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1.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(8): 1519-1531, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30993595

RESUMO

Although substance use and violent behaviors often emerge together in adolescence, and both have similar widely cited causes and negative consequences for development, it remains unclear whether and how they may be linked causally. This study of early adolescents in Mexico's three largest cities tested whether alcohol use and violence perpetration are temporally related, whether their relationship is unidirectional or reciprocal, and whether the relationship differs by gender and the type of violence. The study employed longitudinal data from seventh grade students (N = 4830; M age = 12.0, range 11-15; 49% female) in 18 public middle schools in Mexico City, Guadalajara and Monterrey. Students completed questionnaires at the beginning, middle, and end of the 2014-2015 academic year. Students' responses to a multi-dimensional violence assessment emerged in two distinct patterns: criminally violent acts, and bullying/aggression. Although males engaged in both types of violence more frequently than females at all three time points, they used alcohol more frequently than females only at the first survey, after which the gender gap disappeared. Cross-lagged multi-group path models showed that, for both males and females, more frequent alcohol use predicted subsequent increases in criminally violent behavior, and bullying/aggression predicted later increases in alcohol use. Reciprocal associations varied by gender and type of violence: Alcohol use was reciprocally linked to criminally violent behavior among males only, and reciprocally linked to bullying-aggression among females alone. The results are interpreted in the context of sharply increasing rates of violence in Mexico and changing gender norms, with implications for youth prevention programs.

2.
Prev Sci ; 20(5): 643-654, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30536189

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to assess the combined effectiveness of a parenting intervention, Families Preparing the New Generation (FPNG), and a youth curriculum, keepin' it REAL (kiR), on substance use prevention for middle school students in a large urban metro area of the southwest USA. The study aimed to generate usable knowledge on what works in adolescent substance use prevention and how it works best-a combined parent and youth programming or parent-only programming. A total of 532 adolescents in the 7th grade from 19 participating middle schools were randomly assigned into three intervention conditions: parent-youth (PY), parent-only (PO), and comparison (C). This article focuses on the comparison between PY and PO in order to determine which intervention strategy works best to reduce adolescent substance use including alcohol, inhalant, cigarette, and marijuana uses. A generalized estimating equation (GEE) model examined the longitudinal data. The results for alcohol use show that PO yielded better results than PY and that PY outperformed C after 20 months. Further, PO showed a decreasing trajectory in any substance use over time since the implementation of the intervention. The effect sizes based on Cohen's h indicate small effects in any substance use and alcohol use for PO condition and smaller effects for the PY condition. These findings have implications for the design of future culturally specific parenting and youth prevention interventions with Latino families.

3.
BMC Obes ; 5: 18, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29988619

RESUMO

Background: People living with severe obesity report high levels of weight-related stigma. Theoretically, this stigma undermines weight loss efforts. The objective of this study is to test one proposed mechanism to explain why weight loss is so difficult once an individual becomes obese: that weight-related stigma inhibits physical activity via demotivation to exercise. Methods: The study focused on individuals who had bariatric surgery within the past 5 years (N = 298) and who report a post-surgical body mass index (BMI) ranging from 16 to 70. Exercise avoidance motivation (EAM) and physical activity (PA) were modeled as latent variables using structural equation modeling. Two measures of weight stigma, the Stigmatizing Situations Inventory (SSI) and the Weight Bias Internalization Scale (WBIS) were modified for people with a long history of extreme obesity for use as observed predictors. Results: Exercise avoidance motivation (EAM) significantly mediated the association between both experienced (SSI) and internalized (WBIS) weight stigma and physical activity (PA) in this population. Conclusion: Exercise avoidance motivation, influenced by weight stigma, may be a significant factor explaining the positive relationship between higher body weights with lower levels of physical activity.

4.
Prev Med Rep ; 10: 144-149, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29755933

RESUMO

Obesity is socially stigmatized in the U.S., especially for women. Significant research has focused on the role that the social and built environments of neighborhoods play in shaping obesity. However, the role of obesity in shaping neighborhood social structure has been largely overlooked. We test the hypothesis that large body size inhibits an individual's engagement in his or her neighborhood. Our study objectives are to assess if (1) body size (body mass index) interacts with gender to predict engagement in one's neighborhood (neighborhood engagement) and (2) if bonding social capital interacts with gender to predict neighborhood engagement independent of body size. We used data collected from the cross-sectional 2011 Phoenix Area Social Survey (PASS), which systematically sampled residents across four neighborhood types (core urban, urban fringe, suburban, retirement) across the Phoenix Metopolitian Area. Survey data was analyzed using logistic regression for 804 participants, including 35% for whom missing data was computed using multiple imputation. We found that as body size increases, women-but not men-have reduced engagement in their neighborhood, independent of bonding social capital and other key covariates (objective 1). We did not observe the interaction between gender and bonding social capital associated with neighborhood engagement (objective 2). Prior scholarship suggests obesity clusters in neighborhoods due to processes of social, economic, and environmental disadvantage. This finding suggests bi-directionality: obesity could, in turn, undermine neighborhood engagement through the mechanism of weight stigma and discrimination.

