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1.
J Neurointerv Surg ; 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32414888

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neuromuscular block (NMB) used during general anesthesia induces transient skeletal muscle paralysis, but patient movements during endovascular coiling still occur to some degree. Compared with moderate NMB, deep NMB may further improve the intervention condition during endovascular coiling for unruptured cerebral aneurysms; however, little research has focused on the angiographic image quality. METHODS: This prospective, randomized, double-blind clinical trial included 58 patients treated for unruptured cerebral aneurysms with endovascular coiling under general anesthesia. Patients were randomly allocated to either the deep NMB group (post-tetanic count 1 or 2) or the moderate NMB group (train-of-four 1 or 2). The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with a satisfactory intervention condition assessed by surgeons after the procedure using a 5-point intervention condition rating scale (ICRS) from 1 (unable to obtain image) to 5 (optimal); ICRS 5 was defined as satisfactory. RESULTS: There were significantly more cases of satisfactory intervention condition in the deep NMB group than in the moderate NMB group (82.1% vs 51.7%, p=0.015). The frequency of each ICRS score was significantly different between the groups (ICRS 5/4/3/2/1: 23/5/0/0/0 vs 15/9/2/3/0, p=0.035). The incidence of major patient movement requiring rescue muscle relaxant was 10.3% in the moderate NMB group and 0% in the deep NMB group (p=0.237). The drugs used to maintain hemodynamic stability were not significantly different between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Deep NMB improves the intervention condition during endovascular coiling by improving the image quality.

2.
Eur J Anaesthesiol ; 37(6): 466-473, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32332265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative sore throat and airway injuries are relatively common after double-lumen tube (DLT) intubation. OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to evaluate the effects of fibreoptic-guided advance of DLT on postoperative sore throat and airway injuries associated with intubation. DESIGN: A randomised controlled study. SETTING: Tertiary hospital, Seongnam, Korea, from January 2018 to January 2019. PATIENTS: One hundred twenty three patients undergoing one-lung ventilation with a left-side DLT were randomised into two groups: 62 in the conventional group and 61 in the fibreoptic-guided group. INTERVENTION: After entering the glottis, the DLT was rotated left 90° and advanced blindly into the left main bronchus in the conventional group. In the fibreoptic-guided group, DLT was advanced into the main bronchus under the guide of fibreoptic bronchoscope, which had been passed through the bronchial lumen and inserted into the left main bronchus. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was postoperative sore throat at 24 h after operation. The airway injuries were also examined using a bronchoscope during extubation. RESULTS: At postoperative 24 h, the fibreoptic-guided group showed lower pain score (P = 0.001) and lower incidence (risk ratio [95% CI]: 0.2 [0.1 to 0.5], P < 0.001) of sore throat, compared with the conventional group. Moreover, tracheal injury was more severe in the conventional group than in the fibreoptic group (P = 0.003). Vocal cord injuries also occurred less frequently in the fibreoptic-guided group (risk ratio [95% CI]: 0.4 [0.2 to 1.0], P = 0.036). CONCLUSION: The fibreoptic-guided advancement seems to reduce irritation to the airway, leading less postoperative complications. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, registration number: NCT03368599.

3.
HLA ; 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034888

RESUMO

HLA-B*54:01:08 differs from B*54:01:01 by a synonymous mutation at codon 228 in exon 4.

4.
Ann Lab Med ; 40(3): 232-237, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31858763

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic counseling (GC) provides many benefits, including the identification of patients appropriate for testing, patient education, and medical management. We evaluated the current status of and challenges faced by GC practitioners in Korean hospitals. METHODS: An electronic survey was designed and conducted in 52 certified laboratory physicians belonging to the Korean Society of Laboratory Medicine, from August to September 2018. The questionnaires addressed three main categories of information: (1) current status of GC in hospitals; (2) essential qualifications of GC practitioners; and (3) challenges and perspectives for GC. Fisher's exact test was applied to analyze categorical data. RESULTS: Among a total of 52 participants who initially responded, 12 (23.1%) were performing GC either by direct or indirect care. GC clinics were opened regularly for one (33.3%) or more than three sessions (25.0%) per week; most respondents spent more time for pre-visit activities than in-person visits, both for a initial visit patient and for a follow-up visit patient. All laboratory physicians provided genetic information to their patients. Most recommended family genetic testing when indicated (91.7%), discussed disease management (75.0%), and/or ordered additional genetic testing (58.3%), and some referred patients to other specialists (8.3%). CONCLUSIONS: Both patients and laboratory physicians concede the advantage of GC performed by clinical geneticists; however, the practice of GC involves several challenges and raises some concerns. The cost and support required to implement GC need to be addressed in order to provide qualified GC in Korea.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento Genético/psicologia , Médicos/psicologia , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , República da Coreia , Sociedades Médicas , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
JAMA Pediatr ; 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498380

