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1.
J Immunotoxicol ; 17(1): 31-42, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013650

RESUMO

In the study here, the potential applicability of KMRC011 - an agonist of toll-like receptor-5 - as a countermeasure for radiation toxicities was evaluated. Following a single 5.5 Gy total body irradiation (TBI, surface absorbed dose = 7 Gy) of Co60 γ-rays, mortality rates and degrees of pathological lesions that developed over 80 days were compared in monkeys that received TBI only and a group that was injected once with KMRC011 (10 µg/kg) after TBI. Compared to the TBI-only hosts (80%), the death rate was significantly improved by the use of KMRC011 (40%), all deaths in both groups occurred in the period from Days 19-24 post-TBI. Further analysis of monkeys that survived until the end of the experiment showed that AST and ALT levels were elevated only in the TBI group, and that radiation-induced tissue damage was alleviated by the KMRC011 injection. Additionally, expression of cell death-related proteins was lower in tissues from the KMRC011-treated hosts than in those in the TBI-only group. Other measured parameters, including body weight, food uptake, and hematological values did not significantly differ between the two groups over the entire period. The results of this study, thus demonstrate that KMRC011 could potentially be used as a medical countermeasure for the treatment of acute radiation exposure.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31223325

RESUMO

Ssanghwa-tang (SHT), a traditional herbal formula, has been widely used to recover fatigue or consumptive disease after an illness. Along with much attention to herbal formula, the concerns about the safety and toxicity have arisen. To establish the safety information, SHT was administrated in Crl:CD Sprague Dawley rats at a daily dose of 0, 1000, 2000, and 5000 mg/kg for 4 weeks. During the test periods, we examined the mortality, clinical observation, body weight change, food consumption, organ weights, hematology, serum biochemistry, and urinalysis parameters. No changes of mortality and necropsy findings occurred in any of the groups during the experimental period. In either sex of rats treated with SHT at 5000 mg/kg/day, changes were observed in food intake, reticulocyte, total bilirubin, some urinalysis parameters, and relative organ weights. The results indicated that SHT did not induce toxic effects at a dose level up to 2000 mg/kg in rats. This dosage was considered no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) and was appropriate for a 13-week subchronic toxicity study.

3.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 240: 111913, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091465

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Gyejibokryeong-hwan is a traditional herbal medicine and is reported to have various pharmacological actions. Despite many reports of previous studies, there is limited scientific evidence concerning its safety and few drug-metabolism profiles to support the continued therapeutic application of Gyejibokryeong-hwan. AIM OF THE STUDY: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the acute and subacute toxicity profile of a Gyejibokryeong-hwan water extract (GBHW) in vivo, and its effects on the activities of drug-metabolizing enzymes in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Acute and subacute toxicity was evaluated by giving GBHW to rats. In a study of acute toxicity, the rats were given GBHW by single oral gavage administration at 0 and 5000 mg/kg. In a study of subacute toxicity, rats were given GBHW by oral gavage at 0, 1000, 2000, and 5000 mg/kg/day daily for 28 days. The activities of the major human microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP450) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) isozymes were investigated using fluorescence- and luminescence-based enzyme assays in vitro, respectively. RESULTS: GBHW did not cause any mortality in the study of acute toxicity. In the study of subacute toxicity, GBHW at more than 2000 mg/kg/day was observed with minor changes in the absolute and relative organ weight, hematology, serum biochemistry and urinalysis parameters in rats of either sex. However, these changes were not considered to be important toxicologically. GBHW moderately inhibited the activities of CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2E1, CYP3A4, and UGT1A1. CONCLUSIONS: Our present data suggest that GBHW does not cause toxicologically important adverse events at doses up to 2000 mg/kg/day in the 4-week repeated dose toxicity study and provide valuable information concerning its potential to interact with conventional medicine.


