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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5008, 2021 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429436

RESUMO

Capabilities for continuous monitoring of pressures and temperatures at critical skin interfaces can help to guide care strategies that minimize the potential for pressure injuries in hospitalized patients or in individuals confined to the bed. This paper introduces a soft, skin-mountable class of sensor system for this purpose. The design includes a pressure-responsive element based on membrane deflection and a battery-free, wireless mode of operation capable of multi-site measurements at strategic locations across the body. Such devices yield continuous, simultaneous readings of pressure and temperature in a sequential readout scheme from a pair of primary antennas mounted under the bedding and connected to a wireless reader and a multiplexer located at the bedside. Experimental evaluation of the sensor and the complete system includes benchtop measurements and numerical simulations of the key features. Clinical trials involving two hemiplegic patients and a tetraplegic patient demonstrate the feasibility, functionality and long-term stability of this technology in operating hospital settings.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Pressão , Temperatura , Tecnologia sem Fio , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Fisiológica , Pele , Termografia/instrumentação , Termografia/métodos
2.
Adv Mater ; 33(40): e2102691, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34396604

RESUMO

The advent of functional materials offers tremendous potential in a broad variety of areas such as electronics, robotics, and energy devices. Magnetic materials are an attractive candidate that enable multifunctional devices with capabilities in both sensing and actuation. However, current magnetic devices, especially those with complex motion modalities, rely on permanently magnetized materials with complicated, non-uniform magnetization profiles. Here, based on magnetic materials with temporary-magnetization, a mechanically guided assembly process successfully converts laser-patterned 2D magnetic materials into judiciously engineered 3D structures, with dimensions and geometries ranging from mesoscale 3D filaments, to arrayed centimeter-scale 3D membranes. With tailorable mechanical properties and highly adjustable geometries, 3D soft structures can exhibit various tethered locomotions under the precise control of magnetic fields, including local deformation, unidirectional tilting, and omnidirectional rotation, and can serve as dynamic surfaces for further integration with other functional materials or devices. Examples demonstrated here focus on energy-harvesting systems, including 3D piezoelectric devices for noncontact conversion of mechanical energy and active motion sensing, as well as 3D solar tracking systems. The design strategy and resulting magnetic-controlled 3D soft structures hold great promise not only for enhanced energy harvesting, but also for multimodal sensing, robotic interfaces, and biomedical devices.

3.
Nat Mater ; 2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34326506

RESUMO

Flexible electronic/optoelectronic systems that can intimately integrate onto the surfaces of vital organ systems have the potential to offer revolutionary diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities relevant to a wide spectrum of diseases and disorders. The critical interfaces between such technologies and living tissues must provide soft mechanical coupling and efficient optical/electrical/chemical exchange. Here, we introduce a functional adhesive bioelectronic-tissue interface material, in the forms of mechanically compliant, electrically conductive, and optically transparent encapsulating coatings, interfacial layers or supporting matrices. These materials strongly bond both to the surfaces of the devices and to those of different internal organs, with stable adhesion for several days to months, in chemistries that can be tailored to bioresorb at controlled rates. Experimental demonstrations in live animal models include device applications that range from battery-free optoelectronic systems for deep-brain optogenetics and subdermal phototherapy to wireless millimetre-scale pacemakers and flexible multielectrode epicardial arrays. These advances have immediate applicability across nearly all types of bioelectronic/optoelectronic system currently used in animal model studies, and they also have the potential for future treatment of life-threatening diseases and disorders in humans.

4.
Nat Neurosci ; 24(7): 1035-1045, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33972800

RESUMO

Advanced technologies for controlled delivery of light to targeted locations in biological tissues are essential to neuroscience research that applies optogenetics in animal models. Fully implantable, miniaturized devices with wireless control and power-harvesting strategies offer an appealing set of attributes in this context, particularly for studies that are incompatible with conventional fiber-optic approaches or battery-powered head stages. Limited programmable control and narrow options in illumination profiles constrain the use of existing devices. The results reported here overcome these drawbacks via two platforms, both with real-time user programmability over multiple independent light sources, in head-mounted and back-mounted designs. Engineering studies of the optoelectronic and thermal properties of these systems define their capabilities and key design considerations. Neuroscience applications demonstrate that induction of interbrain neuronal synchrony in the medial prefrontal cortex shapes social interaction within groups of mice, highlighting the power of real-time subject-specific programmability of the wireless optogenetic platforms introduced here.


