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1.
Nature ; 597(7877): 503-510, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34552257

RESUMO

Large, distributed collections of miniaturized, wireless electronic devices1,2 may form the basis of future systems for environmental monitoring3, population surveillance4, disease management5 and other applications that demand coverage over expansive spatial scales. Aerial schemes to distribute the components for such networks are required, and-inspired by wind-dispersed seeds6-we examined passive structures designed for controlled, unpowered flight across natural environments or city settings. Techniques in mechanically guided assembly of three-dimensional (3D) mesostructures7-9 provide access to miniature, 3D fliers optimized for such purposes, in processes that align with the most sophisticated production techniques for electronic, optoelectronic, microfluidic and microelectromechanical technologies. Here we demonstrate a range of 3D macro-, meso- and microscale fliers produced in this manner, including those that incorporate active electronic and colorimetric payloads. Analytical, computational and experimental studies of the aerodynamics of high-performance structures of this type establish a set of fundamental considerations in bio-inspired design, with a focus on 3D fliers that exhibit controlled rotational kinematics and low terminal velocities. An approach that represents these complex 3D structures as discrete numbers of blades captures the essential physics in simple, analytical scaling forms, validated by computational and experimental results. Battery-free, wireless devices and colorimetric sensors for environmental measurements provide simple examples of a wide spectrum of applications of these unusual concepts.

2.
J Craniofac Surg ; 32(5): 1918-1922, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645956

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: This study aimed to examine the accurate location and boundary of the parotid gland in Koreans.Forty hemifaces from embalmed cadavers (mean age: 73 years) were studied. The line connecting the porion, gonion, and gnathion was used as a reference line. To measure the boundary of the parotid gland, the Frankfort horizontal line was used as the x-axis, whereas the vertical line passing through the porion was used as the y-axis. All measurements were taken from the lateral side of the face.The parotid gland has a variety of shapes: irregular, reverse triangle, and falciform. In all specimens, the boundary of the parotid gland was located 20 to 60 mm below the Frankfort horizontal line and located 10 mm anterior to the y-axis. On average, the most anterior and posterior distances of the parotid gland from the porion-gonion line were 36.4 ±â€Š13.9 mm and 20.1 ±â€Š10.5 mm, respectively, and the most inferior distance of the parotid gland from the gonion-gnathion line was 9.8 ±â€Š5.8 mm. All specimens of parotid glands were found within an area 20 to 40 mm below the Frankfort horizontal line and 10 mm to the left of the y-axis. The most anterior point of the parotid gland was observed at varying locations. The maximum value of the most anterior point was 61.26 mm; it rarely exceeded the ectocanthion. The most posterior points of the parotid gland were located between the mastoid process and sternocleidomastoid muscle.These results might be useful for preventing injury to the parotid gland during facial rejuvenation procedures.


Assuntos
Face , Glândula Parótida , Idoso , Cabeça , Humanos , Rejuvenescimento , República da Coreia
3.
J Craniofac Surg ; 32(2): 771-773, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705033

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationships between the nasolabial fold and superficial fascia on histology and P45 sheet plastination.Two centimeter width specimen of the nasolabial area were harvested from the skin to periosteum. Then, 10-µm sections were made, stained with Masson trichrome, and observed under a light microscope. Three head and neck specimens were sliced in horizontal sections (46 slices) using P45 sheet plastination (polyester resin corrosion-resistant method designed to preserve biological sectional specimens in situ). Through slicing, bleaching, dehydration, casting, forced impregnation, curing, cutting, and sanding the molds, P45 plastination provided good light transmission, allowing the internal structures within the sheet to be revealed clearly in their intact form.The observations on histology and P45 sheet plastination correlated well. The nasolabial fold consisted of the superficial fatty layer of superficial fascia (SFS). At the beginning of the alar groove level, the nasolabial groove was located on the point where the medial limit of SFS met the levator labii superioris. At the alar base level, the nasolabial groove was located where the medial limit of the SFS met levator labii superioris. At the mouth corner level, the nasolabial groove was located where the medial limit of the SFS met the modiolus, including the orbicularis oris. The superficial fascia became scanty near the nasolabial groove, and the SFS comprised the nasolabial fold.The results of the present study may be helpful for applying subcutaneous dissection or sub-superficial muscular aponeurotic system dissection in rejuvenation of the nasolabial area.


