in Beijing, China (No. 2017-083-KY-01). Written informed consent will be obtained from all participants. The results of this study will be disseminated to the public through academic conferences and peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ChiCTR-IOR-17013189; Pre-results.

8.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0220604, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398213

RESUMO

Therapeutic hypothermia initiated during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in pre-clinical studies appears to be highly protective against sudden cardiac arrest injury. Given the challenges to implementing CPR cooling clinically, insights into its critical mechanisms of protection could guide development of new CPR drugs that mimic hypothermia effects without the need for physical cooling. Here, we used Akt1-deficient mice that lose CPR hypothermia protection to identify hypothermia targets. Adult female C57BL/6 mice (Akt1+/+ and Akt1+/-) underwent 8 min of KCl-induced asystolic arrest and were randomized to receive hypothermia (30 ± 0.5°C) or normothermia. Hypothermia was initiated during CPR and extended for 1 h after resuscitation. Neurologically scored survival was measured at 72 h. Other outcomes included mean arterial pressure and target measures in heart and brain related to contractile function, glucose utilization and inflammation. Compared to northothermia, hypothermia improved both 2h mean arterial pressure and 72h neurologically intact survival in Akt1+/+ mice but not in Akt1+/- mice. In Akt1+/+ mice, hypothermia increased Akt and GSK3ß phosphorylation, pyruvate dehydrogenase activation, and NAD+ and ATP production while decreasing IκBα degradation and NF-κB activity in both heart and brain at 30 min after CPR. It also increased phospholamban phosphorylation in heart tissue. Further, hypothermia reduced metabolic and inflammatory blood markers lactate and Pre-B cell Colony Enhancing Factor. Despite hypothermia treatment, all these effects were reversed in Akt1+/- mice. Taken together, drugs that target Akt1 and its effectors may have the potential to mimic hypothermia-like protection to improve sudden cardiac arrest survival when administered during CPR.

9.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 11367, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31388056

RESUMO

Metabolomics is an emerging science that can inform pathogenic mechanisms behind clinical phenotypes in COPD. We aimed to understand disturbances in the serum metabolome associated with respiratory outcomes in ever-smokers from the SPIROMICS cohort. We measured 27 serum metabolites, mostly amino acids, by 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in 157 white ever-smokers with and without COPD. We tested the association between log-transformed metabolite concentrations and one-year incidence of respiratory exacerbations after adjusting for age, sex, current smoking, body mass index, diabetes, inhaled or oral corticosteroid use, study site and clinical predictors of exacerbations, including FEV1% predicted and history of exacerbations. The mean age of participants was 53.7 years and 58% had COPD. Lower concentrations of serum amino acids were independently associated with 1-year incidence of respiratory exacerbations, including tryptophan (ß = -4.1, 95% CI [-7.0; -1.1], p = 0.007) and the branched-chain amino acids (leucine: ß = -6.0, 95% CI [-9.5; -2.4], p = 0.001; isoleucine: ß = -5.2, 95% CI [-8.6; -1.8], p = 0.003; valine: ß = -4.1, 95% CI [-6.9; -1.4], p = 0.003). Tryptophan concentration was inversely associated with the blood neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (p = 0.03) and the BODE index (p = 0.03). Reduced serum amino acid concentrations in ever-smokers with and without COPD are associated with an increased incidence of respiratory exacerbations.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365098

