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2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35502294

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is heterogenous in its clinical manifestations and disease progression. Patients often have disease courses that are difficult to predict with readily available data, such as lung function testing. The ability to better classify COPD into well-defined groups will allow researchers and clinicians to tailor novel therapies, monitor their effects, and improve patient-centered outcomes. Different modalities of assessing these COPD phenotypes are actively being studied, and an area of great promise includes the use of quantitative computed tomography (QCT) techniques focused on key features such as airway anatomy, lung density, and vascular morphology. Over the last few decades, companies around the world have commercialized automated CT software packages that have proven immensely useful in these endeavors. This article reviews the key features of several commercial platforms, including the technologies they are based on, the metrics they can generate, and their clinical correlations and applications. While such tools are increasingly being used in research and clinical settings, they have yet to be consistently adopted for diagnostic work-up and treatment planning, and their full potential remains to be explored.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Assistência ao Paciente , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Software , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35549640

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is defined by fixed spirometric ratio FEV1/FVC < 0.70 following inhaled bronchodilators. However, the implications of variable obstruction (VO), in which the pre-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC ratio is <0.70 but increases to ≥0.70 following inhaled bronchodilators, have not been determined. OBJECTIVES: We explored differences in physiology, exacerbations, and health status in participants with VO compared to reference participants without obstruction. METHODS: Data from the Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcome Measures in COPD (SPIROMICS) cohort was obtained. Participants with variable obstruction (VO) were compared to reference participants without obstruction. MEASUREMENTS: We assessed differences in baseline radiographic emphysema and small airways disease at study entry, baseline and change in lung function by spirometry, functional capacity by 6-minute walk, health status using standard questionnaires, exacerbation rates, and progression to COPD between the two groups. All models were adjusted for participant characteristics, asthma history, and tobacco exposure. MAIN RESULTS: We assessed 175 participants with VO and 603 reference participants without obstruction. Participants with VO had 6.2 times the hazard of future development of COPD controlling for other factors (95% CI 4.6-8.3, P<0.001). Compared to reference participants, the VO group had significantly lower baseline pre- and post-BD FEV1, and greater decline over time in post-BD FEV1, and pre- and post-bronchodilator FVC. There were no significant differences in exacerbations between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Significant risk for future COPD development exists for those with pre- but not post-bronchodilator airflow obstruction. These findings support consideration of expanding spirometric criteria defining COPD to include pre-BD obstruction.

4.
Pragmat Obs Res ; 13: 17-31, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35516162

RESUMO

Introduction: Little is known about the variability in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) management and how it may be affected by patient characteristics across different healthcare systems in the US. This study aims to describe demographic and clinical characteristics of people with COPD and compare management across five primary care medical groups in the US. Methods: This is a retrospective observational registry study utilizing electronic health records stored in the Advancing the Patient Experience (APEX) COPD registry. The APEX registry contains data from five US healthcare organizations located in Texas, Ohio, Colorado, New York, and North Carolina. Data on demographic and clinical characteristics of primary care patients with COPD between December 2019 and January 2020 were extracted and compared. Results: A total of 17,192 patients with COPD were included in analysis: Texas (n = 811), Ohio (n = 8722), Colorado (n = 472), New York (n = 1149) and North Carolina (n = 6038). The majority of patients at each location were female (>54%) and overweight/obese (>60%). Inter-location variabilities were noted in terms of age, race/ethnicity, exacerbation frequency, treatment pattern, and prevalence of comorbid conditions. Patients from the Colorado site experienced the lowest number of exacerbations per year while those from the New York site reported the highest number. Hypertension was the most common co-morbidity at 4 of 5 sites with the highest prevalence in New York. Depression was the most common co-morbidity in Ohio. Treatment patterns also varied by site; Colorado had the highest proportion of patients not on any treatment. ICS/LABA was the most commonly prescribed treatment except in Ohio, where ICS/LABA/LAMA was most common. Conclusions and Relevance: Our data show heterogeneity in demographic, clinical, and treatment characteristics of patients diagnosed with COPD who are managed in primary care across different healthcare organizations in the US.