Assuntos
Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Glucuronosiltransferase/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda , Testes de Toxicidade Subaguda , Água/química
4.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 238: 111852, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30954616

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Yongdamsagan-tang, a traditional herbal formula, is used widely for the treatment of inflammatory and viral diseases. However, the safety of Yongdamsagan-tang has not been established. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the subacute toxicity of Yongdamsagan-tang water extract (YSTE) in Crl:CD Sprague Dawley rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated the subacute toxicity of YSTE in male and female Crl:CD Sprague Dawley rats (n = 5 per group). Rats were treated with YSTE at doses of 0, 1000, 2000 and 5000 mg/kg administered once a day by oral gavage for 4 weeks. RESULTS: There were no significant changes in mortality, body weight, food intake, serum biochemistry, or results of hematology and urinalysis after YSTE administration. However, all rats treated with 5000 mg/kg/day YSTE exhibited excessive salivation and discolored urine. Necropsy findings showed discoloration in the liver of both male (n = 1) and female (n = 3) rats treated with 5000 mg/kg/day YSTE, and an increase in the relative weights of kidney and liver was also found in male rats treated with 5000 mg/kg/day. In addition, decreases in serum creatinine, total bilirubin, alanine transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase were observed in male rats treated with 2000 or 5000 mg/kg/day YSTE. CONCLUSIONS: Abnormalities in some rats are considered to be independent of YSTE toxicity. Therefore, the results suggest that oral administration of YSTE in rats for 4 weeks is safe at doses of up to 5000 mg/kg/day.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Administração Oral , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Fosfatase Alcalina/sangue , Animais , Bilirrubina/sangue , Creatinina/sangue , Feminino , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/patologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Testes de Toxicidade Subaguda
5.
J Appl Toxicol ; 39(2): 294-304, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30277593

RESUMO

High-dose radiation-induced tissue damage is a major limiting factor in the medical application of nuclear technology. Herein, we tested 28-day repeated-dose toxicity of KMRC011, an agonist of toll-like receptor (TLR) 5, which is being developed as a medical countermeasure for radiation, using cynomolgus monkeys. KMRC011 (0.01, 0.02 or 0.04 mg/kg/day) was intramuscularly injected once daily for 4 weeks, and each two monkeys in both control and 0.04 mg/kg/day group were observed for an additional 2-week recovery period. There were no dose-related toxicological changes in mortality, clinical observations, body weight, food consumption, ophthalmological findings, electrocardiographs, coagulation, serum chemistry, organ weights, or urinalysis and urine chemistry. Although treatment-related changes, such as increased white blood cells, increased absolute and relative neutrophils, decreased relative lymphocytes and inflammatory lesions, were noted in the maximum dose group, these findings were not observed after the 2-week recovery period. Further, we considered that the kidneys and heart may be target organs of TLR5 agonists, as well as the spleen, and that autophagic signals can be triggered in tissue damage and the repair process. Importantly, accumulation of p62 protein, an indicator of autophagy, and a decrease of caveolin-1 protein, a regulator of TLR5 protein half-life, were found in both tissues from the highest dose group. Therefore, we conclude that the no-observed-adverse-effect level for KMRC011 may be greater than 0.04 mg/kg/day in male and female monkeys. Additionally, we propose that further studies are needed to identify the molecular signals, which are related to KMRC011-induced adverse effects.

6.
Small ; 14(49): e1803495, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30353995

RESUMO

KCrS2 is presented as a stable and high-rate layered material that can be used as a cathode in potassium-ion batteries. As far as it is known, KCrS2 is the only layered material with stoichiometric amounts of K+ , which enables coupling with a graphite anode for full-cell construction. Cr(III)/Cr(IV) redox in KCrS2 is also unique, because LiCrS2 and NaCrS2 are known to experience S2- /S2 2- redox. O3-KCrS2 is first charged to P3-K0.39 CrS2 and subsequently discharged to O'3-K0.8 CrS2 , delivering an initial discharge capacity of 71 mAh g-1 . The following charge/discharge (C/D) shows excellent reversibility between O'3-K0.8 CrS2 and P3-K0.39 CrS2 , retaining ≈90% of the initial capacity during 1000 continuous cycles. The rate performance is also noteworthy. A C/D rate increase of 100-fold (0.05 to 5 C) reduces the reversible capacity only by 39% (71 to 43 mAh g-1 ). The excellent cyclic stability and high rate performance are ascribed to the soft sulfide framework, which can effectively buffer the stress caused by K+ deinsertion/insertion. During the transformation between P3-K0.39 CrS2 and O'3-K0.8 CrS2 , the material resides mostly in the P3 phase, which minimizes the abrupt dimension change and allows facile K+ diffusion through spacious prismatic sites. Structural analysis and density functional theory calculations firmly support this reasoning.

