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1.
Chest ; 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539837

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mild expiratory flow limitation may not be recognized using traditional spirometric criteria based on the ratio of Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second (FEV1) to Forced Vital Capacity (FVC). RESEARCH QUESTION: Does slow vital capacity (SVC) instead of FVC increase the sensitivity of spirometry to identify patients with early or mild obstructive lung disease? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We included 854 current and former smokers from the SPIROMICS cohort with a post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC≥0.7 and FEV1%predicted≥80% at enrollment. We compared baseline characteristics, chest CT features, exacerbations, and progression to COPD (post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC<0.7) during the follow-up period between 734 participants with post-bronchodilator FEV1/SVC≥0.7 and 120 with post-bronchodilator FEV1/SVC<0.7 at the enrollment. We performed multivariable linear and logistic regression models, negative binomial and interval-censored proportion hazards regression models adjusted for demographics and smoking exposure to examine the association of FEV1/SVC<0.7 with those characteristics and outcomes. RESULTS: Participants with FEV1/SVC<0.7 were older, had lower FEV1 and more emphysema than those with FEV1/SVC≥0.7. In adjusted analysis, individuals with post-bronchodilator FEV1/SVC<0.7 had greater %emphysema by 0.45% (95%CI=0.09-0.82), % gas trapping by 2.52% (95%CI=0.59-4.44), and %functional small airways disease based on parametric response mapping (PRMfSAD) by 2.78%(95%CI = 0.72-4.83) at baseline than those with FEV1/SVC≥0.7. During a median follow-up time of 1500 days, FEV1/SVC<0.7 was not associated with total exacerbations (IRR=1.61;95%CI=0.97-2.64) but was associated with severe exacerbations (IRR=2.60;95%CI=1.04-4.89). FEV1/SVC<0.7 was associated with progression to COPD during a 3-year follow-up even after adjustment for demographics and smoking exposure (HR=3.93;95%CI=2.71-5.72). We found similar results when we examined the association of pre-bronchodilator FEV1/SVC<0.7 or FEV1/SVC

2.
Thorax ; 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33574123

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Muscle wasting is a recognised extra-pulmonary complication in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and has been associated with increased risk of death. Acute respiratory exacerbations are associated with reduction of muscle function, but there is a paucity of data on their long-term effect. This study explores the relationship between acute respiratory exacerbations and long-term muscle loss using serial measurements of CT derived pectoralis muscle area (PMA). DESIGN AND SETTING: Participants were included from two prospective, longitudinal, observational, multicentre cohorts of ever-smokers with at least 10 pack-year history. PARTICIPANTS: The primary analysis included 1332 (of 2501) participants from Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints (ECLIPSE) and 4384 (of 10 198) participants from Genetic Epidemiology of COPD (COPDGene) who had complete data from their baseline and follow-up visits. INTERVENTIONS: PMA was measured on chest CT scans at two timepoints. Self-reported exacerbation data were collected from participants in both studies through the use of periodic longitudinal surveys. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Age-related and excess muscle loss over time. RESULTS: Age, sex, race and body mass index were associated with baseline PMA. Participants experienced age-related decline at the upper end of reported normal ranges. In ECLIPSE, the exacerbation rate over time was associated with an excess muscle area loss of 1.3% (95% CI 0.6 to 1.9, p<0.001) over 3 years and in COPDGene with an excess muscle area loss of 2.1% (95% CI 1.2 to 2.8, p<0.001) over 5 years. Excess muscle area decline was absent in 273 individuals who participated in pulmonary rehabilitation. CONCLUSIONS: Exacerbations are associated with accelerated skeletal muscle loss. Each annual exacerbation was associated with the equivalent of 6 months of age-expected decline in muscle mass. Ameliorating exacerbation-associated muscle loss represents an important therapeutic target.