5.
Lancet Rheumatol ; 4(5): e351-e361, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35368384

RESUMO

Background: COVID-19 is associated with acute respiratory distress and cytokine release syndrome. The Janus kinase (JAK)1/JAK2 inhibitor ruxolitinib reduces inflammatory cytokine concentrations in disorders characterised by cytokine dysregulation, including graft-versus-host disease, myelofibrosis, and secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. We assessed whether treatment with the JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor ruxolitinib would be beneficial in patients with COVID-19 admitted to hospital. Methods: RUXCOVID was an international, randomised, double-blind, phase 3 trial of ruxolitinib plus standard of care versus placebo plus standard of care in patients with COVID-19. Patients who were hospitalised but not on mechanical ventilation or in the intensive care unit [ICU] were randomly assigned (2:1) to oral ruxolitinib 5 mg twice per day or placebo for 14 days (14 additional days were allowed if no improvement). The primary endpoint was a composite of death, respiratory failure (invasive ventilation), or ICU care by day 29, analysed by logistic regression including region, treatment, baseline clinical status, age, and sex as covariates. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04362137. Findings: Between May 4 and Sept 19, 2020, 432 patients were randomly assigned to ruxolitinib (n=287) or placebo (n=145) plus standard of care; the mean age was 56·5 years (SD 13·3), 197 (46%) were female, and 235 (54%) were male. The primary objective was not met: the composite endpoint occurred in 34 (12%) of 284 ruxolitinib-treated patients versus 17 (12%) of 144 placebo-treated patients (odds ratio 0·91, 95% CI 0·48-1·73; p=0·77). By day 29, nine (3%) of 286 ruxolitinib-treated patients had died compared with three (2%) of 145 placebo-treated patients; 22 (8%) of 286 ruxolitinib-treated patients had received invasive ventilation compared with ten (7%) of 145 placebo-treated patients; and 30 (11%) of 284 ruxolitinib-treated patients had received ICU care compared with 17 (12%) of 144 placebo-treated patients. In an exploratory analysis, median time to recovery was 1 day faster with ruxolitinib versus placebo (8 days vs 9 days; hazard ratio 1·10, 95% CI 0·89-1·36). Adverse events included headache (23 [8%] of 281 on ruxolitinib vs 11 [8%] of 143 on placebo) and diarrhoea (21 [7%] vs 12 [8%]). Interpretation: Ruxolitinib 5 mg twice per day showed no benefit in the overall study population. A larger sample is required to determine the clinical importance of trends for increased efficacy in patient subgroups. Funding: Novartis and Incyte.

7.
Chronic Obstr Pulm Dis ; 9(2): 195-208, 2022 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35403414

RESUMO

Rationale: It has been suggested that patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) experience considerable daily respiratory symptom fluctuation. A standardized measure is needed to quantify and understand the implications of day-to-day symptom variability. Objectives: To compare standard deviation with other statistical measures of symptom variability and identify characteristics of individuals with higher symptom variability. Methods: Individuals in the SubPopulations and InteRmediate Outcome Measures In COPD Study (SPIROMICS) Exacerbations sub-study completed an Evaluating Respiratory Symptoms in COPD (E-RS) daily questionnaire. We calculated within-subject standard deviation (WS-SD) for each patient at week 0 and correlated this with measurements obtained 4 weeks later using Pearson's r and Bland Altman plots. Median WS-SD value dichotomized participants into higher versus lower variability groups. Association between WS-SD and exacerbation risk during 4 follow-up weeks was explored. Measurements and Main Results: Diary completion rates were sufficient in 140 (68%) of 205 sub-study participants. Reproducibility (r) of the WS-SD metric from baseline to week 4 was 0.32. Higher variability participants had higher St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) scores (47.3 ± 20.3 versus 39.6 ± 21.5, p=.04) than lower variability participants. Exploratory analyses found no relationship between symptom variability and health care resource utilization-defined exacerbations. Conclusions: WS-SD of the E-RS can be used as a measure of symptom variability in studies of patients with COPD. Patients with higher variability have worse health-related quality of life. WS-SD should be further validated as a measure to understand the implications of symptom variability.