Assuntos
Plastinação , Dissecação , Músculos Faciais , Humanos , Lábio , Sulco Nasogeniano
4.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(12)2020 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32585870

RESUMO

A theoretical and experimental study on the design-to-performance characteristics of a compression-mode Pb(Zr,Ti)O3-based piezoelectric accelerometer is presented. Using the metamodeling to approximate the relationship between the design variables and the performances, the constituent components were optimized so that the generated electric voltage, representing sensitivity, could be maximized at different set values of the resonant frequency (25-40 kHz). Four kinds of optimized designs were created and fabricated into the accelerometer modules for empirical validation. The accelerometer modules fabricated according to the optimized designs were highly reliable with a broad range of resonant frequency as well as sufficiently high values of charge sensitivity. The fixed (or mounted) resonant frequency was between 16.1-30.1 kHz based on the impedance measurement. The charge sensitivity decreased from 296.8 to 79.4 pC/g with an increase of the resonant frequency, showing an inverse relation with respect to the resonant frequency. The design-dependent behaviors of the sensitivity and resonant frequency were almost identical in both numerical analysis and experimental investigation. This work shows that the piezoelectric accelerometer can be selectively prepared with best outcomes according to the requirements for the sensitivity and resonant frequency, fundamentally associated with trade-off relation.

5.
J Craniofac Surg ; 31(5): 1370-1372, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282474

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to analyze the medical illustrations that appeared in the Journal of Craniofacial Surgery (JCFS) during the last 3 years (2016-2018).All illustrations in 2676 articles from 24 issues were analyzed.In total, 363 articles (13.6%) contained illustrations (for total of 589 illustrations), and 38 articles (1.4%) cited illustrations from other articles. The number of illustrations increased over time (152 in 2016, 181 in 2017, and 256 in 2018; P = 0.007). The signature of the illustrator appeared in 16.5% of the illustrations, and the illustrator's name was acknowledged in 7.6%. The most frequent contents of the 589 illustrations were surgical procedures (55.4%), followed by anatomy (34.1%). Among the 555 illustrations showing regions of the body, the most frequently illustrated region was the oral cavity (41.6%), followed by the eye and periorbital region (18.4%), the nose (12.4%), and the head (11.4%). Of the 555 illustrations showing tissue, the tissue most frequently depicted was bone (52.8%), followed by soft tissue (42.5%). The mean score for clarity of the intended message was 3.5 ±â€Š1.2. The mean score for artistic skill was 3.2 ±â€Š1.0.As the number of illustrations in JCFS increases, it is increasingly important that information on the illustrators be given. The journal editor should recommend that authors provide the illustrators' information. From the author's perspective, the best illustration is one that tells the story the author wants to convey to readers. Therefore, the crucial point is the expression of the author's goal, rather than the esthetics of the illustration.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bucal , Humanos , Ilustração Médica
6.
Surg Radiol Anat ; 42(5): 617-626, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960087