Assuntos
Optogenética/instrumentação , Comportamento Social , Tecnologia sem Fio/instrumentação , Animais , Camundongos
5.
Nat Biomed Eng ; 5(7): 759-771, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34045731

RESUMO

Evaluating the biomechanics of soft tissues at depths well below their surface, and at high precision and in real time, would open up diagnostic opportunities. Here, we report the development and application of miniaturized electromagnetic devices, each integrating a vibratory actuator and a soft strain-sensing sheet, for dynamically measuring the Young's modulus of skin and of other soft tissues at depths of approximately 1-8 mm, depending on the particular design of the sensor. We experimentally and computationally established the operational principles of the devices and evaluated their performance with a range of synthetic and biological materials and with human skin in healthy volunteers. Arrays of devices can be used to spatially map elastic moduli and to profile the modulus depth-wise. As an example of practical medical utility, we show that the devices can be used to accurately locate lesions associated with psoriasis. Compact electronic devices for the rapid and precise mechanical characterization of living tissues could be used to monitor and diagnose a range of health disorders.


Assuntos
Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Pele/química , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Módulo de Elasticidade , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/instrumentação , Humanos , Hidrogéis/química , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miniaturização , Pele/metabolismo , Suínos , Vibração , Adulto Jovem
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(19)2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33941674

RESUMO

Tissue-on-chip systems represent promising platforms for monitoring and controlling tissue functions in vitro for various purposes in biomedical research. The two-dimensional (2D) layouts of these constructs constrain the types of interactions that can be studied and limit their relevance to three-dimensional (3D) tissues. The development of 3D electronic scaffolds and microphysiological devices with geometries and functions tailored to realistic 3D tissues has the potential to create important possibilities in advanced sensing and control. This study presents classes of compliant 3D frameworks that incorporate microscale strain sensors for high-sensitivity measurements of contractile forces of engineered optogenetic muscle tissue rings, supported by quantitative simulations. Compared with traditional approaches based on optical microscopy, these 3D mechanical frameworks and sensing systems can measure not only motions but also contractile forces with high accuracy and high temporal resolution. Results of active tension force measurements of engineered muscle rings under different stimulation conditions in long-term monitoring settings for over 5 wk and in response to various chemical and drug doses demonstrate the utility of such platforms in sensing and modulation of muscle and other tissues. Possibilities for applications range from drug screening and disease modeling to biohybrid robotic engineering.

7.
Sci Adv ; 7(12)2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33731359

RESUMO

Three-dimensional (3D), submillimeter-scale constructs of neural cells, known as cortical spheroids, are of rapidly growing importance in biological research because these systems reproduce complex features of the brain in vitro. Despite their great potential for studies of neurodevelopment and neurological disease modeling, 3D living objects cannot be studied easily using conventional approaches to neuromodulation, sensing, and manipulation. Here, we introduce classes of microfabricated 3D frameworks as compliant, multifunctional neural interfaces to spheroids and to assembloids. Electrical, optical, chemical, and thermal interfaces to cortical spheroids demonstrate some of the capabilities. Complex architectures and high-resolution features highlight the design versatility. Detailed studies of the spreading of coordinated bursting events across the surface of an isolated cortical spheroid and of the cascade of processes associated with formation and regrowth of bridging tissues across a pair of such spheroids represent two of the many opportunities in basic neuroscience research enabled by these platforms.