8.
Chronic Obstr Pulm Dis ; 9(2): 111-121, 2022 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35114743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) is central to the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but is imprecise in classifying disease burden. We examined the potential of the maximal mid-expiratory flow rate (forced expiratory flow rate between 25% and 75% [FEF25%-75%]) as an additional tool for characterizing pathophysiology in COPD. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether FEF25%-75% helps predict clinical and radiographic abnormalities in COPD. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The SubPopulations and InteRediate Outcome Measures In COPD Study (SPIROMICS) enrolled a prospective cohort of 2978 nonsmokers and ever-smokers, with and without COPD, to identify phenotypes and intermediate markers of disease progression. We used baseline data from 2771 ever-smokers from the SPIROMICS cohort to identify associations between percent predicted FEF25%-75% (%predFEF25%-75%) and both clinical markers and computed tomography (CT) findings of smoking-related lung disease. RESULTS: Lower %predFEF25-75% was associated with more severe disease, manifested radiographically by increased functional small airways disease, emphysema (most notably with homogeneous distribution), CT-measured residual volume, total lung capacity (TLC), and airway wall thickness, and clinically by increased symptoms, decreased 6-minute walk distance, and increased bronchodilator responsiveness (BDR). A lower %predFEF25-75% remained significantly associated with increased emphysema, functional small airways disease, TLC, and BDR after adjustment for FEV1 or forced vital capacity (FVC). INTERPRETATION: The %predFEF25-75% provides additional information about disease manifestation beyond FEV1. These associations may reflect loss of elastic recoil and air trapping from emphysema and intrinsic small airways disease. Thus, %predFEF25-75% helps link the anatomic pathology and deranged physiology of COPD.

9.
Cells ; 11(4)2022 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35203345

RESUMO

Chronic rejection of lung allografts has two major subtypes, bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) and restrictive allograft syndrome (RAS), which present radiologically either as air trapping with small airways disease or with persistent pleuroparenchymal opacities. Parametric response mapping (PRM), a computed tomography (CT) methodology, has been demonstrated as an objective readout of BOS and RAS and bears prognostic importance, but has yet to be correlated to biological measures. Using a topological technique, we evaluate the distribution and arrangement of PRM-derived classifications of pulmonary abnormalities from lung transplant recipients undergoing redo-transplantation for end-stage BOS (N = 6) or RAS (N = 6). Topological metrics were determined from each PRM classification and compared to structural and biological markers determined from microCT and histopathology of lung core samples. Whole-lung measurements of PRM-defined functional small airways disease (fSAD), which serves as a readout of BOS, were significantly elevated in BOS versus RAS patients (p = 0.01). At the core-level, PRM-defined parenchymal disease, a potential readout of RAS, was found to correlate to neutrophil and collagen I levels (p < 0.05). We demonstrate the relationship of structural and biological markers to the CT-based distribution and arrangement of PRM-derived readouts of BOS and RAS.


Assuntos
Bronquiolite Obliterante , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Transplante de Pulmão , Aloenxertos , Biomarcadores , Bronquiolite Obliterante/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Inflamação , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Transplante de Pulmão/efeitos adversos , Síndrome , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
10.
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis ; 26(3): 206-216, 2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35197160