7.
Lab Anim Res ; 34(1): 20-29, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29628973

RESUMO

C57BL/6N mice are inbred strains widely used in biomedical research. Hence, a large amount of basic data has been accumulated. However, in the field of histopathology, spontaneous data for relatively younger mice that are used more frequently are not yet abundant, in contrast to data for older mice and their neoplastic lesions. To acquire the essential background data required by various research and toxicological assessments, 120 mice of the C57BL/6N strain (10 and 13 weeks of age) were collected from two institutions (From Korea and Japan) and subjected to histopathological analyses of the major organs (liver, spleen, kidney, thymus, heart, testis, epididymis). The results showed significantly higher incidence of sperm granulomas in the epididymides (10-56%) of these mice, compared with that in other strains or species of lab animals. Upon closer inspection, oligospermia/clear cell hyperplasia, cellular debris, and tubular vacuolation were also observed in the epididymides with sperm granulomas. Moreover, diseased organs were significantly heavier than healthy ones. Immunohistochemical staining showed a significant increase in the chromatic figures of cysteine-dependent aspartate-directed proteases-3 (caspase-3) and cleaved-poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (c-PARP), and damages to the tubule due to spontaneous apoptosis, which may have led to the sperms leaking out of the tubule, causing the granuloma. To conclude, spontaneous sperm granuloma can occur in 10- and 13-week-old C57BL/6N mice and may thus affect the results of various studies using these mice. Therefore, sperm granuloma in epididymis needs to be carefully considered as an important factor when design the study using C57BL/6N.

8.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 3809, 2018 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29491446

RESUMO

Cortisol is a well-known endogenous glucocorticoid that serves as a stress indicator. It is normally released under stressful condition to warn about imminent danger and thus is critical for survival of the species. However, it is unclear how cortisol relates to cognitive process under physiological condition in high-order primates such as non-human primates (NHP). Here, we report that a slight but significant increase in blood cortisol level by mild stress is positively correlated with the cognitive function in cynomolgus monkey. We stimulated 3 groups of monkeys by viewing consecutive series of pictures of monkeys, pictures of humans, or animation still pictures. We first found that the blood cortisol level was significantly higher during the stimulation session and returned to normal after stimulation session. Among the three types of pictures, the monkeys which were stimulated with monkey pictures showed the most significant increase in cortisol level during stimulation. Furthermore, the monkeys showed significantly enhanced manipulation, suggesting that cortisol affected cognitive processes. Overall, our study demonstrates that visual stimulation both increases blood cortisol and enhances manipulating behavior. Therefore, unlike the common notion that cortisol is a stress indicator, our data supports that a mild increase of cortisol enhances cognition in NHP.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Cognição , Estimulação Luminosa , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Animais , Feminino , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Macaca fascicularis , Masculino , Estresse Psicológico/sangue
9.
J Neurosci Methods ; 295: 139-143, 2018 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29253576