3.
Radiology ; : 203531, 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33591891

RESUMO

Background The relationship between emphysema progression and long-term outcomes is unclear. Purpose To determine the relationship between emphysema progression at CT and mortality among participants with emphysema. Materials and Methods In a secondary analysis of two prospective observational studies, COPDGene (clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00608764) and Evaluation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate End-points (ECLIPSE; clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00292552), emphysema was measured at CT at two points by using the volume-adjusted lung density at the 15th percentile of the lung density histogram (hereafter, lung density perc15) method. The association between emphysema progression rate and all-cause mortality was analyzed by using Cox regression adjusted for ethnicity, sex, baseline age, pack-years, and lung density, baseline and change in smoking status, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, and 6-minute walk distance. In COPDGene, respiratory mortality was analyzed by using the Fine and Gray method. Results A total of 5143 participants (2613 men [51%]; mean age, 60 years ± 9 [standard deviation]) in COPDGene and 1549 participants (973 men [63%]; mean age, 62 years ± 8) in ECLIPSE were evaluated, of which 2097 (40.8%) and 1179 (76.1%) had emphysema, respectively. Baseline imaging was performed between January 2008 and December 2010 for COPDGene and January 2006 and August 2007 for ECLIPSE. Follow-up imaging was performed after 5.5 years ± 0.6 in COPDGene and 3.0 years ± 0.2 in ECLIPSE, and mortality was assessed over the ensuing 5 years in both. For every 1 g/L per year faster rate of decline in lung density perc15, all-cause mortality increased by 8% in COPDGene (hazard ratio [HR], 1.08; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.16; P = .03) and 6% in ECLIPSE (HR, 1.06; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.13; P = .045). In COPDGene, respiratory mortality increased by 22% (HR, 1.22; 95% CI: 1.13, 1.31; P < .001) for the same increase in the rate of change in lung density perc15. Conclusion In ever-smokers with emphysema, emphysema progression at CT was associated with increased all-cause and respiratory mortality. © RSNA, 2021 Online supplemental material is available for this article. See also the editorial by Lee and Park in this issue.

4.
NPJ Biofilms Microbiomes ; 7(1): 14, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547327

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is heterogeneous in development, progression, and phenotypes. Little is known about the lung microbiome, sampled by bronchoscopy, in milder COPD and its relationships to clinical features that reflect disease heterogeneity (lung function, symptom burden, and functional impairment). Using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid collected from 181 never-smokers and ever-smokers with or without COPD (GOLD 0-2) enrolled in the SubPopulations and InteRmediate Outcome Measures In COPD Study (SPIROMICS), we find that lung bacterial composition associates with several clinical features, in particular bronchodilator responsiveness, peak expiratory flow rate, and forced expiratory flow rate between 25 and 75% of FVC (FEF25-75). Measures of symptom burden (COPD Assessment Test) and functional impairment (six-minute walk distance) also associate with disparate lung microbiota composition. Drivers of these relationships include members of the Streptococcus, Prevotella, Veillonella, Staphylococcus, and Pseudomonas genera. Thus, lung microbiota differences may contribute to airway dysfunction and airway disease in milder COPD.

5.
J Am Board Fam Med ; 34(1): 22-31, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452079

RESUMO

The Advancing the Patient Experience (APEX) in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) registry (https://www.apexcopd.org/) is the first primary care health system-based COPD registry in the United States. While its ultimate goal is to improve the care of patients diagnosed with COPD, the registry is also designed to describe real-life experiences of people with COPD, track key outcomes longitudinally, and assess the effectiveness of interventions. It will retrospectively and prospectively collect information from 3000 patients enrolled in 5 health care organizations. Information will be obtained from electronic health records, and from extended annual and brief questionnaires completed by patients before clinic visits. Core variables to be collected into the APEX COPD registry were agreed on by Delphi consensus and fall into 3 domains: demographics, COPD monitoring, and treatment. Main strengths of the registry include: 1) its size and scope (in terms of patient numbers, geographic spread and use of multiple information sources including patient-reported information); 2) collection of variables which are clinically relevant and practical to collect within primary care; 3) use of electronic data capture systems to ensure high-quality data and minimization of data-entry requirements; 4) inclusion of clinical, database development, management and communication experts; 5) regular sharing of key findings, both at international/national congresses and in peer-reviewed publications; and 6) a robust organizational structure to ensure continuance of the registry, and that research outputs are ethical, relevant and continue to bring value to both patients and physicians.