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate age-related changes of orbital rim in Koreans and construct a reference data set for the aging phenomenon in Asians. METHODS: Data were collected from computed tomography (CT) scans of orbits and facial bones obtained from 107 Korean (55 males and 52 females) at intervals of 0.60 mm. Subjects was categorized according to sex and age as follows: young group (20-35 years) and old group (60 years and above). CT scans were reconstructed via three-dimensional (3D) modeling programs. The most lateral, medial, superior and inferior points of orbital rim were used as reference points. The orbital aperture area in each 3D model was measured using an analytical software program such as 3-Matic. RESULTS: The orbital aperture height showed no overall statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) with age in either sex. Changes were irregular with a combination of decrease and increased components. The mean change did not exceed about 0.1 mm. The orbital aperture area showed no significant change with increasing age in either male or female study populations. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, there was no significant enlargement of the orbital rim with increasing age in Koreans. The measurement data in the present study differ from previous studies involving White subjects, which revealed a significant increase in orbital aperture area.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Órbita/anatomia & histologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Órbita/diagnóstico por imagem , Órbita/fisiologia , Valores de Referência , República da Coreia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Craniofac Surg ; 31(1): 303-305, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634314

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate whether it is possible to pull the platysma effectively in the medial or lateral direction (medial platysmaplasty and lateral platysmaplasty) and to explore the anatomical basis of those findings.Six hemifaces from 3 fresh cadavers were dissected. After skin removal, the platysma was pulled upward and in the medial or lateral direction with the ulnar side of the palm. Its mobility was checked. In 2 volunteers, using wooden bar, the skin overlying platysma was pulled in superomedial and superolateral direction.The platysma ran diagonally from the acromio-deltoid region to the perioral and submental area. In all hemifaces, the platysma was attached to the mandible along its course. The platysma inserted into the mandibular body. At its medial portion (approximately halfway medially from the mentum to the angle; 4-5 cm), the attachment was so firm that it could not be moved horizontally. The posterolateral portion of the platysma was indirectly attached to the mandible and movable. In cadaver, platysma did not move much when it was pulled in the medial direction. In the lateral direction, however, platysma did move well. In living body, when skin overlying platysma was pulled in superomedial direction and superolateral direction, 3 points marked on mandibular border moved about 1.5-2.0 cm and 2.0-2.5 cm respectively.It is thought that medial platysmaplasty can correct anterior neck deformities and redistribute neck skin mainly in the submental area, while that lateral platysmaplasty can pull the cheek skin in superolateral direction.


Assuntos
Ritidoplastia , Adulto , Cadáver , Queixo/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mandíbula/cirurgia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pescoço/cirurgia
8.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0222324, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600209

RESUMO

To enable selection of a safer suspension site to use in face and neck lifting procedures, the spatial relationship between the tympanoparotid fascia and the great auricular nerve should be clarified. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the position of the tympanoparotid fascia and the pathway of the lobular branch of the great auricular nerve traversing the tympanoparotid fascia. Twenty hemifaces from non-preserved bequeathed Korean cadavers (5 males, 7 females; mean age, 77.0 years) were dissected to determine the great auricular nerve distribution close to the tympanoparotid fascia of clinical significance for face and neck lift procedures. We observed the tympanoparotid fascia in all specimens (20 hemifaces). The tympanoparotid fascia was located anteriorly between the tragus and intertragic notch. Regarding the spatial relationship between the tympanoparotid fascia and the great auricular nerve, we found the sensory nerve entering the tympanoparotid fascia in all specimens (100%), and the depth from the skin was approximately 4.5 mm; in 65% of the specimens, the lobular branch was found to run close to the tympanoparotid fascia before going into the earlobe. Provided with relatively safer surface mapping to access the tympanoparotid fascia free of the lobular branch of the great auricular nerve, surgeons may better protect the lobular branch by anchoring the SMAS-platysma flap and thread to the deeper superior and anterior portions of the expected tympanoparotid fascia.