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is challenging for researchers performing stereotactic procedures to transition from small animals to non-human primate (NHP) experiments. The NHP stereotactic atlas is based on ear-bar zero (EBZ), which is an anatomical reference frame that is not visible during surgery. Most current NHP stereotactic systems require high-cost MRI or CT imaging and complex computer processing to determine the stereotactic coordinates, limiting the procedure to those with significant expertise. NEW METHOD: We have designed a simplified adaptor consisting of a circular arc for coronal tilt, a carrier for electrodes or cannulas, and an anchor to attach the adaptor to a conventional stereotactic frame. Our adaptor allows easy identification of the EBZ with the help of an anchor notch, and provides digital distance sensors without the need for imaging data or computer processing. Our system enables the use of trajectories that avoid injury to important structures and vessels. RESULTS: We tested the accuracy of our system using simulated targeting with phantoms, and demonstrated sub-millimeter accuracy. Infusion of methylene blue also showed satisfactory staining in target structures deep in the brain. COMPARISON WITH EXISTING METHODS: This system does not require high-cost imaging and extra training to determine EBZ. Once EBZ is set automatically by the system itself, targeting is similar to that in small animal stereotactic procedure. CONCLUSION: Our simple adaptor will aid researchers who plan to conduct experiments involving stereotactic surgery in NHPs.


Assuntos
Primatas , Técnicas Estereotáxicas/instrumentação , Animais , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/cirurgia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Desenho de Equipamento , Macaca fascicularis , Imagens de Fantasmas , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/instrumentação
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29387129

RESUMO

Traditional herbal medicines have been used for centuries in Asian countries. However, recent studies have led to increasing concerns about the safety and toxicity of herbal prescriptions. Bojungikgi-tang (BJIGT), a herbal decoction, has been used in Korea to improve physical strength. To establish the safety information, BJIGT water extract was evaluated in a 4-week repeated-dose oral toxicity test in Crl:CD Sprague Dawley rats. BJIGT was orally administered in daily doses of 0, 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks via oral gavage in male and female rats. We examined the mortality, clinical signs, body weight change, food intake, organ weights, hematology, serum biochemistry, and urinalysis parameters. No significant changes were observed in mortality, clinical sings, body weight, food intake, organ weights, hematology, serum biochemistry, and urinalysis parameters between the control group and the BJIGT-treated groups in the rats of both sexes. The results indicate that BJIGT did not induce toxic effects at a dose level up to 2000 mg/kg in rats. Thus, this concentration is considered the nonobservable effect dose in rats and is appropriate for a 13-week subchronic toxicity study.

12.
Lab Anim Res ; 32(2): 79-86, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27382375

RESUMO

Nonhuman primates are increasingly used in biomedical research since they are highly homologous to humans compared to other rodent animals. However, there is limited reliable reference data of the clinical pathology parameters in cynomolgus monkeys, and in particular, only some coagulation and urinalysis parameters have been reported. Here, we reported the reference data of clinical chemical, hematological, blood coagulation, and urinalysis parameters in cynomolgus monkeys. The role of sex differences was analyzed and several parameters (including hematocrit, hemoglobin, red blood cell, blood urea nitrogen, total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine kinase, gamma-glutamyl tranferase, and lactate dehydrogenase) significantly differed between male and female subjects. In addition, compared to previous study results, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine kinase, and aspartate aminotransferase showed significant variation. Interstudy differences could be affected by several factors, including age, sex, geographic origin, presence/absence of anesthetics, fasting state, and the analytical methods used. Therefore, it is important to deliberate with the overall reference indices. In conclusion, the current study provides a comprehensive and updated reference data of the clinical pathology parameters in cynomolgus monkeys and provides improved assessment criteria for evaluating preclinical studies or biomedical research.

13.
Exp Neurobiol ; 25(1): 48-54, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26924933

RESUMO

Many researchers are using viruses to deliver genes of interest into the brains of laboratory animals. However, certain target brain cells are not easily infected by viruses. Moreover, the differential tropism of different viruses in monkey brain is not well established. We investigated the cellular tropism of lentivirus and adeno-associated virus (AAV) toward neuron and glia in the brain of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascularis). Lentivirus and AAV were injected into putamen of the monkey brain. One month after injection, monkeys were sacrificed, and then the presence of viral infection by expression of reporter fluorescence proteins was examined. Tissues were sectioned and stained with NeuN and GFAP antibodies for identifying neuronal cells or astrocytes, respectively, and viral reporter GFP-expressing cells were counted. We found that while lentivirus infected mostly astrocytes, AAV infected neurons at a higher rate than astrocytes. Moreover, astrocytes showed reactiveness when cells were infected by virus, likely due to virus-mediated neuroinflammation. The Sholl analysis was done to compare the hypertrophy of infected and uninfected astrocytes by virus. The lentivirus infected astrocytes showed negligible hypertrophy whereas AAV infected astrocytes showed significant changes in morphology, compared to uninfected astrocytes. In the brain of cynomolgus monkey, lentivirus shows tropism for astrocytes over neurons without much reactivity in astrocytes, whereas AAV shows tropism for neurons over glial cells with a significant reactivity in astrocytes. We conclude that AAV is best-suited for gene delivery to neurons, whereas lentivirus is the best choice for gene delivery to astrocytes in the brain of cynomolgus monkeys.