6.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 203(1): 14-23, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33385220

RESUMO

Rationale: Decisions in medicine are made on the basis of knowledge and reasoning, often in shared conversations with patients and families in consideration of clinical practice guideline recommendations, individual preferences, and individual goals. Observational studies can provide valuable knowledge to inform guidelines, decisions, and policy.Objectives: The American Thoracic Society (ATS) created a multidisciplinary ad hoc committee to develop a research statement to clarify the role of observational studies-alongside randomized controlled trials (RCTs)-in informing clinical decisions in pulmonary, critical care, and sleep medicine.Methods: The committee examined the strengths of observational studies assessing causal effects, how they complement RCTs, factors that impact observational study quality, perceptions of observational research, and, finally, the practicalities of incorporating observational research into ATS clinical practice guidelines.Measurements and Main Results: There are strengths and weakness of observational studies as well as RCTs. Observational studies can provide evidence in representative and diverse patient populations. Quality observational studies should be sought in the development of ATS clinical practice guidelines, and medical decision-making in general, when 1) no RCTs are identified or RCTs are appraised as being of low- or very low-quality (replacement); 2) RCTs are of moderate quality because of indirectness, imprecision, or inconsistency, and observational studies mitigate the reason that RCT evidence was downgraded (complementary); or 3) RCTs do not provide evidence for outcomes that a guideline committee considers essential for decision-making (e.g., rare or long-term outcomes; "sequential").Conclusions: Observational studies should be considered in developing clinical practice guidelines and in making clinical decisions.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/normas , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Cuidados Críticos/normas , Assistência à Saúde/normas , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/normas , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto/normas , Doenças Torácicas/terapia , Humanos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Sociedades Médicas , Estados Unidos
7.
Annu Rev Med ; 72: 119-134, 2021 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33502902

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common respiratory disorder with significant morbidity and mortality. Despite its prevalence, COPD is underdiagnosed, and many patients do not receive a diagnosis until the disease is clinically advanced. Recent basic science and clinical research have focused on the early physiologic and pathobiologic changes in COPD with the hopes of improving diagnosis, providing targets for disease-modifying therapy, and identifying patients most likely to benefit from early intervention. Available treatments for COPD have grown substantially in the past 20 years with the introduction of new oral and inhaled medications as well as novel surgical and bronchoscopic procedures. This article summarizes some of the recent advances in our understanding of disease pathogenesis and treatment paradigms.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33290645

RESUMO

Background: Little is known about factors associated with emphysema progression in cigarette smokers. We evaluated factors associated with change in emphysema and FEV1 in subjects with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods: This retrospective study included subjects participating in the COPDGene study and who completed the 5-year follow-up, including inspiratory and expiratory computed tomography (CT) and spirometry. All paired CT scans were analyzed using micro-mapping, which classifies individual voxels as emphysema or functional small airway disease (fSAD). Presence and progression of emphysema and FEV1 were determined based on comparison to nonsmoker values. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify clinical parameters associated with disease progression. Results: 3088 subjects were included with a mean ± SD age of 60.7±8.9 years, including 72 nonsmokers. In all GOLD stages, the presence of emphysema at baseline was associated with emphysema progression (Odds ratio (OR): GOLD 0: 4.32; PRISm; 5.73; GOLD 1: 5.16; GOLD 2: 5.69; GOLD 3/4: 5.55; all p≤0.01). If there was no emphysema at baseline, the amount of fSAD at baseline was associated with emphysema progression (OR for 1% increase: GOLD 0: 1.06; PRISm: 1.20; GOLD 1: 1.7; GOLD 3/4: 1.08 all p ≤ 0.03). In 1735 subjects without spirometric COPD, progression in emphysema occurred in 105 (6.1%) subjects and only 21 (1.2%) had progression in both emphysema and FEV1. Conclusions: The presence of emphysema is an important predictor of emphysema progression. In patients without emphysema, fSAD is associated with the development of emphysema. In subjects without spirometric COPD, emphysema progression occurred independently of FEV1 decline.

