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1.
Behav Brain Res ; 383: 112518, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006565

RESUMO

Recently, there have been studies that examined the relationship between neuroinflammation and anxiety disorder. Herein, we investigated the anxiolytic effect of a well-studied medicinal plant with anti-inflammatory properties, Magnolia obovata, by conducting cellular and animal studies. At the cellular level, the ethanol extract of M. obovata leaves demonstrated inhibitory effects on the production of nitric oxide and inflammatory cytokines and proteins in cultured BV-2 cells. The extract also enhanced GABA-benzodiazepine receptor activity by increasing chloride ion influx in primary cultured neuronal cells. We also examined the anxiolytic effect of the extract in imprinting control region male mice by conducting several behavioral tests. The mice were administered daily oral dose of M. obovata extract (25 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg) for 2 weeks. The extract increased the number of entries and time spent in open arms in the elevated plus maze test and decreased locomotor activity in the spontaneous locomotor activity test, thus implying that the extract ameliorated anxiety levels in mice. Furthermore, we found that the extract inhibited the expression of inflammatory proteins and cytokines and enhanced the expression of GABA-benzodiazepine receptor. These results suggest that the ethanol extract of M. obovata leaves may have an anxiolytic effect through enhancement of the GABAergic system and anti-neuroinflammatory mechanisms.

2.
Theranostics ; 10(1): 340-352, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31903124

RESUMO

Rationale: Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor M (MITF-M) plays important roles in the pigment production, differentiation and survival of melanocytes. Stem cell factor (SCF) and its receptor KIT stimulate MITF-M activity via phosphorylation at the post-translation level. However, the phosphorylation shortens half-life of MITF-M protein over the course of minutes. Here, we investigated novel hypotheses of (i) whether SCF/KIT can regulate MITF-M activity through gene expression as the alternative process, and (ii) whether chemical inhibition of KIT activity can mitigate the acquired pigmentation in skin by targeting the expression of MITF-M. Methods: We employed melanocyte cultures in vitro and pigmented skin samples in vivo, and applied immunoblotting, RT-PCR, siRNA-based gene knockdown and confocal microscopy. Results: The protein and mRNA levels of MITF-M in epidermal melanocytes and the promoter activity of MITF-M in B16-F0 melanoma cells demonstrated that SCF/KIT could trigger the expression of MITF-M de novo, following the phosphorylation-dependent proteolysis of pre-existing MITF-M protein. SCF/KIT regulated the transcription abilities of cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB), CREB-regulated co-activator 1 (CRTC1) and SRY-related HMG-box 10 (SOX10) but not ß-catenin at the MITF-M promoter. Meanwhile, chemical inhibition of KIT activity abolished SCF-induced melanin production in epidermal melanocyte cultures, as well as protected the skin from UV-B-induced hyperpigmentation in HRM2 mice or brownish guinea pigs, in which it down-regulated the expression of MITF-M de novo at the promoter level. Conclusion: We propose the targeting of SCF/KIT-inducible MITF-M expression as a strategy in the therapeutics for acquired pigmentary disorders.

3.
Chem Biodivers ; 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31943757

RESUMO

In our search for new small molecules activating procaspase-3, we have designed and synthesized a series of new acetohydrazides incorporating both 2-oxoindoline and 4-oxoquinazoline scaffolds. Biological evaluation showed that a number of these acetohydrazides were comparably or even more cytotoxic against three human cancer cell lines (SW620, colon cancer; PC-3, prostate cancer; NCI-H23, lung cancer) in comparison to PAC-1, a first procaspase-3 activating compound, which was used as a positive control. One of those new compounds, 2-(6-chloro-4-oxoquinazolin-3(4H)-yl)-N'-[(3Z)-5-methyl-2-oxo-1,2-dihydro-3H-indol-3-ylidene]acetohydrazide activated the caspase-3 activity in U937 human lymphoma cells by 5-fold higher than the untreated control. Three of the new compounds significantly induced necrosis and apoptosis in U937 cells.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931018