Assuntos
Pavilhão Auricular/inervação , Face/inervação , Músculos do Pescoço/inervação , Pescoço/inervação , Idoso , Cadáver , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Dermatológicos , Pavilhão Auricular/fisiopatologia , Pavilhão Auricular/cirurgia , Face/cirurgia , Fáscia/inervação , Fáscia/fisiopatologia , Fasciotomia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pescoço/cirurgia , Músculos do Pescoço/cirurgia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Pele/inervação , Retalhos Cirúrgicos
9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(15)2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370167

RESUMO

While seeking to achieve high performances of a bulk piezoelectric acceleration sensor, we investigated the behavior of the design variables of the sensor components and optimized the sensor design using a numerical simulation based on piezoelectric analysis and metamodeling. The optimized results demonstrated that there was an exponential dependency in the trade-off relation between two performance indicators, the electric voltage and the resonant frequency, as induced by the design characteristics of the sensor. Among the design variables, a decrease in the base height and epoxy thickness and an increase in the piezo element's inner diameter had a positive effect on two performances, while the head dimensions (diameter and height) exhibited the opposite effect on them. The optimal sensor designs are proposed within the valid range of resonant frequency (25-47.5 kHz). Our redesign of a commercial reference sensor improved the resonant frequency by 13.2% and the electric voltage by 46.1%.

10.
Korean J Physiol Pharmacol ; 23(1): 81-87, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30627013

RESUMO

Ketamine has long been used as an anesthetic agent. However, ketamine use is associated with numerous side effects, including flashbacks, amnesia, delirium, and aggressive or violent behavior. Ketamine has also been abused as a cocktail with ecstasy, cocaine, and methamphetamine. Several studies have investigated therapeutic applications of ketamine, demonstrating its antidepressant and anxiolytic effects in both humans and rodents. We recently reported that neonatal maternal separation causes enhanced anxiety- and aggressive-like behaviors in adolescent. In the present study, we evaluated how acute and chronic ketamine administration affected the behavioral consequences of neonatal maternal separation in adolescent mice. Litters were separated from dams for 4 hours per day for 19 days beginning after weaning. Upon reaching adolescence (post-natal day 35-49), mice were acutely (single injection) or chronically (7 daily injections) treated with a sub-anesthetic dose (15 mg/kg) of ketamine. At least 1 h after administration of ketamine, mice were subjected to open-field, elevated-plus maze, and resident-intruder tests. We found that acute ketamine treatment reduced locomotor activity. In contrast, chronic ketamine treatment decreased anxiety, as evidenced by increased time spent on open arms in the elevated-plus maze, and remarkably reduced the number and duration of attacks. In conclusion, the present study suggests that ketamine has potential for the treatment of anxiety and aggressive or violent behaviors.

11.
Biomed Res Int ; 2018: 4535031, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30533433

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to accurately identify the distribution of sensory nerve branches running to bursa with mesoscopic dissection and boundaries following the injection of gelatin into the bursa. Eighteen shoulders of 11 Korean soft cadavers (average age, 65 years; age range, 43 - 88 years) were dissected. The most prominent point of greater tubercle of the humerus (GT) was used as a reference point. The horizontal line passing through GT was used as the x-axis while the vertical line passing through the GT was used as the y-axis. Average distances of the anterior, posterior, superior, and inferior from the GT were 1.9±0.6, 2.4±1.3, 2.1±0.7, and 3.2±1.5 cm, respectively. In 15 cases of 18 shoulders, the anterior branch of the axillary nerve was distributed to the subdeltoid bursa that was running posteriorly. The muscular branch of the anterior and middle parts of the deltoid was distributed to the branch of nerve that was running into the subdeltoid bursa. A branch of the posterior cord of brachial plexus was distributed to the subdeltoid bursa that was running anteriorly in three cases. Most of the branches of the axillary nerve were distributed into the posterolateral area. The branches of the posterior cord of brachial plexus were distributed in the anterolateral area. These results might be useful for preventing residual pain on the anterior shoulder region following an injection for the relief of shoulder pain.