10.
ERJ Open Res ; 6(4)2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33263033

RESUMO

In 2019, The Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) modified the grading system for patients with COPD, creating 16 subgroups (1A-4D). As part of the COPD Cohorts Collaborative International Assessment (3CIA) initiative, we aim to compare the mortality prediction of the 2015 and 2019 COPD GOLD staging systems. We studied 17 139 COPD patients from the 3CIA study, selecting those with complete data. Patients were classified by the 2015 and 2019 GOLD ABCD systems, and we compared the predictive ability for 5-year mortality of both classifications. In total, 17 139 patients with COPD were enrolled in 22 cohorts from 11 countries between 2003 and 2017; 8823 of them had complete data and were analysed. Mean±sd age was 63.9±9.8 years and 62.9% were male. GOLD 2019 classified the patients in milder degrees of COPD. For both classifications, group D had higher mortality. 5-year mortality did not differ between groups B and C in GOLD 2015; in GOLD 2019, mortality was greater for group B than C. Patients classified as group A and B had better sensitivity and positive predictive value with the GOLD 2019 classification than GOLD 2015. GOLD 2015 had better sensitivity for group C and D than GOLD 2019. The area under the curve values for 5-year mortality were only 0.67 (95% CI 0.66-0.68) for GOLD 2015 and 0.65 (95% CI 0.63-0.66) for GOLD 2019. The new GOLD 2019 classification does not predict mortality better than the previous GOLD 2015 system.

11.
Chest ; 2020 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lung cancer risk prediction models do not routinely incorporate imaging metrics available on low-dose CT (LDCT) imaging of the chest ordered for lung cancer screening. RESEARCH QUESTION: What is the association between quantitative emphysema measured on LDCT imaging and lung cancer incidence and mortality, all-cause mortality, and airflow obstruction in individuals who currently or formerly smoked who are undergoing lung cancer screening? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: In 7,262 participants in the CT arm of the National Lung Screening Trial, percent low attenuation area (%LAA) was defined as the percentage of lung volume with voxels less than -950 Hounsfield units on the baseline examination. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for competing risks where appropriate, were built to test for association between %LAA and lung cancer incidence, lung cancer mortality, and all-cause mortality with censoring at 6 years. In addition, multivariable logistic regression models were built to test the cross-sectional association between %LAA and airflow obstruction on spirometry, which was available in 2,700 participants. RESULTS: The median %LAA was 0.8% (interquartile range, 0.2%-2.7%). Every 1% increase in %LAA was independently associated with higher hazards of lung cancer incidence (hazard ratio [HR], 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.03; P = .004), lung cancer mortality (HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.00-1.05; P = .045), and all-cause mortality (HR, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.00-1.03; P = .042). Among participants with spirometry, 892 had airflow obstruction. The likelihood of airflow obstruction increased with every 1% increase in %LAA (odds ratio, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.06-1.09; P < .001). A %LAA cutoff of 1% had the best discriminative accuracy for airflow obstruction in participants aged > 65 years. INTERPRETATION: Quantitative emphysema measured on LDCT imaging of the chest can be leveraged to improve lung cancer risk prediction and help diagnose COPD in individuals who currently or formerly smoked who are undergoing lung cancer screening.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33156982