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: IL-32 is a novel cytokine involved in many inflammatory diseases. However, the role of IL-32γ, an isotype of IL-32, in atopic dermatitis (AD) has not been reported. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effects of IL-32γ on development of AD and its action mechanisms. METHODS: We used phthalic anhydride (PA) and an MC903-induced AD model using wild-type and IL-32γ transgenic mice. We conducted the therapy experiments by using recombinant IL-32γ protein in a reconstructed human skin model and PA-induced model. We conducted a receiver operating characteristic analysis of IL-32γ with new AD biomarkers, IL-31 and IL-33, in serum from patients with AD. RESULTS: Dermatitis severity and epidermal thickness were significantly reduced in PA- and MC903-induced IL-32γ transgenic mice compared with in wild-type mice. The concentration of AD-related cytokines was reduced in PA- and MC903-induced IL-32γ transgenic mice compared with in wild-type mice. Subsequent analysis showed that IL-32γ inhibits miR-205 expression in PA- and MC903-induced skin tissue samples and TNF-α/IFN-γ-treated HaCaT cells. IL-32γ reduced NF-κB activity in skin tissue samples from PA- and MC903-induced mice and TNF-α/IFN-γ-treated HaCaT cells. NF-κB inhibitor treatment with IL-32γ expression further suppressed expression of inflammatory mediators as well as miR-205 in TNF-α/IFN-γ-treated HaCaT cells. Furthermore, recombinant IL-32γ protein alleviated AD-like inflammation in in vivo and reconstructed human skin models. Spearman correlation analysis showed that serum levels of IL-32γ and miR-205 were significantly concordant in patients with AD. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that IL-32γ reduces AD through the inhibition of miR-205 expression via inactivation of NF-κB.

5.
Exp Neurol ; 323: 113082, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669069

RESUMO

Chitinase 3-like 1 (Chi3L1) plays a major role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. We investigated the effect of Chi3L1 knockout on stroke development. Ischemia/reperfusion was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in Chi3L1 knockout and wildtype mice. Significantly increased infarct volume and decreased neurological deficit scores at 24 h after ischemia/reperfusion were found in Chi3L1 knockout mice compared to wildtype mice. Moreover, ischemic neuronal cell death was increased in Chi3L1 knockout mice through increased oxidative stress and release of IL-6 and IL-1ß but IL-10 and IL-4 were reduced. Furthermore, expression of inflammation-related proteins (iNOS, COX-2, Iba-1, and GFAP) was significantly increased in Chi3L1 knockout mice compared to wildtype. In microglia isolated from MCAO-injured Chi3L1 knockout mice, expression of M1 markers (iNOS, CD86, IL-1ß, and IL-6) was increased and M2 markers (Arg1, Mrc1, IL-10, and IL-4Ra) was decreased. In BV-2 cells, knockdown of Chi3L1 increased TNF-α- and INF-γ-induced expression of iNOS, COX-2, and Iba-1, but decreased the expression of Arg1, MRC1, and IL-4 receptor-alpha (IL-4Rα). Expression of IL-4Rα, an important factor of M2 polarization, and its downstream signals p-JAK1, p-JAK3, and p-STAT6, was much reduced in the knockout mice. Additionally, in BV-2 cells, knockdown of Chi3L1 by siRNA Chi3L1 decreased rhTNF-α- and INF-γ-induced expression of IL-4Rα, p-JAK1, p-JAK3, and p-STAT6. Furthermore, treatment with AS1517499 abolished Chi3L1 knockdown-induced reduced IL-4Rα and Arg1 but not CD86 expression. Our results indicate that deletion of Chi3L1 accelerates stroke development through enhancement of neuroinflammation by markedly decreasing STAT6-dependent M2 macrophage polarization.

6.
Immune Netw ; 19(5): e36, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31720047

RESUMO

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) ameliorate the renal injury in Adriamycin (ADR)-induced nephropathy, but the mechanisms underlying their efficacy remain incompletely understood. In this study, we demonstrated that MSCs increased the survival, recovered body weight loss, and decreased proteinuria and serum creatinine levels in ADR-treated mice. MSCs also prevented podocyte damage and renal fibrosis by decreasing the expression of fibronectin, collagen 1α1, and α-smooth muscle actin. From a mechanistic perspective, MSCs inhibited renal inflammation by lowering the expression of CCL4, CCL7, CCL19, IFN-α/ß, TGF-ß, TNF-α, and chitinase 3-like 1. In summary, our data demonstrate that MSCs improve renal functions by inhibiting renal inflammation in ADR-induced nephropathy.