RESUMO

Importance: Pediatric patients often encounter anxiety and distress in hospital settings, and virtual reality education, providing a vivid, immersive, and realistic experience, has been introduced to mitigate these anxiety responses. Objective: To evaluate whether virtual reality education for pediatric patients before chest radiography could reduce anxiety and distress in children and improve the radiographic process. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective randomized clinical trial was conducted in a tertiary academic hospital in Seongnam, Republic of Korea. Participants (n = 112) were children aged 4 to 8 years who underwent chest radiography between July 20, 2018, and September 11, 2018. Analysis was performed from October 2, 2018, to April 23, 2019. Interventions: Children were randomized to simple verbal instruction (control group) or 3-minute virtual reality education explaining the process of chest radiography in detail and leading to appropriate cooperation (virtual reality group). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was anxiety and distress among pediatric patients based on behavioral observations using the amended version of the Observational Scale of Behavioral Distress scale for radiology procedures (total score of 30, with a score <5 indicating less distressed and a score ≥5 indicating more distressed). Secondary outcomes were the need of parental presence, parental satisfaction score, procedure time, number of repeated images, and process difficulty score. Results: Of 99 children included in the final analysis, 50 (50.5%) were allocated to the control group (mean [SD] age, 5.6 [1.2] years; 26 boys [52.0%]) and 49 (49.5%) to the virtual reality group (mean [SD] age, 5.8 [1.3] years; 32 boys [65.3%]). The mean (SD) score for anxiety and distress (2.0 [3.7] vs 5.0 [6.1]; mean difference, 3.0 [95% CI, 1.0-5.0]; P = .004), need for parental presence (8 cases with parents present [16.3%] vs 18 cases with parents present [36.0%]), and mean (SD) procedure time (55.1 [21.6] seconds vs 75.0 [42.0] seconds) were lower in the virtual reality group than in the control group. The mean (SD) score for parental satisfaction (9.4 [1.4] vs 8.6 [2.0]) was higher in the virtual reality group than in the control group. Conclusions and Relevance: Virtual reality education before chest radiography improved the radiography experience among pediatric patients by reducing anxiety, distress, and procedure time while increasing parents' satisfaction. Trial Registration: UMIN Clinical Trials Registry: UMIN000030663.

6.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(15): 6806-6813, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Enzymatic hydrolysis and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) are common processing techniques in the extraction of active compounds from food materials. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of enzymatic hydrolysis combined with HHP treatments on ginsenoside metabolites in red ginseng. RESULTS: The yield and changes in the levels of polyphenol and ginsenoside were measured in red ginseng treated with commercial enzymes such as Ultraflo L, Viscozyme, Cytolase PCL5, Rapidase and Econase E at atmospheric pressure (0.1 MPa), 50 MPa, and 100 MPa. ß-Glucosidase activity of Cytolase was the highest at 4258.2 mg-1 , whereas Viscozyme showed the lowest activity at 10.6 mg-1 . Pressure of 100 MPa did not affect the stability or the activity of the ß-glucosidase. Treatment of red ginseng with Cytolase and Econase at 100 MPa significantly increased the dry weight and polyphenol content of red ginseng, compared with treatments at 0.1 MPa and 50 MPa (P < 0.05). The amounts of ginsenoside and ginsenoside metabolites derived from red ginseng processed using Cytolase were higher than those derived from red ginseng treated with the other enzymes. Treatment with Cytolase also significantly increased the skin and intestinal permeability of red ginseng-derived polyphenols. CONCLUSION: Cytolase could be useful as an enzymatic treatment to enhance the yield of bioactive compounds from ginseng under HHP. In addition, ginsenoside metabolites obtained by Cytolase hydrolysis combined with HHP are functional substances with increased intestinal and skin permeability. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Enzimas/química , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Ginsenosídeos/química , Ginsenosídeos/metabolismo , Panax/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Animais , Biocatálise , Hidrólise , Pressão Hidrostática , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Masculino , Panax/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Pele/metabolismo
8.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0212626, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30785932