5.
Econ Hum Biol ; 29: 115-121, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29529400

RESUMO

For an industrialized nation, obesity rates in South Korea are extremely low. Yet, reflecting an extremely fat-averse, thin-positive society, efforts to lose weight are now reportedly very common. Since the 1980s, South Korea has experienced an increasingly flexible and insecure labor market which was exacerbated by the 1997 economic recession. In this social and economic setting, body shape and weight status, as human capital, may have gained significant bargaining power in the labor market. Consequently, we propose that Koreans, particularly those who are employed in "stable" jobs (i.e., non-manual and regular jobs), would increasingly engage in intense weight management and reduction activities even when not technically overweight or obese as a means to job security and upward mobility. Using nationally-representative data from the Korean Nutrition and Health Examination Survey (KNHANES), we identify the changing role of weight concerns versus actual body weight in predicting South Korean efforts to lose weight between 2001 (KNHANES-phase 1) and 2007-2009 (phase 4). The patterns were examined by occupation type (manual and non-manual jobs) and status (regular and non-regular jobs). Oaxaca decomposition analysis supported that people's perception of being "fat," rather than actual weight status, was crucial to explaining accelerated weight management efforts in South Korea over the decade (coef. = 0.062 and p-value < .0001 for male with regular work; coef. = 0.031 and p-value = .002 for female with regular work). Occupation status, rather than employment in itself, mattered. Job stability predicted increased effort; the pattern of change through time suggests efforts to invest high levels of effort in appearance positively impacts both employment opportunity and stability.

6.
Health Place ; 49: 19-29, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29156415

RESUMO

Relationships between food and physical activity (PA) environments and children's related behaviors are complex. Latent class analyses derived patterns from proximity to healthy and unhealthy food outlets, PA facilities and parks, and counts of residential dwellings and intersections. Regression analyses examined whether derived classes were related to food consumption, PA, and overweight among 404 low-income children. Compared to children living in Low PA-Low Food environments, children in High Intersection&Parks-Moderate Density&Food, and High Density-Low Parks-High Food environments, had significantly greater sugar-sweetened beverage consumption (ps<0.01) and overweight/obesity (ps<0.001). Children in the High Density-Low Parks-High Food environments were more likely to walk to destinations (p = 0.01) Recognizing and leveraging beneficial aspects of neighborhood patterns may be more effective at positively influencing children's eating and PA behaviors compared to isolating individual aspects of the built environment.

7.
Am J Hum Biol ; 30(2)2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29193610

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: High body mass index (BMI) often predicts truncated breastfeeding, although why is unclear. We test a proposed mediating role of body concerns on breastfeeding initiation and child's age at weaning using longitudinal data for 55,522 mothers from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). METHODS: A linear regression-based mediation analysis with bootstrapping estimates the indirect effects of BMI on breastfeeding decisions (ever-initiation of breastfeeding, child's age at weaning, and duration of any breastfeeding beyond six months) through the variables of concern around prepregnancy weight and weight gains due to pregnancy. RESULTS: Contrary to prediction, Norwegian mothers with greater prepregnancy weight concerns had a higher likelihood of initiating breastfeeding. Concerns about weight gain during pregnancy, however, predicted earlier weaning. This relationship was the same for higher and lower BMI mothers. CONCLUSION: In this very large sample, body image affects some breastfeeding decisions. However, this effect is independent of mother's body size.

8.
Am J Hum Biol ; 29(4)2017 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28161899

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Obesity consistently predicts depression risk, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Body concerns are proposed as key. South Korean society is characterized by extremely high levels of explicit weight stigma, possibly the highest globally. Using cross-sectional Korean 2014 National Health Examination Survey (KNHANES) data, we test this proposition in a nationally representative sample of South Korean adults (N = 5,632). METHODS: Depressive symptoms (outcome variable), was based on the PHQ-9. Weight status (predictor variable), was based on direct measures of height and weight converted to BMI. Weight concern was self-reported. Mediation analyses tested how weight concern mediated the influence of weight status on depressive symptoms for women and men. RESULTS: Current weight status influenced depressive symptoms in Korean adults, but not always directly. Concerns of being "fat" mediated that relationship. The effect increased significantly as BMI increased within "normal" and overweight/obese categories for women, and in overweight/obese categories for men. Even though women classified as underweight were significantly more depressed than those in other weight categories, there was no similar mediation effect related to weight concerns. CONCLUSION: For South Koreans, the stress of adhering to social norms and avoiding stigma related to body weight seems to explain the relationship between higher body weight and more depressive symptoms. Women are more vulnerable overall, but men are not immune. This study demonstrates that body concerns help explain why weight predicts depression, and more broadly supports the proposition that widespread weight-related stigma is a potentially major, if unrecognized, driver of population-level health disparities.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Depressão/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Peso Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
9.
Med Anthropol Q ; 31(2): 257-276, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27272066

RESUMO

Living with extreme weight in the United States is associated with discrimination and self-stigma, creating structural exclusions, embodied stress, and undermining health and wellbeing. Here we combine ethnographic interviews and surveys from those with experiences of living with extreme weight to better explain how this vulnerability is created and reinforced by public cues, both physical (e.g., seatbelts) and social (the reactions of strangers). "Misfitting" is a major theme in interviews, as is the need to plan and scan constantly while navigating too-small public spaces. The most distressing events combine physical misfitting with unsympathetic reactions from strangers. Sensitivity to stigmatizing public cues reduces with weight loss, but does not disappear. This study explains one basic mechanism that underlies the creation of felt stigma related to weight even after weight loss: the lack of accommodation for size and the lack of empathy from others that characterize modern urban spaces.