7.
Transl Neurodegener ; 8: 26, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31592103

RESUMO

Background: Neuroinflammation and accumulation of ß-amyloid (Aß) play a significant role in the onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our previous study demonstrated that signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) plays a major role in neuroinflammation and amyloidogenesis. Methods: In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of bee venom phospholipase A2 (bvPLA2) on memory deficiency in Tg2576 mice, which demonstrate genetic characteristics of AD and the mechanism of its action at the cellular and animal level. For in vivo study, we examined the effect of bvPLA2 on improving memory by conducting several behavioral tests with the administration of bvPLA2 (1 mg/kg) to Tg2576 mice. For in vitro study, we examined the effect of bvPLA2 on amyloidogenesis and neuroinflammation by treating bvPLA2 on LPS-activated BV2 cells. Results: We found that bvPLA2 alleviated memory impairment in Tg2576 mice, as demonstrated in the behavioral tests assessing memory. In the bvPLA2-treated group, Aß, amyloid precursor protein (APP), and ß-secretase 1 (BACE1) levels and ß-secretase activity were significantly decreased. Expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inflammation-related proteins decreased in the brain of bvPLA2-treated group, whereas anti-inflammatory cytokines increased. In addition, bvPLA2 reduced STAT3 phosphorylation in the brains of the bvPLA2-treated group. At the cellular level, bvPLA2 inhibits production of nitric oxide, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and inflammation-related proteins including p-STAT3. Additionally, bvPLA2 inhibits the production of Aß in cultured BV-2 cells. Results from the docking experiment, pull-down assay, and the luciferase assay show that bvPLA2 directly binds STAT3 and, thus, regulates gene expression levels. Moreover, when the STAT3 inhibitor and bvPLA2 were administered together, the anti-amyloidogenic and anti-inflammatory effects were further enhanced than when they were administered alone. Conclusion: These results suggest that bvPLA2 could restore memory by inhibiting the accumulation of Aß and inflammatory responses via blockage of STAT3 activity.

8.
J Gastric Cancer ; 19(3): 301-314, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31598373

RESUMO

Purpose: Peritoneal carcinomatosis in gastric cancer (GC) patients results in extremely poor prognosis. Malignant ascites samples are the most appropriate biological material to use to evaluate biomarkers for peritoneal carcinomatosis. This study identified exosomal MicroRNAs (miRNAs) differently expressed between benign liver cirrhosis-associated ascites (LC-ascites) and malignant gastric cancer-associated ascites (GC-ascites), and validated their role as diagnostic biomarkers for GC-ascites. Materials and Methods: Total RNA was extracted from exosomes isolated from 165 ascites samples (73 LC-ascites and 92 GC-ascites). Initially, microarrays were used to screen the expression levels of 2,006 miRNAs in the discovery cohort (n=22). Subsequently, quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analyses were performed to validate the expression levels of selected exosomal miRNAs in the training (n=70) and validation (n=73) cohorts. Furthermore, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels were determined in ascites samples. Results: The miR-574-3p, miR-181b-5p, miR-4481, and miR-181d were significantly downregulated in the GC-ascites samples compared to the LC-ascites samples, and miR-181b-5p showed the best diagnostic performance for GC-ascites (area under the curve [AUC]=0.798 and 0.846 for the training and validation cohorts, respectively). The diagnostic performance of CEA for GC-ascites was improved by the combined analysis of miR-181b-5p and CEA (AUC=0.981 and 0.946 for the training and validation cohorts, respectively). Conclusions: We identified exosomal miRNAs capable of distinguishing between non-malignant and GC-ascites, showing that the combined use of miR-181b-5p and CEA could improve diagnosis.

9.
Phytomedicine ; 65: 153089, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a rare neuromuscular disease and a leading genetic cause of infant mortality. SMA is caused primarily by the deletion of the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene, which leaves the duplicate gene SMN2 as the sole source of SMN protein. The splicing defect (exon 7 skipping) of SMN2 leads to an insufficient amount of SMN protein. Therefore, correcting this SMN2 splicing defect is considered to be a promising approach for the treatment of SMA. PURPOSE: This study aimed to identify active compounds and extracts from plant resources to rescue SMA phenotypes through the correction of SMN2 splicing. STUDY DESIGN: Of available plant resources, candidates with SMA-related traditional medicine information were selected for screening using a robust luciferase-based SMN2 splicing reporter. Primary hits were further evaluated for their ability to correct the splicing defect and resultant increase of SMN activity in SMA patient-derived fibroblasts. Confirmed hits were finally tested to determine the beneficial effects on the severe Δ7 SMA mouse. METHODS: SMN2 splicing was analyzed using a luciferase-based SMN2 splicing reporter and subsequent RT-PCR of SMN2 mRNAs. SMA phenotypes were evaluated by the survival, body weights, and righting reflex of Δ7 SMA mice. RESULTS: In a screen of 492 selected plant extracts, we found that Brucea javanica extract and its major constituent Bruceine D have SMN2 splicing-correcting activity. Their ability to correct the splicing defect and the resulting increased SMN activity were further confirmed in SMA fibroblasts. Importantly, both B. javanica and Bruceine D noticeably improved the phenotypic defects, especially muscle function, in SMA mice. Reduced expression of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNP A1) contributed to the correction of splicing by B. javanica. CONCLUSION: Our work revealed that B. javanica and Bruceine D correct the SMN2 splicing defect and improve the symptoms of SMA in mice. These resources will provide another possibility for development of a plant-derived SMA drug candidate.