RESUMO

Background: The IMPACT trial demonstrated lower moderate/severe exacerbation rates with fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol (FF/UMEC/VI) versus FF/VI or UMEC/VI in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and a history of exacerbations. Since IMPACT was a global study, post-hoc analyses were conducted by geographic region to investigate potential differences in overall findings. Methods: IMPACT was a 52-week, randomized, double-blind trial. Patients with symptomatic COPD and ≥1 moderate/severe exacerbation in the prior year were randomized 2:2:1 to once-daily FF/UMEC/VI 100/62.5/25µg, FF/VI 100/25µg, or UMEC/VI 62.5/25µg. Endpoints assessed in the overall, Western Europe (WE) and North America (NA) populations included on-treatment moderate/severe exacerbation (rates and time-to-first), trough forced expiratory volume in 1 second and St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) total score. Safety was assessed. Results: Overall, 10,355 patients were enrolled, 3164 from WE, 2639 from NA. FF/UMEC/VI significantly reduced on-treatment moderate/severe exacerbation rates versus FF/VI and UMEC/VI in WE (rate ratios 0.82 [95%CI 0.74-0.91], P<.001 and 0.76 [0.67-0.87], P<.001) and NA (0.87 [0.77-0.97], P=.014 and 0.69 [0.60-0.80], P<.001). FF/UMEC/VI reduced time-to-first moderate/severe exacerbation and improved lung function versus FF/VI and UMEC/VI in both regions, and improved SGRQ total score in WE, but not NA. Safety profiles were generally similar between treatment groups/regions; the inhaled corticosteroid class effect of increased pneumonia incidence was seen in NA but not WE. Conclusion: Consistent with intent-to-treat results, FF/UMEC/VI reduced moderate/severe exacerbation rate and risk and improved lung function in WE and NA; however, between-regions differences were seen for SGRQ total score and pneumonia incidence.

14.
Pulm Ther ; 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33201438

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In the IMPACT trial, single-inhaler triple therapy fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol (FF/UMEC/VI) reduced moderate/severe exacerbation rates versus FF/VI or UMEC/VI dual therapy in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); however, pneumonia incidence was higher in FF-containing arms. As COPD is a growing problem in Asia, we compared the efficacy and safety of FF/UMEC/VI in Asia versus non-Asia regions. METHODS: IMPACT was a double-blind, 52-week trial in symptomatic COPD patients with ≥ 1 moderate/severe exacerbation in the prior year. This pre-specified analysis evaluated the annual rate of moderate/severe exacerbations, change from baseline in trough forced expiratory volume in 1 s, and St George's Respiratory Questionnaire total score, mortality, and safety (including pneumonia) in Asia versus non-Asia regions. RESULTS: The intent-to-treat population comprised 10,355 patients (Asia n = 1644 [16%]). Rate ratios (95% confidence intervals) for moderate/severe exacerbations with FF/UMEC/VI were 0.89 (0.76-1.05) versus FF/VI and 0.86 (0.71-1.04) versus UMEC/VI in Asia, and 0.84 (0.79-0.90) and 0.74 (0.68-0.80) in non-Asia. Efficacy of FF/UMEC/VI on other endpoints was similar in both regions. There was an increased incidence of investigator-reported pneumonia in patients in Asia (FF/UMEC/VI: 13%; FF/VI: 14%; UMEC/VI: 6%) compared with non-Asia (FF/UMEC/VI: 6%; FF/VI: 5%; UMEC/VI: 4%). The increased risk of pneumonia in patients in Asia was most marked in patients with lower body mass index, lower lung function, and taking inhaled corticosteroids. In post hoc analysis of adjudicated on-treatment all-cause mortality, probabilities of death were numerically lower in both regions with FF/UMEC/VI (Asia: 1.16%; non-Asia: 1.35%) and FF/VI (Asia: 1.77%; non-Asia: 1.21%) versus UMEC/VI (Asia: 1.91%; non-Asia: 2.23%). CONCLUSIONS: FF/UMEC/VI provides similar benefits in COPD patients in Asia and non-Asia regions. Clinical benefits of treatment, including reduction in mortality risk, should be weighed against risk of pneumonia, taking account of all known risk factors. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identification, NCT02164513.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relative roles of mucus plugs and emphysema in mechanisms of airflow limitation and hypoxemia in smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are uncertain. METHODS: We analyzed computed tomography (CT) lung images and lung function in participants in the Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcome Measures in COPD Study. Radiologists scored mucus plugs on CT lung images and imaging software automatically quantified percent emphysema. Unadjusted and adjusted relationships between mucus plug score, percent emphysema, and lung function were determined using regression. RESULTS: Among 400 smokers, 229 (57%) had mucus plugs and 207 (52%) had emphysema and subgroups could be identified with mucus dominant and emphysema dominant disease. Only 33% of smokers with high mucus plug scores had mucus symptoms. Mucus plug score and percent emphysema were independently associated with lower values for forced expiratory volume in one second and peripheral oxygen saturation (p values < 0.001). The relationships between mucus plug score and lung function outcomes were strongest in smokers with limited emphysema (p values <0.001). Compared to smokers with low mucus plug scores, those with high scores had worse COPD Assessment Test scores (17.4 ± 7.7 vs. 14.4 ± 13.3), more frequent annual exacerbations (0.75 ± 1.1 vs. 0.43 ± 0.85), and shorter 6-minute walk distance (329 ± 115 vs. 392 ± 117 meters)(p values < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Symptomatically silent mucus plugs are highly prevalent in smokers and independently associate with lung function outcomes. These data provide rationale for targeting mucus-high/emphysema-low COPD patients in clinical trials of muco-active treatments.