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Until plasmid-mediated mcr-1 was discovered, it was believed that polymyxin resistance in Gram-negative bacteria was mainly mediated by the chromosomally-encoded EptA and ArnT, which modify lipid A with phosphoethanolamine (pEtN) and 4-amino-4-deoxy-l-arabinose (l-Ara4N), respectively. This study aimed to construct a markerless mcr-1 deletion mutant in Klebsiella pneumoniae, validate a reliable reference gene for reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and investigate the interactions among mcr-1, arnT and eptA, in response to polymyxin treatments using pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD). METHODS: An isogenic markerless mcr-1 deletion mutant (II-503Δmcr-1) was generated from a clinical K. pneumoniae II-503 isolate. The efficacy of different polymyxin B dosage regimens was examined using an in vitro one-compartment PK/PD model and polymyxin resistance was assessed using population analysis profiles. The expression of mcr-1, eptA and arnT was examined using RT-qPCR with a reference gene pepQ, and lipid A was profiled using LC-MS. In vivo polymyxin B efficacy was investigated in a mouse thigh infection model. RESULTS: In K. pneumoniae II-503, mcr-1 was constitutively expressed, irrespective of polymyxin exposure. Against II-503Δmcr-1, an initial bactericidal effect was observed within 4 h with polymyxin B at average steady-state concentrations of 1 and 3 mg/L, mimicking patient PK. However, substantial regrowth and concomitantly increased expression of eptA and arnT were detected. Predominant l-Ara4N-modified lipid A species were detected in II-503Δmcr-1 following polymyxin B treatment. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study demonstrating a unique markerless deletion of mcr-1 in a clinical polymyxin-resistant K. pneumoniae. The current polymyxin B dosage regimens are suboptimal against K. pneumoniae, regardless of mcr, and can lead to the emergence of resistance.

11.
Eur Respir J ; 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439683

RESUMO

The characteristics that predict progression to overt COPD in smokers without spirometric airflow obstruction are not clearly defined.We conducted a post-hoc analysis of 849 current and former smokers (≥20 pack-years) with preserved spirometry from the SPIROMICS cohort who had baseline computed tomography (CT) scans of lungs and serial spirometry. We examined whether CT-derived lung volumes representing air trapping could predict adverse respiratory outcomes and more rapid decline in spirometry to overt COPD using mixed effect linear modelling.Among these subjects with normal forced expiratory volume in 1 s to forced vital capacity ratio (FEV1/FVC), CT-measured residual volume to total lung capacity ratio (RVCT/TLCCT) varied widely, from 21% to 59%. Over 2.5±0.7 years of follow-up, subjects with higher RVCT/TLCCT had a greater differential rate of decline in FEV1/FVC; those in the upper RVCT/TLCCT tertile had a 0.66% [95%CI=0.06%-1.27%] faster rate of decline per year compared to those in the lower tertile (p=0.015) regardless of demographics, baseline spirometry, respiratory symptoms score, smoking status (former versus current), or smoking burden (pack-years). Accordingly, subjects with higher RVCT/TLCCT were more likely to develop spirometric COPD (odds ratio=5.7 [95%CI=2.4-13.2] in upper versus lower RVCT/TLCCTtertile; p<0.001). Other CT indices of air trapping showed similar patterns of association with lung function decline; however, when all CT indices of air trapping, emphysema, and airway disease were included in the same model, only RVCT/TLCCT retained its significance.Increased air trapping based on radiographic lung volumes predicts accelerated spirometry decline and progression to COPD in smokers without obstruction.

12.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 5977-5985, 2019 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401644

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Circular RNA (circRNA) is a special long-chain non-coding RNA produced during the process of intracellular RNA splicing. Also, circZNF609 is abundant in human tissues, with multiple functions in human diseases, but its role in colorectal cancer remains unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the expression of circZNF609 in tumor tissue and serum samples from patients with colorectal cancer and in colorectal cancer cell lines. MATERIAL AND METHODS The expression of circZNF609 was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) in 45 paired tissue samples from patients with colorectal cancer and 46 serum samples from patients with colorectal cancer and healthy controls, and in the normal human colorectal cell line, FHC, and human colorectal cancer cell lines, HCT116 and HT29. Protein expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), c-Myc, Bax, Bcl-2, and p53 was determined by Western blot. Cell apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry. RESULTS CircZNF609 was significantly down-regulated in colorectal cancer tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues and in the serum of patients with colorectal cancer compared with healthy controls, verified by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. There was low expression of circZNF609 in HCT116 cells, and overexpression inhibited cell proliferation but had no effect on PCNA and c-Myc protein expression. Expression of circZNF609 induced apoptosis and upregulated expression of the pro-apoptotic protein, Bax, down-regulated the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2, and upregulated p53. CONCLUSIONS Expression of circZNF609 was down-regulated in colorectal cancer tissue and promoted apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells in vitro by upregulating p53.