10.
Bioorg Chem ; 92: 103202, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479984

RESUMO

In search for novel small molecules with antitumor cytotoxicity via activating procaspase-3, we have designed and synthesized three series of novel (E)-N'-benzylidene-4-oxoquinazolin-3(4H)-yl)acetohydrazides (5a-j, 6a-h, and 7a-h). On the phenyl ring ò the benzylidene part, three different substituents, including 2-OH-4-OCH3, 4-OCH3, and 4-N(CH3)2, were introduced, respectively. Biological evaluation showed that the acetohydrazides in series 5a-j, in which the phenyl ring of the benzylidene part was substituted by 2-OH-4-OCH3 substituent, exhibited potent cytotoxicity against three human cancer cell lines (SW620, colon; PC-3, prostate; NCI-H23, lung). Most of the compounds, in this series, especially compounds 5c, 5b and 5h, also significantly activated caspase-3 activity. Among these, compound 5c displayed 1.61-fold more potent than PAC-1 as caspase-3 activator. Cell cycle analysis showed that compounds 5b, 5c, and 5h significantly arrested the cell cycle in G1 phase. Further apoptotic studies also demonstrated compounds 5b, 5c, and 5h as strong apoptotic cell death inducers. The docking simulation studies showed that these compounds could activate procaspase via chelating Zn2+ ion bound to the allosteric site of the zymogen.

11.
Cell Commun Signal ; 17(1): 104, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol abuse and alcoholism lead to alcohol liver disease such as alcoholic fatty liver. Parkin is a component of the multiprotein E3 ubiquitin ligase complex and is associated with hepatic lipid accumulation. However, the role of parkin in ethanol-induced liver disease has not been reported. Here, we tested the effect of parkin on ethanol-induced fatty liver in parkin knockout (KO) mice with chronic ethanol feeding. METHODS: Male wild type (WT) and parkin KO mice (10-12 weeks old, n = 10) were fed on a Lieber-DeCarli diet containing 6.6% ethanol for 10 days. Liver histological, biochemical, and gene-expression studies were performed. RESULTS: Parkin KO mice exhibited lower hepatosteatosis after ethanol consumption. Because several studies reported that ß-catenin is a critical factor in ethanol metabolism and protects against alcohol-induced hepatosteatosis, we investigated whether parkin changes ß-catenin accumulation in the liver of ethanol-fed mice. Our results show that ß-catenin was greatly accumulated in the livers of ethanol-fed parkin KO mice compared to ethanol-fed WT mice, and that parkin binds to ß-catenin and promotes its degradation it by ubiquitination. Moreover, the ß-catenin inhibitor IWR-1 abrogated the attenuation of ethanol-induced hepatic lipid accumulation by parkin deficiency in the livers of parkin KO mice and parkin siRNA-transfected human hepatic cell line. CONCLUSIONS: Parkin deficiency prevents ethanol-induced hepatic lipid accumulation through promotion of ß-catenin signaling by failure of ß-catenin degradation.