Assuntos
Bolsa Sinovial/anatomia & histologia , Bolsa Sinovial/inervação , Músculo Deltoide/anatomia & histologia , Músculo Deltoide/inervação , Animais , Humanos , Úmero/anatomia & histologia , Injeções , Suínos
12.
J Orthop Res ; 36(12): 3318-3327, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30175855

RESUMO

Various types of suture anchor designs are currently available for rotator cuff repair. The purpose of our study was to investigate the pullout strength of such anchors based on their structural design and the predominant geometric design factors affecting the pullout strength using finite element analysis. Finite element models were constructed using five cadaveric humeri and ten suture anchors with different designs. The pullout strength and distribution of bone stress around the anchor at three different directions of the applied force (0°, 45°, and 75°) were analyzed. The following geometric factors of suture anchor design were computed and their correlations with pullout strength assessed: Overall length, minor, and major diameters; number of threads; height of thread; distance between threads; helix angle; contact surface area between the anchor threads and surrounding bone; contact surface area between the cylindrical portion of the anchor; and surrounding bone and total contact surface area between the anchor and surrounding bone. The pullout strength and distribution of bone stress around the anchor varied according to the suture anchor designs and the direction of the applied force, respectively. The pullout strength had a strong positive correlation with the contact surface area between the anchor threads and surrounding bone, overall length, and the number and height of threads. This study demonstrated that suture anchor designs with increased contact surface area between the anchor threads and surrounding bone, overall length, and the number and height of threads can enhance the pullout strength during rotator cuff repair. © 2018 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 36:3318-3327, 2018.


Assuntos
Manguito Rotador/cirurgia , Âncoras de Sutura , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Mecânico
13.
Surg Radiol Anat ; 40(11): 1261-1265, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30167818

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to determine the location and distribution pattern of neurovascular structures superior and inferior to the clavicle by detailed dissection. METHODS: Fifteen adult non-embalmed cadavers with a mean age of 71.5 years were studied. For measurements, the most prominent point of the sternal end of the clavicle (SEC) on anterior view and the most prominent point of the acromial end of the clavicle (AEC) were identified and divided five equal sections before dissection. A line connecting the SEC and AEC was used as a reference line. The surrounding neurovascular structures were investigated. RESULTS: The supraclavicular nerve was mainly distributed in the second and the third sections (distribution frequency: 41.30% and 30.43%, respectively) from AEC. Branches of the thoracoacromial artery were mainly distributed in the second, third, and fourth sections (distribution frequency: 21.15%, 26.92%, and 28.85%, respectively). Branches of the subclavian vein were mainly distributed in the third and fourth sections (distribution frequency: 23.26 and 30.23%, respectively). Distribution frequency of subclavian vein, subclavian artery, and brachial plexus ranged from 31.3 to 57.5%. DISCUSSION: When the clavicle was divided into five sections, there was relatively little distribution of neurovascular damage in the first section or the fifth section. This study reveals the average location of subclavian vein with artery and brachial plexus. Results of this study could be used as reference during surgery.


Assuntos
Clavícula/irrigação sanguínea , Clavícula/inervação , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pontos de Referência Anatômicos , Cadáver , Clavícula/lesões , Dissecação , Fraturas Ósseas/cirurgia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
Leg Med (Tokyo) ; 35: 1-8, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30227263

RESUMO

The greater sciatic notch is an effective indicator for sexual estimation, which is the initial process to identify unknown skeleton. Visual assessment is the mainstream of analysis methods; however, the subjectivity of researchers is also questioned. Metric method using three-dimensional models reconstructed from radiographic images can ensure reproducible and stable measurement of the greater sciatic notch. In this study, the greater sciatic notch was analyzed in various manners, including distances, angles, and dimensions, with the aid of an automatic measurement program and a landmark verification system. Among 28 items, 15 measurements showed more than 85% accuracy. Measurements related to the posterior part of the greater sciatic notch near the posterior inferior iliac spine particularly showed higher accuracy (93.1%). To test this observation, "arithmetic posterior angle of the greater sciatic notch", a generalized form of partial angle of the greater sciatic notch, was designed. It showed more than 90% accuracy. When the results of the three-dimensional measurements were applied to classify dry bones, it proved to be valid in contemporary Korean population. The method and results of this study can be referenced in wider use of the greater sciatic notch analysis.