13.
Respir Res ; 20(1): 153, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307479

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Quantitative computed tomographic (QCT) imaging-based metrics enable to quantify smoking induced disease alterations and to identify imaging-based clusters for current smokers. We aimed to derive clinically meaningful sub-groups of former smokers using dimensional reduction and clustering methods to develop a new way of COPD phenotyping. METHODS: An imaging-based cluster analysis was performed for 406 former smokers with a comprehensive set of imaging metrics including 75 imaging-based metrics. They consisted of structural and functional variables at 10 segmental and 5 lobar locations. The structural variables included lung shape, branching angle, airway-circularity, airway-wall-thickness, airway diameter; the functional variables included regional ventilation, emphysema percentage, functional small airway disease percentage, Jacobian (volume change), anisotropic deformation index (directional preference in volume change), and tissue fractions at inspiration and expiration. RESULTS: We derived four distinct imaging-based clusters as possible phenotypes with the sizes of 100, 80, 141, and 85, respectively. Cluster 1 subjects were asymptomatic and showed relatively normal airway structure and lung function except airway wall thickening and moderate emphysema. Cluster 2 subjects populated with obese females showed an increase of tissue fraction at inspiration, minimal emphysema, and the lowest progression rate of emphysema. Cluster 3 subjects populated with older males showed small airway narrowing and a decreased tissue fraction at expiration, both indicating air-trapping. Cluster 4 subjects populated with lean males were likely to be severe COPD subjects showing the highest progression rate of emphysema. CONCLUSIONS: QCT imaging-based metrics for former smokers allow for the derivation of statistically stable clusters associated with unique clinical characteristics. This approach helps better categorization of COPD sub-populations; suggesting possible quantitative structural and functional phenotypes.

14.
Korean J Radiol ; 20(7): 1236-1245, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270987

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Considering the different prevalence rates of diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Asians relative to other races, Koreans may have unique airway structure and lung function. This study aimed to investigate unique features of airway structure and lung function based on quantitative computed tomography (QCT)-imaging metrics in the Korean Asian population (Koreans) as compared with the White American population (Whites). MATERIALS AND METHODS: QCT data of healthy non-smokers (223 Koreans vs. 70 Whites) were collected, including QCT structural variables of wall thickness (WT) and hydraulic diameter (Dh) and functional variables of air volume, total air volume change in the lung (ΔVair), percent emphysema-like lung (Emph%), and percent functional small airway disease-like lung (fSAD%). Mann-Whitney U tests were performed to compare the two groups. RESULTS: As compared with Whites, Koreans had smaller volume at inspiration, ΔVair between inspiration and expiration (p < 0.001), and Emph% at inspiration (p < 0.001). Especially, Korean females had a decrease of ΔVair in the lower lobes (p < 0.001), associated with fSAD% at the lower lobes (p < 0.05). In addition, Koreans had smaller Dh and WT of the trachea (both, p < 0.05), correlated with the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (R = 0.49, 0.39; all p < 0.001) and forced vital capacity (R = 0.55, 0.45; all p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Koreans had unique features of airway structure and lung function as compared with Whites, and the difference was clearer in female individuals. Discriminating structural and functional features between Koreans and Whites enables exploration of inter-racial differences of pulmonary disease in terms of severity, distribution, and phenotype.

15.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0219011, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269046

RESUMO

Cardiac fibroblasts (CF) play a critical role in post-infarction remodeling which can ultimately lead to pathological fibrosis and heart failure. Recent evidence demonstrates that remote (non-infarct) territory fibrosis is a major mechanism for ventricular dysfunction and arrhythmogenesis. ß-arrestins are important signaling molecules involved in ß-adrenergic receptor (ß-AR) desensitization and can also mediate signaling in a G protein independent fashion. Recent work has provided evidence that ß-arrestin signaling in the heart may be beneficial, however, these studies have primarily focused on cardiac myocytes and their role in adult CF biology has not been well studied. In this study, we show that ß-arrestins can regulate CF biology and contribute to pathological fibrosis. Adult male rats underwent LAD ligation to induce infarction and were studied by echocardiography. There was a significant decline in LV function at 2-12 weeks post-MI with increased infarct and remote territory fibrosis by histology consistent with maladaptive remodeling. Collagen synthesis was upregulated 2.9-fold in CF isolated at 8 and 12 weeks post-MI and ß-arrestin expression was significantly increased. ß-adrenergic signaling was uncoupled in the post-MI CF and ß-agonist-mediated inhibition of collagen synthesis was lost. Knockdown of ß-arrestin1 or 2 in the post-MI CF inhibited transformation to myofibroblasts as well as basal and TGF-ß-stimulated collagen synthesis. These data suggest that ß-arrestins can regulate CF biology and that targeted inhibition of these signaling molecules may represent a novel approach to prevent post-infarction pathological fibrosis and the transition to HF.