12.
Cell Death Dis ; 10(7): 506, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263095

RESUMO

The cancer stem cells (CSCs) are thought to be responsible for cancer initiation, recurrence, and metastasis via a multifactorial process. IL-32γ has been known to inhibit several tumor developments. However, the role of IL-32γ in CSCs is unknown. The role of IL-32γ on tumor development was assessed in IL-32γ transgenic (Tg) mice allograft and xenograft model. In the in vitro assay, we analyzed CSC growth and apoptosis in cells with IL-32γ overexpression by cell viability assay and tumor-sphere formation assay. In addition, expression of cell proliferation, apoptosis markers, and signaling molecules was determined by western blot analysis. IL-32γ suppressed CD133+ CSC-induced allograft model in IL-32γ Tg mice and xenograft model. Tumor-sphere formation and cell viability assay revealed a greater inhibition of CSC proliferation and antineoplastic activity of IL-32γ in CD133+ CSCs as compared with normal cancer cells. The inhibitory effects of IL-32γ on tumor development were associated with inhibition of the STAT5 pathway. In addition, inhibition of STAT5 increased cleavage of caspase-3, but suppressed CD133 expression and colony formation. Web-based gene network analysis showed that IL-32 is correlated with ITGAV, an integrin gene. Our result revealed that knockdown of ITGAV by siRNA inhibited the phosphorylation of STAT5. Moreover, we identified that ITGAV overexpression reversed the effect of IL-32γ on phosphorylation of STAT5 and the expression of CD133. Our results demonstrate that IL-32γ negatively regulates CD133+ CSC proliferation and tumor development and suggest that IL-32γ has great potential for use in the treatment of cancer progression.

13.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1379, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31275318

RESUMO

Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is known to regulate lipid homeostasis and associated with atherosclerogenesis. Eventhough atherosclerogenesis is associated with tumor development, the role of ApoE in lung tumorigenesis and metastasis is not clear. Thus, the tumor growth and metastasis were compared in WT and ApoE knockout (KO) mice. Urethane-induced lung tumor incidence and B16F10 lung metastasis in ApoE knockout (KO) mice were significantly reduced in comparison to that in WT mice. Knockdown of ApoE expression in lung cancer cells and B16F10 cells also decreased cancer cell growth and metastasis. The inhibitory effect of ApoE KO on tumor development and metastasis was associated with increase of infiltration of NK cells. NK cells derived from ApoE KO mice showed much greater cytotoxicity than those from WT mice. These cytotoxic effect of NK cells derived from ApoE KO mice was associated with higher expression of Granzyme B, Fas Ligand, IFN-γ, TNF-α, NKG2D, NKp46, and DNAM-1 expression. Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cell (TREM)-1 is a proinflammatory mediator expressed on NK cells, and is known to be associated with NK cell cytotoxicity. Thus, we investigated the role of TREM-1 on ApoE KO mice originated NK cell mediated cytotoxicity for cancer cells. Blockade of TREM-1 expression with a TREM-1 antagonist prevented NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity. TREM-1 antibody recovered cytotoxic effect of NK cells derived from KO mice of T-bet, which upregulating gene for TREM-1. These data indicate that ApoE KO suppressed lung tumor development and metastasis via increase of TREM-1-dependent anti-tumor activity of NK cells.

14.
Pharmacol Ther ; 203: 107394, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31356910

RESUMO

Chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1) is a secreted glycoprotein that mediates inflammation, macrophage polarization, apoptosis, and carcinogenesis. The expression of CHI3L1 is strongly increased by various inflammatory and immunological conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and several cancers. However, its physiological and pathophysiological roles in the development of cancer and neurodegenerative and inflammatory diseases remain unclear. Several studies have reported that CHI3L1 promotes cancer proliferation, inflammatory cytokine production, and microglial activation, and that multiple receptors, such as advanced glycation end product, syndecan-1/αVß3, and IL-13Rα2, are involved. In addition, the pro-inflammatory action of CHI3L1 may be mediated via the protein kinase B and phosphoinositide-3 signaling pathways and responses to various pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1ß, interleukin-6, and interferon-γ. Therefore, CHI3L1 could contribute to a vast array of inflammatory diseases. In this article, we review recent findings regarding the roles of CHI3L1 and suggest therapeutic approaches targeting CHI3L1 in the development of cancers, neurodegenerative diseases, and inflammatory diseases.