16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20133, 2020 11 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33208859

RESUMO

COPD, chronic bronchitis (CB) and active smoking have all been associated with goblet cell hyperplasia (GCH) in small studies. Active smoking is strongly associated with CB, but there is a disconnect between CB clinical symptoms and pathology. Chronic cough and sputum production poorly correlate with the presence of GCH or COPD. We hypothesized that the primary determinant of GCH in ever smokers with or without airflow obstruction is active smoking. Goblet Cell Density (GCD) was measured in 71 current or former smokers [32 subjects without COPD and 39 COPD subjects]. Endobronchial mucosal biopsies were stained with Periodic Acid Schiff-Alcian Blue, and GCD was measured as number of goblet cells/mm basement membrane. GCD was divided into tertiles based on log10 transformed values. Log10GCD was greater in current smokers compared to former smokers. Those with classically defined CB or SGRQ defined CB had a greater log10 GCD compared to those without CB. Current smoking was independently associated with tertile 3 (high log10GCD) whereas CB was not in multivariable regression when adjusting for lung function and demographics. These results suggest that GCH is induced by active smoke exposure and does not necessarily correlate with the clinical symptoms of CB.

17.
Lab Chip ; 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33211045

RESUMO

Despite widespread concern regarding cytokine storms leading to severe morbidity in COVID-19, rapid cytokine assays are not routinely available for monitoring critically ill patients. We report the clinical application of a digital protein microarray platform for rapid multiplex quantification of cytokines from critically ill COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) at the University of Michigan Hospital. The platform comprises two low-cost modules: (i) a semi-automated fluidic dispensing/mixing module that can be operated inside a biosafety cabinet to minimize the exposure of the technician to the virus infection and (ii) a 12-12-15 inch compact fluorescence optical scanner for the potential near-bedside readout. The platform enabled daily cytokine analysis in clinical practice with high sensitivity (<0.4 pg mL-1), inter-assay repeatability (∼10% CV), and rapid operation providing feedback on the progress of therapy within 4 hours. This test allowed us to perform serial monitoring of two critically ill patients with respiratory failure and to support immunomodulatory therapy using the selective cytopheretic device (SCD). We also observed clear interleukin-6 (IL-6) elevations after receiving tocilizumab (IL-6 inhibitor) while significant cytokine profile variability exists across all critically ill COVID-19 patients and to discover a weak correlation between IL-6 to clinical biomarkers, such as ferritin and C-reactive protein (CRP). Our data revealed large subject-to-subject variability in patients' response to COVID-19, reaffirming the need for a personalized strategy guided by rapid cytokine assays.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33211970