14.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther ; 343(2): 489-96, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22915769

RESUMO

ISIS 388626, a 2'-methoxyethyl (MOE)-modified antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) that targets human sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) mRNA, is in clinical trials for the management of diabetes. SGLT2 plays a pivotal role in renal glucose reabsorption, and inhibition of SGLT2 is anticipated to reduce hyperglycemia in diabetic subjects by increasing urinary glucose elimination. To selectively inhibit SGLT2 in the kidney, ISIS 388626 was designed as a "shortmer" ASO, consisting of only 12 nucleotides with two 2'-MOE-modified nucleotides at the termini. Mice and monkeys received up to 30 mg/kg/week ISIS 388626 via subcutaneous injection for 6 or 13 weeks. Dose-dependent decreases in renal SGLT2 mRNA expression were observed, which correlated with dose-related increases in glucosuria without concomitant hypoglycemia. There were no histologic changes in the kidney attributed to SGLT2 inhibition after 6 or 13 weeks of treatment. The remaining changes observed in these studies were typical of those produced in these species by the administration of oligonucleotides, correlated with high doses of ISIS 388626, and were unrelated to the inhibition of SGLT2 expression. The kidney contained the highest concentration of ISIS 388626, and dose-dependent basophilic granule accumulation in tubular epithelial cells of the kidney, which is evidence of oligonucleotide accumulation in these cells, was the only histologic change identified. No changes in kidney function were observed. These results revealed only readily reversible changes after the administration of ISIS 388626 and support the continued investigation of the safety and efficacy of ISIS 388626 in human trials.


Assuntos
Oligodesoxirribonucleotídeos/farmacologia , Oligonucleotídeos Antissenso/farmacologia , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose , Animais , Área Sob a Curva , Química Farmacêutica , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Eletrocardiografia/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Meia-Vida , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Injeções Subcutâneas , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Macaca fascicularis , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Oligodesoxirribonucleotídeos/farmacocinética , Oligodesoxirribonucleotídeos/toxicidade , Oligonucleotídeos Antissenso/farmacocinética , Oligonucleotídeos Antissenso/toxicidade , Farmacocinética , RNA Mensageiro/biossíntese , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Transportador 2 de Glucose-Sódio
15.
J Med Primatol ; 34(2): 96-100, 2005 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15860116

RESUMO

The effects of ketamine anesthesia on both hematological and serum biochemical variables were investigated in 19 male and 15 female cynomolgus monkeys. Blood samples were obtained from the cephalic vein within 30 minutes of an intramuscular injection of ketamine hydrochloride (10 mg/kg). Ketamine anesthesia caused a reduction in leukocyte counts and a significant reduction in lymphocytes percentages. Ketamine anesthesia also increased the serum activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and creatine phosphokinase (CPK), but reduced the serum concentrations of glucose, inorganic phosphate, sodium and potassium. The alterations of hematological and serum biochemical values will be discussed. These alterations should be considered when designing studies for and interpreting data from cynomolgus monkeys.


Assuntos
Anestesia/veterinária , Anestésicos Dissociativos/efeitos adversos , Ketamina/efeitos adversos , Macaca fascicularis/sangue , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Glicemia/análise , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Feminino , Contagem de Leucócitos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Fosfatos/sangue , Potássio/sangue , Sódio/sangue
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