8.
Sci Adv ; 7(7)2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568482

RESUMO

Accurate, real-time monitoring of intravascular oxygen levels is important in tracking the cardiopulmonary health of patients after cardiothoracic surgery. Existing technologies use intravascular placement of glass fiber-optic catheters that pose risks of blood vessel damage, thrombosis, and infection. In addition, physical tethers to power supply systems and data acquisition hardware limit freedom of movement and add clutter to the intensive care unit. This report introduces a wireless, miniaturized, implantable optoelectronic catheter system incorporating optical components on the probe, encapsulated by soft biocompatible materials, as alternative technology that avoids these disadvantages. The absence of physical tethers and the flexible, biocompatible construction of the probe represent key defining features, resulting in a high-performance, patient-friendly implantable oximeter that can monitor localized tissue oxygenation, heart rate, and respiratory activity with wireless, real-time, continuous operation. In vitro and in vivo testing shows that this platform offers measurement accuracy and precision equivalent to those of existing clinical standards.

9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2600, 2021 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33510287

RESUMO

Scabiosa comosa and S. tschilliensis (SCST) are traditionally used for liver diseases in Mongolian medicine. However, their active ingredients and molecular mechanisms are unknown. The present study employed network pharmacology and experimental verification approaches to decipher the common pharmacological mechanisms of SCST on liver fibrosis, which is the key step in liver diseases. We predicted the targets of all available SCST ingredients with the SWISS and SuperPred servers and clustered the targets related to liver fibrosis from DrugBank, the OMIM database and the literature. We further evaluated the links between the herbal ingredients and pharmacological actions to explore the potential mechanism of action of SCST. We found that the PPARG signalling pathway could be regulated by SCST for liver fibrosis through enrichment analysis. The key targets included 8 co-targets, including HSP90AA1, PPARG, HSP90AB1, STAT1, etc., which play pivotal roles in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. Additionally, the top 15 key compounds included flavonoids and phenylpropanoids. Central to the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis is trans-differentiation or activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Therefore, LX2 cells, an immortalized human HSC line, were studied. Here, a total 37 components were isolated and identified from the inflorescences of SCST, including the new compound tschilliensisin, and the first separated components, ß-sitosterol and luteolin, and these compounds were assessed against anti-hepatic fibrosis. An MTT assay and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting analyses demonstrated that the flavonoids of SCST revealed anti-hepatic fibrosis effects via anti-proliferation and increases in the Stat1, Pparg, Hsp90aa1 genes and STAT1 and PPARG proteins in LX-2 cells. In conclusion, these results indicate that SCST has multi-targeted and multi-component synergistic anti-hepatic fibrosis effects.


Assuntos
Dipsacaceae/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Actinas/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Medicina Tradicional da Mongólia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico
10.
Sci Transl Med ; 12(574)2020 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33328330

RESUMO

Precise form-fitting of prosthetic sockets is important for the comfort and well-being of persons with limb amputations. Capabilities for continuous monitoring of pressure and temperature at the skin-prosthesis interface can be valuable in the fitting process and in monitoring for the development of dangerous regions of increased pressure and temperature as limb volume changes during daily activities. Conventional pressure transducers and temperature sensors cannot provide comfortable, irritation-free measurements because of their relatively rigid construction and requirements for wired interfaces to external data acquisition hardware. Here, we introduce a millimeter-scale pressure sensor that adopts a soft, three-dimensional design that integrates into a thin, flexible battery-free, wireless platform with a built-in temperature sensor to allow operation in a noninvasive, imperceptible fashion directly at the skin-prosthesis interface. The sensor system mounts on the surface of the skin of the residual limb, in single or multiple locations of interest. A wireless reader module attached to the outside of the prosthetic socket wirelessly provides power to the sensor and wirelessly receives data from it, for continuous long-range transmission to a standard consumer electronic device such as a smartphone or tablet computer. Characterization of both the sensor and the system, together with theoretical analysis of the key responses, illustrates linear, accurate responses and the ability to address the entire range of relevant pressures and to capture skin temperature accurately, both in a continuous mode. Clinical application in two prosthesis users demonstrates the functionality and feasibility of this soft, wireless system.