Assuntos
Ílio/anatomia & histologia , Imageamento Tridimensional , Ossos Pélvicos/anatomia & histologia , Determinação do Sexo pelo Esqueleto/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
15.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(3): 817-820, Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-954191

RESUMO

This study was aimed to provide accurate parameters to localize the nerve endings for subclavius muscle belly and to investigate the basic information on nerve innervations on subclavius muscle. Twenty-two adult non-embalmed cadavers (7 males and 4 females) with a mean age of 68.7 years (range, 43-88 years) were enrolled for the present study. For measurements, the most prominent point of the sternal end of the clavicle (SEC) on anterior view and the most prominent point of the acromial end of the clavicle (AEC) were identified as the reference point. A line connecting the SEC and AEC was used as a reference line. Among all the measured points, 92.2 % of the points were gathered from 40 to 60 distances on the reference line. In one male specimen, both the sides of the nerve to the subclavius were merged with the phrenic nerve. It is further hypothesized that the basic anatomical results about the nerve branching pattern will be helpful in the clinical field.


El objetivo de este estudio fue proporcionar parámetros precisos para localizar las terminaciones nerviosas correspondientes al músculo subclavio e investigar la información básica sobre la inervación de los nervios en el músculo subclavio. Fueron incluidos 22 cadáveres adultos no fijados (7 hombres y 4 mujeres) con una edad media de 68,7 años (rango: 43-88 años). Para las mediciones se identificaron como punto de referencia, el punto más prominente del extremo esternal de la clavícula (SEC) en la vista anterior y el punto más prominente de la parte acromial de la clavícula (AEC). Se utilizó una línea que conecta la SEC y AEC como línea de referencia. Entre todos los puntos medidos, el 92,2 % de los puntos se obtuvieron de 40 a 60 distancias en la línea de referencia. En un espécimen masculino, a ambos lados, el nervio del músculo subclavio se presentó fusionado con el nervio frénico. Además, se plantea la hipótesis de que los resultados anatómicos básicos sobre el patrón de ramificación nerviosa serán útiles en el campo clínico.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Músculo Esquelético/inervação , Cadáver , Clavícula
16.
Biomed Res Int ; 2018: 3421985, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29862264

RESUMO

Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate entry points for anterior ankle arthroscopy that would minimize the risk of neurovascular injury. Methods: Thirty-eight specimens from 21 Korean cadavers (age range from 43 to 92 years, mean age of 62.3 years) were used for the study. For the measurements, the most prominent points of the lateral malleolus (LM) and the medial malleolus (MM) were identified before dissection. A line connecting the LM and MM, known as the intermalleolar line, was used as a reference line. We measured 14 variables passed on the reference line. Results: This study found that the nerves were located at 40.0%, 50.0%, and 82.0% of the reference line from the lateral malleolus. We also found that the arteries were located at 22.0%, 35.0%, and 60% of the reference line from the lateral malleolus. Discussion: If all the variables are combined (nerves, arteries, and veins), then there is no safety zone for anterior portal placement. Therefore, we recommend that surgeons concentrate primarily on the arteries and nerves in the clinical setting.


Assuntos
Tornozelo/anatomia & histologia , Tornozelo/irrigação sanguínea , Tornozelo/inervação , Artroscopia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
Int. j. morphol ; 35(3): 1010-1015, Sept. 2017. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-893086

