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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 96(49): e9176, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29245364

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is typically an autosomal dominant, inherited neuropathy, although there is a rare male X-linked CMT. Such patients show central nervous system (CNS) involvement in addition to peripheral neuropathy. Recently, we encountered a patient who presented with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)-like symptoms, but was later diagnosed as having X-linked CMT (CMTX) due to a mutation. PATIENT CONCERNS: A previously healthy 11-year-old boy was admitted for a sudden transient weakness of his left side extremities. DIAGNOSES: The patient was diagnosed with left side hemiparesis. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed ADEM-like demyelinating lesions on both centrum semiovale. A diagnosis of probable ADEM was made, and the patient soon recovered. After 4 months, a second MRI showed complete resolution of the brain lesions. However, the symptoms recurred 2 years later. A third MRI revealed white matter abnormalities, and a physical examination demonstrated pes cavus deformities and peripheral muscle wasting of both lower extremities. INTERVENTIONS: On the basis of the brain MRI lesions and physical findings, we suspected CMTX. Genotyping confirmed a mutation in the GJB1 gene. OUTCOMES: When the symptoms recurred 2 years later, dysarthria and demyelinating MRI lesions were present. We could not identify any triggering factors. LESSONS: Differential diagnosis of recurrent ADEM-like lesions in the cerebral white matter and peripheral neuropathy should include the possibility of CMTX disease.


Assuntos
Doença de Charcot-Marie-Tooth/diagnóstico , Doença de Charcot-Marie-Tooth/genética , Conexinas/genética , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia , Doença de Charcot-Marie-Tooth/fisiopatologia , Criança , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Encefalomielite Aguda Disseminada/diagnóstico , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Mutação
2.
Korean J Pediatr ; 60(8): 266-271, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29042869

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the clinical characteristics of hypertensive encephalopathy according to the underlying etiologies in children. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 33 pediatric patients who were diagnosed as having hypertensive encephalopathy in Chonbuk National University Children's Hospital. Among the patients, 18 were excluded because of incomplete data or because brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was not performed. Finally, 17 patients were enrolled and divided into a renal-origin hypertension group and a non-renal-origin hypertension group according to the underlying cause. We compared the clinical features and brain MRI findings between the 2 groups. RESULTS: The renal group included renal artery stenosis (4), acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (2), lupus nephritis (2), and acute renal failure (1); the nonrenal group included essential hypertension (4), pheochromocytoma (2), thyrotoxicosis (1), and acute promyelocytic leukemia (1). The mean systolic blood pressure of the renal group (172.5±36.9 mmHg) was higher than that of the nonrenal group (137.1±11.1 mmHg, P<0.05). Seizure was the most common neurologic symptom, especially in the renal group (P<0.05). Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES), which is the most typical finding of hypertensive encephalopathy, was found predominantly in the renal group as compared with the nonrenal group (66.6% vs. 12.5%, P<0.05). CONCLUSION: We conclude that the patients with renal-origin hypertension had a more severe clinical course than those with non-renal-origin hypertension. Furthermore, the renal-origin group was highly associated with PRES on brain MRI.

3.
Korean J Pediatr ; 60(7): 227-231, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28861114

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to verify the safety of low-dose topiramate on language development in pediatric patients with migraine. METHODS: Thirty newly diagnosed pediatric patients with migraine who needed topiramate were enrolled and assessed twice with standard language tests, including the Test of Language Problem Solving Abilities (TOPs), Receptive and Expressive Vocabulary Test, Urimal Test of Articulation and Phonology, and computerized speech laboratory analysis. Data were collected before treatment, and topiramate as monotherapy was sustained for at least 3 months. The mean follow-up period was 4.3±2.7 months. The mean topiramate dosage was 0.9 mg/kg/day. RESULTS: The patient's mean age was 144.1±42.3 months (male-to-female ratio, 9:21). The values of all the language parameters of the TOPs were not changed significantly after the topiramate treatment as follows: Determine cause, from 15.0±4.4 to 15.4±4.8 (P>0.05); making inference, from 17.6±5.6 to 17.5±6.6 (P>0.05); predicting, from 11.5±4.5 to 12.3±4.0 (P>0.05); and total TOPs score, from 44.1± 13.4 to 45.3±13.6 (P>0.05). The total mean length of utterance in words during the test decreased from 44.1±13.4 to 45.3±13.6 (P<0.05). The Receptive and Expressive Vocabulary Test results decreased from 97.7±22.1 to 96.3±19.9 months, and from 81.8±23.4 to 82.3±25.4 months, respectively (P>0.05). In the articulation and phonology validation in both groups, speech pitch and energy were not significant, and all the vowel test results showed no other significant values. CONCLUSION: No significant difference was found in the language-speaking ability between the patients; however, the number of vocabularies used decreased. Therefore, topiramate should be used cautiously for children with migraine.

4.
Korean J Pediatr ; 60(6): 189-195, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28690646

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of lamotrigine for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in children with epilepsy. METHODS: Pediatric patients newly diagnosed with epilepsy (n=90 [61 boys and 29 girls]; mean age, 9.1±3.4 years) were enrolled. All patients were evaluated with the Korean ADHD rating scale (K-ARS)-IV before treatment with lamotrigine and after doses had been administered. The mean interval of ADHD testing was approximately 12.3 months. The initial dosage of lamotrigine was 1 mg/kg/day (maximum 25 mg/day for the first 2 weeks), and increased by 1 mg/kg every 2 weeks until titrated up to 7 mg/kg/day (or maximum 200 mg/day). RESULTS: The mean ADHD test score of the 90 subjects was 17.0±1.8 at baseline. It was slightly reduced to 15.6±1.7 after lamotrigine monotherapy (P >0.01). Prior to treatment, a total of 31 patients (34.4%) met the diagnostic criteria for ADHD according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision, Of these 31 patients, 27 (87.1%) had significantly improved ADHD scores with lamotrigine monotherapy (28.0±1.6 reduced to 18.1±2.6, P<0.001). Among these 27 patients, 25 (92.6%) showed normalized electroencephalogram (EEG) and 26 (96.3%) achieved total freedom from seizures within 12 months of the initiation of lamotrigine monotherapy. CONCLUSION: The results from our study show that lamotrigine had a positive effect in pediatric epilepsy patients by reducing ADHD symptoms, preventing seizures, and normalizing EEG. However, further research is required to determine whether lamotrigine is efficacious against ADHD symptoms independent of its effects on epileptic seizures.

5.
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