Assuntos
Membros Artificiais , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Desenho de Prótese , Pele , Temperatura
11.
Nat Biomed Eng ; 4(10): 997-1009, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895515

RESUMO

The rigidity and relatively primitive modes of operation of catheters equipped with sensing or actuation elements impede their conformal contact with soft-tissue surfaces, limit the scope of their uses, lengthen surgical times and increase the need for advanced surgical skills. Here, we report materials, device designs and fabrication approaches for integrating advanced electronic functionality with catheters for minimally invasive forms of cardiac surgery. By using multiphysics modelling, plastic heart models and Langendorff animal and human hearts, we show that soft electronic arrays in multilayer configurations on endocardial balloon catheters can establish conformal contact with curved tissue surfaces, support high-density spatiotemporal mapping of temperature, pressure and electrophysiological parameters and allow for programmable electrical stimulation, radiofrequency ablation and irreversible electroporation. Integrating multimodal and multiplexing capabilities into minimally invasive surgical instruments may improve surgical performance and patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Cateteres Cardíacos , Eletrônica/instrumentação , Monitorização Intraoperatória/instrumentação , Monitorização Intraoperatória/métodos , Animais , Ablação por Cateter , Eletroporação , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Ventrículos do Coração/cirurgia , Humanos , Pressão , Coelhos , Temperatura
12.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(19): 22357-22364, 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32293866

RESUMO

Self-powered electronic skin is a promising field for human-machine interfaces to the next generation of intelligent and interactive products due to its capability of including multiple physical parameters for sensing without additional energy supply. This paper reports a novel active multifunctional electronic skin capable of independently detecting contact trajectory, acceleration, velocity, and pressure based on the synchronized triboelectrification and piezoelectric effect. Motion trajectories in the full plane can be identified by using a net-cross electrodes configuration design. Under this electrode special structure design, the motion information such as velocity and acceleration can be accurately obtained by the time difference between the peak values of the triboelectric signal. Real-time detection of dynamic pressure with only two electrodes is achieved by a spacer-grid design and a high quality piezoelectric nanofiber film. By virtue of its high sensitivity and precision, a smart anti-counterfeiting signature system (SASS) can be achieved by this self-powered multifunctional electronic skin with the capability of recognizing the writing habits of people within a 100 ms error for security. It is also a promising candidate in terms of human-machine interaction, cyber security, and so on.


Assuntos
Segurança Computacional/instrumentação , Fraude/prevenção & controle , Escrita Manual , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Eletrodos , Humanos , Pressão
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(27): 13239-13248, 2019 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217291

RESUMO

Recently developed methods in mechanically guided assembly provide deterministic access to wide-ranging classes of complex, 3D structures in high-performance functional materials, with characteristic length scales that can range from nanometers to centimeters. These processes exploit stress relaxation in prestretched elastomeric platforms to affect transformation of 2D precursors into 3D shapes by in- and out-of-plane translational displacements. This paper introduces a scheme for introducing local twisting deformations into this process, thereby providing access to 3D mesostructures that have strong, local levels of chirality and other previously inaccessible geometrical features. Here, elastomeric assembly platforms segmented into interconnected, rotatable units generate in-plane torques imposed through bonding sites at engineered locations across the 2D precursors during the process of stress relaxation. Nearly 2 dozen examples illustrate the ideas through a diverse variety of 3D structures, including those with designs inspired by the ancient arts of origami/kirigami and with layouts that can morph into different shapes. A mechanically tunable, multilayered chiral 3D metamaterial configured for operation in the terahertz regime serves as an application example guided by finite-element analysis and electromagnetic modeling.