15.
Allergy Asthma Immunol Res ; 11(4): 548-559, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31172723

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In our previous study, we demonstrated that both titrated extract of Centella asiatica (TECA) and astaxanthin (AST) have anti-inflammatory effects in a 5% phthalic anhydride (PA) mouse model of atopic dermatitis (AD). The increasing prevalence of AD demands new therapeutic approaches for treating the disease. We investigated the therapeutic efficacy of the ointment form of TECA, AST and a TECA + AST combination in a mouse model of AD to see whether a combination of the reduced doses of 2 compounds could have a synergistic effect. METHODS: An AD-like lesion was induced by the topical application of 5% PA to the dorsal ear and back skin of an Hos:HR-1 mouse. After AD induction, TECA (0.5%), AST (0.5%) and the TECA (0.25%) + AST (0.25%) combination ointment (20 µg/cm²) were spread on the dorsum of the ear or back skin 3 times a week for 4 weeks. We evaluated dermatitis severity, histopathological changes and changes in protein expression by Western blotting for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclocxygenase (COX)-2, and nuclear factor (NF)-κB activity. We also measured the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and immunoglobulin E (IgE) in the blood of AD mice by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: PA-induced skin morphological changes and ear thickness were significantly reduced by TECA, AST and TECA + AST treatments, but these inhibiting effects were more pronounced in the TECA + AST treatment. TECA, AST and the TECA+AST reatments inhibited the expression of iNOS and COX-2; NF-κB activity; and the release of TNF-α, IL-6 and IgE. However, the TECA+AST treatment showed additive or synergistic effects on AD. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that the combination of TECA and AST could be a promising therapeutic agent for AD by inhibiting NF-κB signaling.

16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(11)2019 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146332

RESUMO

Neuroinflammation is implicated in dopaminergic neurodegeneration. We have previously demonstrated that (E)-2-methoxy-4-(3-(4-methoxyphenyl) prop-1-en-1-yl) phenol (MMPP), a selective signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) inhibitor, has anti-inflammatory properties in several inflammatory disease models. We investigated whether MMPP could protect against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced dopaminergic cell loss and behavioral impairment. Imprinting control region (ICR) mice (8 weeks old, n = 10 per group) were administered MMPP (5 mg/kg) in drinking water for 1 month, and injected with MPTP (15 mg/kg, four times with 2 h intervals) during the last 7 days of treatment. MMPP decreased MPTP-induced behavioral impairments in rotarod, pole, and gait tests. We also showed that MMPP ameliorated dopamine depletion in the striatum and inflammatory marker elevation in primary cultured neurons by high-performance liquid chromatography and immunohistochemical analysis. Increased activation of STAT3, p38, and monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) were observed in the substantia nigra and striatum after MPTP injection, effects that were attenuated by MMPP treatment. Furthermore, MMPP inhibited STAT3 activity and expression of neuroinflammatory proteins, including ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba1), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+; 0.5 mM)-treated primary cultured cells. However, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors augmented the activity of MMPP. Collectively, our results suggest that MMPP may be an anti-inflammatory agent that attenuates dopaminergic neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation through MAO-B and MAPK pathway-dependent inhibition of STAT3 activation.


Assuntos
Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/metabolismo , Intoxicação por MPTP/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Corpo Estriado/metabolismo , Corpo Estriado/patologia , Dopamina/metabolismo , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/patologia , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida/metabolismo , Inflamação , Intoxicação por MPTP/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Monoaminoxidase/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
17.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0217037, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112565

RESUMO

Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated the reciprocal relationship between the development of cancer and Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the possible mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unclear. To identify this relationship, we first compared lung tumor growth in parkin knockout (KO) mice and wild-type (WT) mice. Parkin KO mice showed decreased lung tumor growth and increased expression of p21, a cell cycle arrester, as compared with WT mice. We also found that parkin interacts with p21, resulting in its degradation; however, parkin KO, knockdown, as well as mutation (R275W or G430D) reduced the degradation of p21. We investigated whether parkin KO increases the association of p21 with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) or CDK2 by reducing p21 degradation, and, thus, arresting the cell cycle. The interaction between p21 and PCNA or CDK2 was also enhanced by parkin knockdown, and this increased interaction induced sub G0/G1 arrest, leading to cell death. Therefore, our data indicate that parkin KO reduces the development of lung tumors via cell cycle arrest by blocking the degradation of p21. These findings suggest that PD could be associated with lower lung cancer incidence.