Assuntos
Obesidade/psicologia , Estigma Social , Adulto , Idoso , Antropologia Médica , Cirurgia Bariátrica , Peso Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/cirurgia , Logradouros Públicos
10.
Behav Brain Sci ; 40: e120, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29342583

RESUMO

The target article proposes the insurance hypothesis as an explanation for higher levels of obesity among food-insecure women living in high-income countries. An alternative hypothesis based on anti-fat discrimination in marriage can also account for such correlations between poverty and obesity and is more consistent with finer-grained analyses by marital status, gender, and age.

11.
Front Psychol ; 7: 1497, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27777562

RESUMO

Background: Weight-related stigma is reported frequently by higher body-weight patients in healthcare settings. Bariatric surgery triggers profound weight loss. This weight loss may therefore alleviate patients' experiences of weight-related stigma within healthcare settings. In non-clinical settings, weight-related stigma is associated with weight-inducing eating patterns. Dietary adherence is a major challenge after bariatric surgery. Objectives: (1) Evaluate the relationship between weight-related stigma and post-surgical dietary adherence; (2) understand if weight loss reduces weight-related stigma, thereby improving post-surgical dietary adherence; and (3) explore provider and patient perspectives on adherence and stigma in healthcare settings. Design: This mixed methods study contrasts survey responses from 300 postoperative bariatric patients with ethnographic data based on interviews with 35 patients and extensive multi-year participant-observation within a clinic setting. The survey measured experiences of weight-related stigma, including from healthcare professionals, on the Interpersonal Sources of Weight Stigma scale and internalized stigma based on the Weight Bias Internalization Scale. Dietary adherence measures included patient self-reports, non-disordered eating patterns reported on the Disordered Eating after Bariatric Surgery scale, and food frequencies. Regression was used to assess the relationships among post-surgical stigma, dietary adherence, and weight loss. Qualitative analyses consisted of thematic analysis. Results: The quantitative data show that internalized stigma and general experiences of weight-related stigma predict worse dietary adherence, even after weight is lost. The qualitative data show patients did not generally recognize this connection, and health professionals explained it as poor patient compliance. Conclusion: Reducing perceptions of weight-related stigma in healthcare settings and weight bias internalization could enhance dietary adherence, regardless of time since patient's weight-loss surgery.

12.
BMC Public Health ; 16: 664, 2016 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27473373

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple studies show that obesity and depression tend to cluster in women. An "appearance concern" pathway has been proposed as one basic explanation of why higher weights might lead to depression. The transition to motherhood is a life phase in which women's body image, weight, and depressive risk are in flux, with average weight increasing overall during this period. Examination of how these factors interact from pre- to post-pregnancy provides a means to test how body image plays a key role, as proposed, in causally shaping women's depressive risk. METHODS: Tracking 39,915 pregnant women in the Norwegian Mother and Child (MoBA) Cohort Study forward 36 months after their deliveries, we test the moderating and mediating effects of body image concerns on the emergence of new mothers' depressive symptoms by using a binary logistic regression model with a discrete-time event history approach and mediation analysis with bootstrapping. RESULTS: For women with high pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), weight gain heightens their depressive symptoms over time. Body image concerns mediate the association between weight gain and the development of depressive symptoms regardless of weight status. However, the mediation effect is more evident for women with higher pre-pregnancy BMI. Conversely, better body image is highly protective against the transition to mild or more severe depressive symptoms among new mothers, but only for women who were not classified as obese prior to their pregnancies. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support a role for body image concerns in the etiology of depressive symptoms during the transition to motherhood. The findings suggest body image interventions before or during pregnancy could help reduce risks of depression in the early postpartum period and well beyond.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal , Depressão Pós-Parto/prevenção & controle , Mães/psicologia , Obesidade/complicações , Ganho de Peso , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Depressão Pós-Parto/etiologia , Depressão Pós-Parto/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Serviços de Saúde Materno-Infantil , Noruega , Obesidade/psicologia , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 50(57): 7723-6, 2014 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24902002

RESUMO

Very thin microporous organic networks were formed on the surface of Fe3O4 nanospheres by Sonogashira coupling of tetra(4-ethynylphenyl)methane and 1,4-diiodobenzene. The thickness was controlled by screening the number of building blocks. Through carbonization, Fe3O4@C composites were prepared. The Fe3O4@C composites with 4-6 nm carbon thickness showed promising reversible discharge capacities of up to 807 mA h g(-1) and enhanced electrochemical stability.

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