14.
ACS Nano ; 13(10): 10972-10979, 2019 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31124670

RESUMO

Sensors that reproduce the complex characteristics of cutaneous receptors in the skin have important potential in the context of artificial systems for controlled interactions with the physical environment. Multimodal responses with high sensitivity and wide dynamic range are essential for many such applications. This report introduces a simple, three-dimensional type of microelectromechanical sensor that incorporates monocrystalline silicon nanomembranes as piezoresistive elements in a configuration that enables separate, simultaneous measurements of multiple mechanical stimuli, such as normal force, shear force, and bending, along with temperature. The technology provides high sensitivity measurements with millisecond response times, as supported by quantitative simulations. The fabrication and assembly processes allow scalable production of interconnected arrays of such devices with capabilities in spatiotemporal mapping. Integration with wireless data recording and transmission electronics allows operation with standard consumer devices.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Fenômenos Físicos , Pele/metabolismo , Tato/fisiologia , Eletrônica , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Pele/química , Temperatura , Tato/genética
15.
Soft Matter ; 14(43): 8828-8837, 2018 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30349911

RESUMO

Recently developed methods for mechanically-guided assembly exploit stress release in prestretched elastomeric substrates to guide the controlled formation of complex three-dimensional (3D) mesostructures in advanced functional materials and integrated electronic devices. The techniques of interfacial photopolymerization allow for realization of such 3D mesostructures in free-standing forms, separated from their elastomeric substrate, via formation of an integrated base layer. Theoretical models for the complex modes of deformation associated with this scheme are essential in the optimal design of the process parameters. Here, we present an analytic finite-deformation model of an isolated double-ribbon structure to describe the buckling process and morphology change of the assembled mesostructures upon removal of the substrate. As validated by finite element analyses (FEA), this analytic model can accurately predict the profiles of the double-ribbon structure with a range of different design parameters. We further illustrate the extension of this model to the analyses of 3D mesostructures with different geometries. Inspired by analytic results for flexible base structures, combined experimental results and numerical simulations demonstrate that mechanical interactions between the two different layers can be leveraged to achieve hierarchical assembly of 3D mesostructures. These findings could be useful in further advances in designs of free-standing 3D mesostructures based on mechanically-guided assembly.

16.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(29): 9001-9019, 2018 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29950089

RESUMO

The development of methods to synthesize and physically manipulate extremely thin, single-crystalline inorganic semiconductor materials, so-called nanomembranes, has led to an almost explosive growth of research worldwide into uniquely enabled opportunities for their use in new "soft" and other unconventional form factors for high-performance electronics. The unique properties that nanomembranes afford, such as their flexibility and lightweight characteristics, allow them to be integrated into electronic and optoelectronic devices that, in turn, adopt these unique attributes. For example, nanomembrane devices are able to make conformal contact to curvilinear surfaces and manipulate strain to induce the self-assembly of various 3D nano/micro device architectures. Further, thin semiconductor materials (e.g., Si-nanomembranes, transition metal dichalcogenides, and phosphorene) are subject to the impacts of quantum and other size-dependent effects that in turn enable the manipulation of their bandgaps and the properties of electronic and optoelectronic devices fabricated from them. In this Perspective, nanomembrane synthesis techniques and exemplary applications of their use are examined. We specifically describe nanomembrane chemistry exploiting high-performance materials, along with precise/high-throughput techniques for their manipulation that exemplify their growing capacities to shape outcomes in technology. Prominent challenges in the chemistry of these materials are presented along with future directions that might guide the development of next generation nanomembrane-based devices.

17.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 1417, 2018 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29650957

RESUMO

Efficient and highly functional three-dimensional systems that are ubiquitous in biology suggest that similar design architectures could be useful in electronic and optoelectronic technologies, extending their levels of functionality beyond those achievable with traditional, planar two-dimensional platforms. Complex three-dimensional structures inspired by origami, kirigami have promise as routes for two-dimensional to three-dimensional transformation, but current examples lack the necessary combination of functional materials, mechanics designs, system-level architectures, and integration capabilities for practical devices with unique operational features. Here, we show that two-dimensional semiconductor/semi-metal materials can play critical roles in this context, through demonstrations of complex, mechanically assembled three-dimensional systems for light-imaging capabilities that can encompass measurements of the direction, intensity and angular divergence properties of incident light. Specifically, the mechanics of graphene and MoS2, together with strategically configured supporting polymer films, can yield arrays of photodetectors in distinct, engineered three-dimensional geometries, including octagonal prisms, octagonal prismoids, and hemispherical domes.