RESUMO

SETTING: Household air pollution (HAP) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are both major public health problems, reported to cause around 4 million and 3 million deaths every year, respectively. The great majority of these deaths, as well as the burden of disease during life is felt by people in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).OBJECTIVE and DESIGN: The extent to which HAP causes COPD is controversial; we therefore undertook this review to offer a viewpoint on this from the Global Initiative for COPD (GOLD).RESULTS: We find that while COPD is well-defined in many studies on COPD and HAP, there are major limitations to the definition and measurement of HAP. It is thus difficult to disentangle HAP from other features of poverty that are themselves associated with COPD. We identify other limitations to primary research studies, including the use of cross-sectional designs that limit causal inference.CONCLUSION: There is substantial preventable morbidity and mortality associated with HAP, COPD and poverty, separately and together. Although it may not be possible to define clear causal links between HAP and COPD, there is a clear urgency to reduce the avoidable burden of disease these inflict on the world´s poor.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Características da Família , Humanos , Pobreza , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etiologia
11.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 205(6): 631-640, 2022 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34982651

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) manifests with a variety of clinical presentations, reflecting its complex pathology. Currently, care focuses on symptom amelioration and prevention of complications and thus is generally tailored to disease severity rather than targeting specific pathophysiologic mechanisms. Chronic inflammation and mucus hypersecretion are key features of COPD. Epithelial ion channel dysfunction may be important, as it results in airway dehydration and defective host defense, contributing to chronic airway inflammation. Recent evidence suggests considerable similarities between COPD and cystic fibrosis (CF), a disease in which chloride ion channel dysfunction has been extensively studied (in particular CFTR [CF transmembrane conductance regulator]). Understanding commonalities between CF and COPD, and the role of CFTR in CF, may help in designing strategies targeting ion channel dysfunction and lead to new treatments with potential to alter the natural history of disease progression. Here, we review the roles of airway mucus and CFTR in normal lung function, the previously underestimated contribution of mucus stasis to the development of COPD, and the evidence for targeting CFTR to counteract mucus accumulation.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Fibrose Cística/genética , Fibrose Cística/terapia , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/genética , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação , Transporte de Íons , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia
13.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 205(3): 275-287, 2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34672872

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the end result of a series of dynamic and cumulative gene-environment interactions over a lifetime. The evolving understanding of COPD biology provides novel opportunities for prevention, early diagnosis, and intervention. To advance these concepts, we propose therapeutic trials in two major groups of subjects: "young" individuals with COPD and those with pre-COPD. Given that lungs grow to about 20 years of age and begin to age at approximately 50 years, we consider "young" patients with COPD those patients in the age range of 20-50 years. Pre-COPD relates to individuals of any age who have respiratory symptoms with or without structural and/or functional abnormalities, in the absence of airflow limitation, and who may develop persistent airflow limitation over time. We exclude from the current discussion infants and adolescents because of their unique physiological context and COPD in older adults given their representation in prior randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We highlight the need of RCTs focused on COPD in young patients or pre-COPD to reduce disease progression, providing innovative approaches to identifying and engaging potential study subjects. We detail approaches to RCT design, including potential outcomes such as lung function, patient-reported outcomes, exacerbations, lung imaging, mortality, and composite endpoints. We critically review study design components such as statistical powering and analysis, duration of study treatment, and formats to trial structure, including platform, basket, and umbrella trials. We provide a call to action for treatment RCTs in 1) young adults with COPD and 2) those with pre-COPD at any age.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Progressão da Doença , Diagnóstico Precoce , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico
14.
Curr Opin Pulm Med ; 28(2): 99-108, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34652295

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Risk assessment tools are essential in COPD care to help clinicians identify patients at higher risk of accelerated lung function decline, respiratory exacerbations, hospitalizations, and death. RECENT FINDINGS: Conventional methods of assessing risk have focused on spirometry, patient-reported symptoms, functional status, and a combination of these tools in composite indices. More recently, qualitatively and quantitatively assessed chest imaging findings, such as emphysema, large and small airways disease, and pulmonary vascular abnormalities have been associated with poor long-term outcomes in COPD patients. Although several blood and sputum biomarkers have been investigated for risk assessment in COPD, most still warrant further validation. Finally, novel remote digital monitoring technologies may be valuable to predict exacerbations but their large-scale performance, ease of implementation, and cost effectiveness remain to be determined. SUMMARY: Given the complex heterogeneity of COPD, any single metric is unlikely to fully capture the risk of poor long-term outcomes. Therefore, clinicians should review all available clinical data, including spirometry, symptom severity, functional status, chest imaging, and bloodwork, to guide personalized preventive care of COPD patients. The potential of machine learning tools and remote monitoring technologies to refine COPD risk assessment is promising but remains largely untapped pending further investigation.