18.
Antioxid Redox Signal ; 31(5): 387-402, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31007045

RESUMO

Aims: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is accompanied by excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which has been suggested in several studies to link with mitochondrial function. However, the mechanistic role of ROS-mediated regulation of mitochondrial function in NAFLD has not been elucidated. Since peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6) is the only member of the antioxidant PRDX family that translocates to damaged mitochondria, we investigated the PRDX6-mediated antisteatotic mechanism using genetically modified mice and cells. Results: PRDX6 mice were more protective to lipid accumulation, liver injury, and insulin resistance after a high-fat diet. Mechanistically, PRDX6 is required for induction of mitochondrial antioxidant action and beta-oxidation through maintaining mitochondrial integrity and subsequently prevents ROS-induced lipogenesis. Interestingly, oxidative stress-induced Notch signaling was suppressed in PRDX6 mice compared with wild-type mice, and genetic and pharmacological inhibition of Notch signaling improved lipid accumulation. Finally, PRDX knockdown or Notch inhibition reduced induction of mitophagy. PRDX6 antagonizes positive feedback loop between lipid accumulation and ROS production through regulation of mitochondrial function. Innovation: For the first time, we demonstrate that PRDX6 maintains mitochondria integrity under oxidative stress and protects against NAFLD progression by inhibition of Notch signaling. Conclusion: This study describes a novel molecular mechanism underlying the antisteatotic activity of PRDX6, which may be a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of NAFLD.

19.
Metabolism ; 95: 46-56, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935969

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Alcohol overconsumption and abuse lead to alcoholic liver disease (ALD), which is a major chronic liver disease worldwide. Chitinase-3-like protein 1 (CHI3L1) have an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory disease. However, the role of CHI3L1 in ALD has not yet been reported. In the present study, we investigated the effect of CHI3L1 on chronic plus binge ethanol-induced liver injury. METHODS: CHI3L1 knock out (KO) mice and their littermate control mice based on C57BL/6 (10-12 weeks old) were fed on a Lieber-DeCarli diet containing 6.6% ethanol for 10 days. And, CHI3L1 siRNA or CHI3L1 expressing vector was transfected HepG2 cells were treated with ethanol or without. RESULTS: Ethanol-induced hepatic triglyceride (TG) levels and the mRNA levels of TG synthesis-related genes such as acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) were decreased in the liver of CHI3L1 knock out (KO) mice and the HepG2 cells transfected with CHI3L1 siRNA. Increased mRNA level and activation of SREBP1 which is transcription factor of ACC, FAS and SCD1 by ethanol feeding were reduced in the liver of ethanol-fed CHI3L1 KO mice. Moreover, ethanol-induced SREBP1 luciferase activity and mRNA level of SREBP1, ACC, FAS and SCD1 were also decreased in the HepG2 cells transfected with CHI3L1 siRNA, while those were further increased in the HepG2 cells treated with recombinant human CHI3L1. Furthermore, oxidative stress and up-regulated pro-inflammatory cytokines by ethanol were recovered in the liver of ethanol-fed CHI3L1 KO mice. CONCLUSION: Our finding suggest that inhibition of CHI3L1 suppressed ethanol-induced liver injury through inhibition of TG synthesis, and the blocking of oxidative stress and hepatic inflammation induced SREBP1 activity could be significant.


Assuntos
Proteína 1 Semelhante à Quitinase-3/deficiência , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/metabolismo , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/biossíntese , Animais , Bebedeira/complicações , Linhagem Celular , Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/farmacologia , Proteína 1 Semelhante à Quitinase-3/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Etanol/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Estresse Oxidativo
20.
Mol Ther Nucleic Acids ; 16: 63-72, 2019 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30849743

RESUMO

We previously found that lung tumor development was reduced in a presenilin (PS) Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse model. Here, we investigated whether this reducing effect could occur in a different AD mouse model. We investigated urethane-induced (1 mg/g) lung tumor development and melanoma growth in Swedish amyloid precursor protein (SwAPP) transgenic mice. The expression of chitinase-3-like-1 (Chi3L1) increased during lung tumor development and melanoma growth, which was accompanied by an increase in the activity of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and the downregulation of miRNA342-3p in wild-type mice. Like tumor development, the expression of Chi3L1 and STAT3 activity was reduced in the SwAPP mice, whereas the expression of miRNA342-3p was upregulated. In addition, Chi3L1 knockdown in the lung cancer and melanoma tissues reduced cancer cell growth and STAT3 activity but enhanced miRNA342-3p expression. However, the miRNA342-3p mimic decreased Chi3L1 expression, cancer cell growth, and STAT3 activity. Moreover, a STAT3 inhibitor reduced Chi3L1 expression and cancer cell growth but enhanced miRNA342-3p expression. These data showed that lung tumor development was reduced through the decrease of Chi3L1 expression via the STAT3-dependent upregulation of miRNA342-3p. This study indicates that lung tumor development could be reduced in SwAPP AD mice.

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