16.
J Clin Invest ; 129(8): 3171-3184, 2019 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264976

RESUMO

Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (ACM) is an inherited arrhythmia syndrome characterized by severe structural and electrical cardiac phenotypes, including myocardial fibrofatty replacement and sudden cardiac death. Clinical management of ACM is largely palliative, owing to an absence of therapies that target its underlying pathophysiology, which stems partially from our limited insight into the condition. Following identification of deceased ACM probands possessing ANK2 rare variants and evidence of ankyrin-B loss of function on cardiac tissue analysis, an ANK2 mouse model was found to develop dramatic structural abnormalities reflective of human ACM, including biventricular dilation, reduced ejection fraction, cardiac fibrosis, and premature death. Desmosomal structure and function appeared preserved in diseased human and murine specimens in the presence of markedly abnormal ß-catenin expression and patterning, leading to identification of a previously unknown interaction between ankyrin-B and ß-catenin. A pharmacological activator of the WNT/ß-catenin pathway, SB-216763, successfully prevented and partially reversed the murine ACM phenotypes. Our findings introduce what we believe to be a new pathway for ACM, a role of ankyrin-B in cardiac structure and signaling, a molecular link between ankyrin-B and ß-catenin, and evidence for targeted activation of the WNT/ß-catenin pathway as a potential treatment for this disease.

17.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(13): 2768-2776, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359689

RESUMO

The study is aimed to explore the effect of soil moisture content on ginsenoside biosynthesis and explain its mechanism from the perspectives of antioxidant enzyme system and gene expression of key enzymes in the pathway of ginsenoside synthesis. In the study,two years old Panax ginseng was used as the experimental material and three moisture gradient,40% of saturated water content( W1),60%( W2),80%( W3) were set up. The content of 11 monomeric saponins were determined by HPLC. With GAPDH as a reference gene,six key enzymes( HMGR,SS,ß-AS,CYP716 A47,CYP716 A52 v2,CYP716 A53 v2) in ginseng saponin synthesis pathway expression were analyzed by fluorescent quantitative PCR and the activities of superoxide dismutase( SOD),peroxidase( POD),catalase( CAT) activity and MDA content were also determined. With the increase of soil water,the content of ginseng saponin and biomass showed an increasing trend. PPD( Rb1,Rc,Rb2,Rd,Rh2,Rb3,Rg3),PPT( Rg1,Re,Rf) ginsenoside,Ro and total ginsenoside reached the maximum value on August 30,were 9.92,5.48,0.63 mg·g-1,respectively. During the whole regulation period,the antioxidant activity of W3 was greater than that of W1,and the MDA content was less than that of W1. At W3,expression levels of ß-AS,CYP716 A47 and CYP716 A53 v2 showed an increasing trend,while HMGR and SS genes showed relatively stable expression levels under various water conditions. According to the correlation analysis,HMGR and SS genes in the W3 treatment group were significantly positively correlated with PPD,PPT ginsenoside and Ro,CYP716 A52 v2 gene was significantly positively correlated with Ro,and CYP716 A47 gene was significantly positively correlated with PPD ginsenoside. There was a significant positive correlation between ß-AS gene and PPD ginsenoside in W1 and W2 treatment. Therefore,W3 is the optimum moisture content,ginseng total saponins and monomer saponin content is the highest,the gene closely correlation with content of saponins and more conducive to the accumulation of ginsenosides.