18.
Nat Mater ; 17(3): 268-276, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29379201

RESUMO

Three-dimensional (3D) structures capable of reversible transformations in their geometrical layouts have important applications across a broad range of areas. Most morphable 3D systems rely on concepts inspired by origami/kirigami or techniques of 3D printing with responsive materials. The development of schemes that can simultaneously apply across a wide range of size scales and with classes of advanced materials found in state-of-the-art microsystem technologies remains challenging. Here, we introduce a set of concepts for morphable 3D mesostructures in diverse materials and fully formed planar devices spanning length scales from micrometres to millimetres. The approaches rely on elastomer platforms deformed in different time sequences to elastically alter the 3D geometries of supported mesostructures via nonlinear mechanical buckling. Over 20 examples have been experimentally and theoretically investigated, including mesostructures that can be reshaped between different geometries as well as those that can morph into three or more distinct states. An adaptive radiofrequency circuit and a concealable electromagnetic device provide examples of functionally reconfigurable microelectronic devices.

19.
Small ; 14(11): e1703852, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29377490

RESUMO

Mechanically guided 3D microassembly with controlled compressive buckling represents a promising emerging route to 3D mesostructures in a broad range of advanced materials, including single-crystalline silicon (Si), of direct relevance to microelectronic devices. During practical applications, the assembled 3D mesostructures and microdevices usually undergo external mechanical loading such as out-of-plane compression, which can induce damage in or failure of the structures/devices. Here, the mechanical responses of a few mechanically assembled 3D kirigami mesostructures under flat-punch compression are studied through combined experiment and finite element analyses. These 3D kirigami mesostructures consisting of a bilayer of Si and SU-8 epoxy are formed through integration of patterned 2D precursors with a prestretched elastomeric substrate at predefined bonding sites to allow controlled buckling that transforms them into desired 3D configurations. In situ scanning electron microscopy measurement enables detailed studies of the mechanical behavior of these structures. Analysis of the load-displacement curves allows the measurement of the effective stiffness and elastic recovery of various 3D structures. The compression experiments indicate distinct regimes in the compressive force/displacement curves and reveals different geometry-dependent deformation for the structures. Complementary computational modeling supports the experimental findings and further explains the geometry-dependent deformation.

20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 114(45): E9455-E9464, 2017 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29078394

RESUMO

Recent work demonstrates that processes of stress release in prestrained elastomeric substrates can guide the assembly of sophisticated 3D micro/nanostructures in advanced materials. Reported application examples include soft electronic components, tunable electromagnetic and optical devices, vibrational metrology platforms, and other unusual technologies, each enabled by uniquely engineered 3D architectures. A significant disadvantage of these systems is that the elastomeric substrates, while essential to the assembly process, can impose significant engineering constraints in terms of operating temperatures and levels of dimensional stability; they also prevent the realization of 3D structures in freestanding forms. Here, we introduce concepts in interfacial photopolymerization, nonlinear mechanics, and physical transfer that bypass these limitations. The results enable 3D mesostructures in fully or partially freestanding forms, with additional capabilities in integration onto nearly any class of substrate, from planar, hard inorganic materials to textured, soft biological tissues, all via mechanisms quantitatively described by theoretical modeling. Illustrations of these ideas include their use in 3D structures as frameworks for templated growth of organized lamellae from AgCl-KCl eutectics and of atomic layers of WSe2 from vapor-phase precursors, as open-architecture electronic scaffolds for formation of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neural networks, and as catalyst supports for propulsive systems in 3D microswimmers with geometrically controlled dynamics. Taken together, these methodologies establish a set of enabling options in 3D micro/nanomanufacturing that lie outside of the scope of existing alternatives.


Assuntos
Nanoestruturas/química , Tecidos Suporte/química , Animais , Gânglios Espinais/citologia , Masculino , Rede Nervosa/citologia , Impressão Tridimensional , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Temperatura , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos
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