RESUMO

The past findings confirm that the Rectus Capitis Posterior minor (RCPmi) is connected to the cervical spinal dura mater via the Myodural Bridge (MDB) through the posterior antlanto-occipital interspace. It is hypothesized to perform some functions. Furthermore, some clinical studies found that the pathology of RCPmi might be related to chronic headaches. But few studies were related to the morphological parameters of the RCPmi. It would be conducive to performing clinical researches on the RCPmi and MDB. To explore the optimal section for measuring the RCPmi by MRI and provide imaging anatomy parameters of the RCPmi for clinical research. The RCPmi was measured in the dissection of 10 formalin-fixed cadaver specimens. The morphological parameters of the RCPmi were obtained. Based on these parameters, T2-weighted images of the RCPmi were collected from 109 healthy adults by using the MRIs with different oblique sagittal scanning angles. The parameters of length and area of the RCPmi on the scanning sections were measured using MRI workstation and Mimics software. The length of RCPmi reached a maximum at 30 degrees scanning leaned from the posterior median line through the dens of the axis in oblique sagittal section. At this scanning section, the length of RCPmi was 21.2 ± 2.6 mm in males and 19.3 ± 2.4 mm in females and the area of RCPmi was 91.9 ± 27.2 mm2 in males and 73.3 ± 22 mm2 in females. These parameters of RCPmi were present with significant gender differences (P < 0.05) but was not age related. Thirty degrees leaned from the median line was suggested to be the optimum scanning angle to display the RCPmi in oblique sagittal section. The reference values of length and area of the RCPmi were established for studies of hypertrophy or amyotrophy of the RCPmi.


Hallazgos previos confirman que el músculo rector posterior menor de la cabeza (mRPMC) está conectado a la duramadre cervical por medio del puente miodural (PMD) a través del espacio intermedio antlanto-occipital posterior. Se plantea la hipótesis de su capacidad para realizar algunas funciones. Además, estudios clínicos encontraron que la patología del mRPMC podría estar relacionada con dolores de cabeza crónicos. Sin embargo, pocos estudios se relacionaron con los parámetros morfológicos del mRPMC. Se buscará realizar investigaciones clínicas sobre el mRPMC y el PMD, además de explorar la sección óptima que permita medir el mRPMC por resonancia magnética (RM) y que permita obtener la imagen adecuada para la identificación de los parámetros anatómicos del mRPMC en la investigación clínica. Se midió el mRPMC durante la disección de 10 especímenes, correspondientes a cadáveres fijados con formalina. Se obtuvieron los parámetros morfológicos del mRPMC. Basándose en estos parámetros, se estudiaron imágenes ponderadas en T2 del mRPMC de 109 adultos sanos, utilizando las resonancias magnéticas con diferentes ángulos de exploración sagital oblicua. Los parámetros de longitud y área del mRPMC en las secciones de exploración se midieron utilizando la estación de trabajo del equipo de RM y el software Mimics. La longitud del mRPMC alcanzó un máximo de 30 grados de exploración, inclinado desde la línea mediana posterior, a través del eje en la sección sagital oblicua. En esta sección la longitud del mRPMC fue 21,2 ± 2,6 mm en los hombres y 19,3 ± 2,4 mm en las mujeres, y el área del mRPMC fue 91,9 ± 27,2 mm2 en los hombres y 73,3 ± 22 mm2 en las mujeres. Se observaron diferencias significativas de sexo en estos parámetros del mRPMC (P <0,05) sin embargo estos no estaban relacionados con la edad. Se sugirieron 30 grados inclinados a partir de la línea mediana como el ángulo óptimo de exploración para mostrar el mRPMC en la sección sagital oblicua. Los valores de referencia de longitud y área del mRPMC se establecieron para estudios de hipertrofia o amiotrofia del mRPMC.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Músculos do Pescoço/anatomia & histologia , Músculos do Pescoço/diagnóstico por imagem
18.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 8248, 2017 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28811472