15.
Chest ; 161(4): 960-970, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34785234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Body composition measures, specifically low weight or reduced muscle mass, are associated with mortality in COPD, but the effect of longitudinal body composition changes is undefined. RESEARCH QUESTION: Is the longitudinal loss of fat-free mass (FFM) associated with increased mortality, including in those with initially normal or elevated body composition metrics? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Participants with complete data for at least one visit in the COPDGene study (n = 9,268) and the ECLIPSE study (n = 1,760) were included and monitored for 12 and 8 years, respectively. Pectoralis muscle area (PMA) was derived from thoracic CT scans and used as a proxy for FFM. A longitudinal mixed submodel for PMA and a Cox proportional hazards submodel for survival were fitted on a joint distribution, using a shared random intercept parameter and Markov chain Monte Carlo parameter estimation. RESULTS: Both cohorts demonstrated a left-shifted distribution of baseline FFM, not reflected in BMI, and an increase in all-cause mortality risk associated with longitudinal loss of PMA. For each 1-cm2 PMA loss, mortality increased 3.1% (95% CI, 2.4%-3.7%; P < .001) in COPDGene, and 2.4% (95% CI, 0.9%-4.0%; P < .001) in ECLIPSE. Increased mortality risk was independent of enrollment values for BMI and disease severity [BODE (body mass, airflow obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise capacity) index quartiles] and was significant even in participants with initially greater than average PMA. INTERPRETATION: Longitudinal loss of PMA is associated with increased all-cause mortality, regardless of BMI or initial muscle mass. Consideration of novel screening tests and further research into mechanisms contributing to muscle decline may improve risk stratification and identify novel therapeutic targets in ever smokers.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Fumantes , Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pulmão , Músculos Peitorais , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações
16.
Chest ; 161(4): 949-959, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34767825

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Small airways are known to be affected early in the course of COPD; however, traditional spirometric indices may not accurately identify small airways disease. RESEARCH QUESTION: Can forced expiratory volume in 3 s/forced expiratory volume in 6 s (FEV3/FEV6) identify early airflow abnormalities and predict future clinically important respiratory-related outcomes, including development of COPD? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The study included 832 current and former smokers with post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC ≥ 0.7 from the Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcome Measures in COPD Study (SPIROMICS) cohort. Participants were classified as having a reduced pre-bronchodilator FEV3/FEV6 based on lower limit of normal (LLN) values. Repeatability analysis was performed for FEV3 and FEV6. Regression modeling was used to evaluate the relationship between baseline FEV3/FEV6 and outcome measures, including functional small airways disease, on thoracic imaging and respiratory exacerbations. Interval-censored analysis was used to assess progression to COPD. RESULTS: FEV3/FEV6 less than the LLN at baseline, defined as reduced compared with FEV3/FEV6 at or above the LLN, was associated with lower FEV1, poorer health status (St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire score), more emphysema, and more functional small airways disease on quantitative imaging. FEV3 and FEV6 showed excellent agreement between repeat measurements. A reduced FEV3/FEV6 was associated with increased odds of a severe respiratory exacerbation within the first year of follow-up and decreased time to first exacerbation. A low FEV3/FEV6 was also associated with development of COPD according to spirometry results (post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC < 0.7) during study follow-up. INTERPRETATION: FEV3/FEV6 is a routinely available and repeatable spirometric index that can be useful in the evaluation of early airflow obstruction in current and former smokers without COPD. A reduced FEV3/FEV6 can identify those at risk for future development of COPD and respiratory exacerbations. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT01969344; URL: www. CLINICALTRIALS: gov: ClinicalTrials.gov.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Transtornos Respiratórios , Broncodilatadores , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Fumantes , Espirometria/métodos , Capacidade Vital
17.
Chronic Obstr Pulm Dis ; 9(1): 68-79, 2022 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34972260