RESUMO

Currently the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) requires the demonstration of airflow limitation, defined as a post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC <0.7, a measurement that remains methodologically robust and widely available. FEV1 is one of the most powerful predictors of clinically relevant outcomes including symptoms, exacerbations and mortality. However, reliable data suggest that respiratory symptoms, in particular chronic bronchitis, airway abnormality and emphysema detected using modern imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT), and certain physiologic measures including rapid decline in FEV1 and DLCO are present among individuals who do not meet spirometric criteria for COPD. These abnormalities may help to identify individuals at increased risk for developing airflow limitation in the future. Here, we review the evidence that support the use of the term "pre-COPD" in individuals with symptoms (e.g., "Non-Obstructive Chronic Bronchitis" (NOCB)), physiologic (e.g., low DLCO) and/or imaging abnormalities (e.g. CT emphysema) but spirometry in the normal range, who are at risk of developing COPD defined by a reduced FEV1/FVC ratio. We acknowledge, however, that further research on early disease in young individuals will be critical to develop a clinically operable definition of "pre-COPD" that demonstrates good sensitivity and specificity. This article is open access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33238085

RESUMO

Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is commonly managed by family physicians, but little is known about specifics of management and how this may be improved. The Advancing the Patient Experience in COPD (APEX COPD) registry will be the first U.S. primary care, health system-based registry following patients diagnosed with COPD longitudinally, using a standardized set of variables to investigate how patients are managed in real life and assess outcomes of various management strategies. Objective: Gaining expert consensus on a standardized list of variables to capture in the APEX COPD registry. Methods: A modified, Delphi process was used to reach consensus on which data to collect in the registry from electronic health records (EHRs), patient-reported information (PRI) and patient-reported outcomes (PRO), and by physicians during subsequent office visits. The Delphi panel comprised 14 primary care and specialty COPD experts from the United States and internationally. The process consisted of 3 iterative rounds. Responses were collected electronically. Results: Of the initial 195 variables considered, consensus was reached to include up to 115 EHR variables, 34 PRI/PRO variables and 5 office-visit variables in the APEX COPD registry. These should include information on symptom burden, diagnosis, COPD exacerbations, lung function, quality of life, comorbidities, smoking status/history, treatment specifics (including side effects), inhaler management, and patient education/self-management. Conclusion: COPD experts agreed upon the core variables to collect from EHR data and from patients to populate the APEX COPD registry. Data will eventually be integrated, standardized and stored in the APEX COPD database and used for approved COPD-related research.

20.
Chronic Obstr Pulm Dis ; 7(4): 370-381, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33108110

RESUMO

Ratrionale: The antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin, also known in humans as LL-37, is a defensin secreted by immune and airway epithelial cells. Deficiencies in this peptide may contribute to adverse pulmonary outcomes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Objectives: Using clinical and biological samples from the SubPopulations and InteRmediate Outcome Measures In COPD Study (SPIROMICS), we assessed the associations of plasma cathelicidin levels with cross-sectional and longitudinal COPD outcomes. Methods: A total of 1609 SPIROMICS participants with COPD and available plasma samples were analyzed. Cathelicidin was modeled dichotomously (lowest quartile [< 50 ng/ml] versus highest 75% [≥ 50 ng/ml]) and continuously per 10 ng/ml. Fixed-effect multilevel regression analyses were used to assess associations between cathelicidin and cross-sectional as well as longitudinal lung function. The associations between cathelicidin and participant-reported retrospective and prospective COPD exacerbations were assessed via logistic regression. Measurements and Main Results: Cathelicidin < 50 ng/ml (N=383) was associated with female sex, black race, and lower body mass index (BMI).At baseline,cathelicidin < 50 ng/ml was independently associated with 3.55% lower % predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)(95% confidence interval [CI] -6.22% to -0.88% predicted; p=0.01), while every 10 ng/ml lower cathelicidin was independently associated with 0.65% lower % predicted FEV1 (95% CI -1.01% to -0.28% predicted; p< 0.001). No independent associations with longitudinal lung function decline or participant-reported COPD exacerbations were observed. Conclusions: Reduced cathelicidin is associated with lower lung function at baseline. Plasma cathelicidin may potentially identify COPD patients at increased risk for more severe lung disease.

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