RESUMO

The "myodural bridge" was described in literatures as a dense fibrous tissue connecting the sub-occipital musculature with the spinal dura mater in human studies. Now the concept of "myodural bridge" was perceived as an exact anatomical structure presumably essential for critical physiological functions in human body, and might exist in other mammals as well. To determine the existence of the "myodural bridge" in other mammals and to lay a foundation for the functional study, we examined representatives in five different mammalian orders. Based on the anatomical dissections, P45 plastinated sections and histological sections, we found that a dense fibrous tissue connected the rectus capitisdorsalis minor and the spinal dura mater through the dorsal atlanto-occipital interspace with or without the medium of the posterior atlanto-occipital membrane. These observed connective tissues were very similar to the "myodural bridge" previously described in humans. We proposed that the "myodural bridge", as an evolutionally conserved structure, presents in many other mammals. Moreover, we believed that the "myodural bridge" might be a homologous organ in mammals. Thus, this study could provide an insight for our understanding the physiological significance of the "myodural bridge", especially in human.


Assuntos
Vértebras Cervicais/anatomia & histologia , Tecido Conjuntivo/anatomia & histologia , Dura-Máter/anatomia & histologia , Músculos do Pescoço/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Tecido Conjuntivo/fisiologia , Humanos , Mamíferos
19.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 3131, 2017 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28600488

RESUMO

Flexible and crystallized indium-tin oxide (ITO) thin films were successfully obtained on plastic polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films with monolayered graphene as a platform. The highly crystalline ITO (c-ITO) was first fabricated on a rigid substrate of graphene on copper foil and it was subsequently transferred onto a PET substrate by a well-established technique. Despite the plasma damage during ITO deposition, the graphene layer effectively acted as a Cu-diffusion barrier. The c-ITO/graphene/PET electrode with the 60-nm-thick ITO exhibited a reasonable sheet resistance of ~45 Ω sq-1 and a transmittance of ~92% at a wavelength of 550 nm. The c-ITO on the monolayered graphene support showed significant enhancement in flexibility compared with the ITO/PET film without graphene because the atomically controlled monolayered graphene acted as a mechanically robust support. The prepared flexible transparent c-ITO/graphene/PET electrode was applied as the anode in a bulk heterojunction polymer solar cell (PSC) to evaluate its performance, which was comparable with that of the commonly used c-ITO/glass electrode. These results represent important progress in the fabrication of flexible transparent electrodes for future optoelectronics applications.

20.
PLoS One ; 12(5): e0177120, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28545087

RESUMO

In the last two decades, many studies have focused on the muscles and dense connective tissues located in the suboccipital region. Our study investigated the existence of the second terminations originating from the suboccipital muscles, and the relationship between the variable types of the To Be Named Ligament (TBNL). Anatomical dissection was performed on 35 head-neck specimens. The existence of the second terminations of the suboccipital muscles was confirmed and various types of the TBNL were observed in this study. The second terminations originated from multiple suboccipital muscles including the rectus capitis posterior minor (RCPmi), rectus capitis posterior major (RCPma) and obliquus capitis inferior (OCI) muscles, merged and terminated at the TBNL. The overall incidence of the second terminations of the suboccipital muscles was 34.29% and it varied among the various suboccipital muscle origins. 28.57% of the second terminations originated from the RCPma; 11.43% was from the RCPmi and 8.57% was from the OCI. Furthermore, there was a significant relationship between the existence of second terminations and the particular type of the TBNL. 95% of the arcuate type of the TBNL was accompanied with the second terminations which attached to their turning part, whereas only 10% of all the radiate type of the TBNL was accompanied with the second terminations. This study for the first time described the second terminations originating from multiple suboccipital muscles and demonstrated the relationship with the various types of the TBNL. We speculated that the second terminations maintain the arcuate TBNL and transfer tensile forces to the Myodural Bridge (MDB), thereby modulating the physiological functions of the MDB.


Assuntos
Ligamentos/metabolismo , Músculos do Pescoço/metabolismo , Músculos do Pescoço/fisiologia , Tecido Conjuntivo/metabolismo , Tecido Conjuntivo/fisiologia , Feminino , Cabeça/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pescoço/fisiologia , Resistência à Tração/fisiologia
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