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the InforMing the PAthway of COPD Treatment (IMPACT) trial, single-inhaler fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol (FF/UMEC/VI) reduced moderate/severe exacerbation rates versus FF/VI and UMEC/VI in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This post hoc analysis tested the relationship between baseline health status, risk of future exacerbations, and efficacy outcomes. METHODS: IMPACT was a Phase 3, double-blind, 52-week trial in patients with symptomatic COPD (COPD Assessment Test [CAT] score ≥10) and ≥1 moderate/severe exacerbation in the prior year randomized 2:2:1 to FF/UMEC/VI 100/62.5/25mcg, FF/VI 100/25mcg, or UMEC/VI 62.5/25mcg. Annual rate of on-treatment moderate/severe exacerbations, lung function, and safety were analyzed by continuous baseline CAT score. RESULTS: Moderate/severe exacerbation rates increased with increasing baseline CAT scores in FF/UMEC/VI and UMEC/VI arms. There was a very small increase in on-treatment pneumonia rates at higher baseline CAT scores across all treatment arms. FF/UMEC/VI reduced moderate/severe exacerbation rates versus UMEC/VI (i.e., the inhaled corticosteroid effect) consistently across the range of CAT scores. The reduction with FF/UMEC/VI versus FF/VI (i.e., the long-acting muscarinic antagonist effect) was greatest at lower CAT scores and appeared lesser at higher CAT scores. Improvements in lung function were observed with FF/UMEC/VI versus FF/VI and UMEC/VI, regardless of baseline CAT score. CONCLUSIONS: The CAT score was predictive of exacerbation risk. Worse baseline health status was associated with higher moderate/severe exacerbation and pneumonia rates. Irrespective of baseline CAT score, FF/UMEC/VI improved lung function, and reduced the annual moderate/severe exacerbation rates versus dual therapy. Results indicate an overall favorable benefit-risk profile of triple versus dual therapy, irrespective of CAT score. Clinical Trial Registration:GSK (CTT116855/NCT02164513).

18.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 205(7): 819-829, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34913855

RESUMO

Rationale: African American individuals have worse outcomes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Objectives: To assess whether race-specific approaches for estimating lung function contribute to racial inequities by failing to recognize pathological decrements and considering them normal. Methods: In a cohort with and at risk for COPD, we assessed whether lung function prediction equations applied in a race-specific versus universal manner better modeled the relationship between FEV1, FVC, and other COPD outcomes, including the COPD Assessment Test, St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire, computed tomography percent emphysema, airway wall thickness, and 6-minute-walk test. We related these outcomes to differences in FEV1 using multiple linear regression and compared predictive performance between fitted models using root mean squared error and Alpaydin's paired F test. Measurements and Main Results: Using race-specific equations, African American individuals were calculated to have better lung function than non-Hispanic White individuals (FEV1, 76.8% vs. 71.8% predicted; P = 0.02). Using universally applied equations, African American individuals were calculated to have worse lung function. Using Hankinson's Non-Hispanic White equation, FEV1 was 64.7% versus 71.8% (P < 0.001). Using the Global Lung Initiative's Other race equation, FEV1 was 70.0% versus 77.9% (P < 0.001). Prediction errors from linear regression were less for universally applied equations compared with race-specific equations when examining FEV1% predicted with the COPD Assessment Test (P < 0.01), St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (P < 0.01), and airway wall thickness (P < 0.01). Although African American participants had greater adversity (P < 0.001), less adversity was only associated with better FEV1 in non-Hispanic White participants (P for interaction = 0.041). Conclusions: Race-specific equations may underestimate COPD severity in African American individuals.Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01969344).


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Enfisema Pulmonar , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Testes de Função Respiratória , Capacidade Vital
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