18.
Clin Genet ; 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328266

RESUMO

To explore the approaches and diagnostic yield of genetic testing for renal disease in children, we describe the genotype and phenotype of the national cohort of children with renal disease from 13 different regions of China recruited from 2014 to 2018 by building up the multicenter registration system (Chinese Children Genetic Kidney Disease Database, CCGKDD). Genetic diagnosis was confirmed in 42.1% of our cohort of 1001 pediatric patients with clinical suspicion of a genetic renal disease. Of the 106 distinct monogenetic disorders detected, 15 accounted for 60.7% of genetic diagnoses. The diagnostic yield was 29.1% in steroid resistant nephritic syndrome (SRNS), 61.4% in cystic renal disease, 17.0% in congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT), 62.3% in renal tubular disease/renal calcinosis, and 23.9% for chronic kidney disease (CKD) 3 to 5 stage with unknown origin. Genetic approaches of target gene sequence (TGS), singleton whole-exome sequencing (WES) and trio-WES were performed with diagnostic rates of 44.8%, 36.2%, and 42.6%, respectively. The early use of trio-WES could improve the diagnostic rate especially in renal tubular disease and calcinosis. We report the genetic spectrum of Chinese children with renal disease. Establishment of the CCGKDD will improve the genetic work on renal disease.

19.
Lancet Respir Med ; 7(9): 745-756, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31281061

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have highlighted a relationship between reduction in rate of exacerbations with therapies containing inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and baseline blood eosinophil count in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The IMPACT trial showed that once-daily single-inhaler triple therapy significantly reduced exacerbations versus dual therapies. Blood eosinophil counts and smoking status could be important modifiers of treatment response to ICS. We aimed to model these relationships and their interactions, including outcomes other than exacerbations. METHODS: IMPACT was a phase 3, randomised, double-blind, parallel-group, 52-week global study comparing once-daily single-inhaler triple therapy (fluticasone furoate-umeclidinium-vilanterol) with dual inhaled therapy (fluticasone furoate-vilanterol or umeclidinium-vilanterol). Eligible patients had moderate-to-very-severe COPD and at least one moderate or severe exacerbation in the previous year. We used fractional polynomials to model continuous blood eosinophil counts. We used negative binomial regression for numbers of moderate and severe exacerbations, severe exacerbations, and pneumonia. We modelled differences at week 52 in trough FEV1, St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) total score, and Transition Dyspnoea Index using repeated measurements mixed effect models. IMPACT was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02164513. FINDINGS: The magnitude of benefit of regimens containing ICS (fluticasone furoate-umeclidinium-vilanterol n=4151 and fluticasone furoate-vilanterol n=4134) in reducing rates of moderate and severe exacerbations increased in proportion with blood eosinophil count, compared with a non-ICS dual long-acting bronchodilator (umeclidinium-vilanterol n=2070). The moderate and severe exacerbation rate ratio for triple therapy versus umeclidinium-vilanterol was 0·88 (95% CI 0·74 to 1·04) at blood eosinophil count less than 90 cells per µL and 0·56 (0·47 to 0·66) at counts of 310 cells per µL or more; the corresponding rate ratio for fluticasone furoate-vilanterol versus umeclidinium-vilanterol was 1·09 (0·91 to 1·29) and 0·56 (0·47 to 0·66), respectively. Similar results were observed for FEV1, Transition Dyspnoea Index, and SGRQ total score; however, the relationship with FEV1 was less marked. At blood eosinophil counts less than 90 cells per µL and at counts of 310 cells per µL or more, the triple therapy versus umeclidinium-vilanterol treatment difference was 40 mL (95% CI 10 to 70) and 60 mL (20 to 100) for trough FEV1, -0·01 (-0·68 to 0·66) and 0·30 (-0·37 to 0·97) for Transition Dyspnoea Index score, and -0·01 (-1·81 to 1·78) and -2·78 (-4·64 to -0·92) for SGRQ total score, respectively. Smoking status modified the relationship between observed efficacy and blood eosinophil count for moderate or severe exacerbations, Transition Dyspnoea Index, and FEV1, with former smokers being more corticosteroid responsive at any eosinophil count than current smokers. INTERPRETATION: This analysis of the IMPACT trial shows that assessment of blood eosinophil count and smoking status has the potential to optimise ICS use in clinical practice in patients with COPD and a history of exacerbations. FUNDING: GlaxoSmithKline.

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