RESUMO

Data concerning the human microbiota composition during Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile infection (CDI) using next-generation sequencing are still limited. We aimed to confirm key features indicating tcdB positive patients and compare the microbiota composition between subgroups based on toxin gene load (tcdB gene) and presence of significant diarrhea. Ninety-nine fecal samples from 79 tcdB positive patients and 20 controls were analyzed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Chao1 index for alpha diversity were calculated and principal coordinate analysis was performed for beta diversity using Quantitative Insights into Microbial Ecology (QIIME) pipeline. The mean relative abundance in each group was compared at phylum, family, and genus levels. There were significant alterations in alpha and beta diversity in tcdB positive patients (both colonizer and CDI) compared with those in the control. The mean Chao1 index of tcdB positive patients was significantly lower than the control group (P<0.001), whereas there was no significant difference between tcdB groups and between colonizer and CDI. There were significant differences in microbiota compositions between tcdB positive patients and the control at phylum, family, and genus levels. Several genera such as Phascolarctobacterium, Lachnospira, Butyricimonas, Catenibacterium, Paraprevotella, Odoribacter, and Anaerostipes were not detected in most CDI cases. We identified several changes in the microbiota of CDI that could be further evaluated as predictive markers. Microbiota differences between clinical subgroups of CDI need to be further studied in larger controlled studies.


Assuntos
Infecções por Clostridium/microbiologia , Clostridium difficile/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Clostridium difficile/isolamento & purificação , Diarreia/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Carga Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
9.
Pharm Biol ; 57(1): 65-73, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30707852

RESUMO

CONTEXT: γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter and it is well established that activation of GABAA receptors favours sleep. l-Theanine, a naturally occurring amino acid first discovered in green tea, is a well-known anti-anxiety supplement with proven relaxation benefits. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the potential synergistic sleep enhancement effect of GABA/l-theanine mixture. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pentobarbital-induced sleep test was applied to find proper concentration for sleep-promoting effect in ICR mice. Electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis was performed to investigate total sleeping time and sleep quality in normal SD rats and caffeine-induced awareness model. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was applied to investigate whether the sleep-promoting mechanism of GABA/l-theanine mixture involved transcriptional processes. RESULTS: GABA/l-theanine mixture (100/20 mg/kg) showed a decrease in sleep latency (20.7 and 14.9%) and an increase in sleep duration (87.3 and 26.8%) compared to GABA or theanine alone. GABA/l-theanine mixture led to a significant increase in rapid eye movement (REM) (99.6%) and non-REM (NREM) (20.6%) compared to controls. The use of GABA/l-theanine mixture rather than GABA or l-theanine alone restored to normal levels sleep time and quality in the arousal animal model. The administration of GABA/l-theanine led to increased expression of GABA and the glutamate GluN1 receptor subunit. CONCLUSIONS: GABA/l-theanine mixture has a positive synergistic effect on sleep quality and duration as compared to the GABA or l-theanine alone. The increase in GABA receptor and GluN1 expression is attributed to the potential neuromodulatory properties of GABA/l-theanine combination, which seems to affect sleep behaviour.


Assuntos
Glutamatos/farmacologia , Latência do Sono/efeitos dos fármacos , Sono de Ondas Lentas/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/farmacologia , Animais , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores de Glutamato/metabolismo
10.
IEEE J Biomed Health Inform ; 23(6): 2655-2660, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30640637

RESUMO

A virtual reality (VR) tour of the operating theatre could reduce preoperative anxiety by providing a realistic experience for children. This randomized clinical trial was designed to determine whether parental co-experience of preoperative VR tour through a mirroring display could further reduce preoperative anxiety. Eighty children scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia were randomly allocated into either the control or mirroring group. Children in the control group watched a 4-min immersive VR video showing the operating theatre and explaining the preoperative process, via a head mounted display. In the mirroring group, parents of children watched the same video through mirroring display concurrently while their child experienced the immersive VR tour. Preoperative anxiety and satisfaction score were measured. Eighty children completed the final analysis (control group = 40 and mirroring group = 40). Preoperative anxiety of children (p = 0.025) and parents (p = 0.009) were lower in the mirroring group compared with the control group. Parents' satisfaction in the mirroring group was significantly higher than those in the control group (p = 0.008). Parental co-experience of the VR tour with children through mirroring the display was effective in reducing preoperative anxiety in both children and parents.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Salas Cirúrgicas , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Realidade Virtual , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Ansiedade/terapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pais , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/psicologia
11.
J Clin Med ; 8(2)2019 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30691054

RESUMO

This study investigated the effectiveness of a lighted stylet during tracheal intubation with direct laryngoscopy. The study randomly assigned 284 patients undergoing general anesthesia to either the simple stylet (Group S) or lighted stylet (Group L) groups. In both groups, stylet-assisted intubation was performed with direct laryngoscopy. In group S, a simple stylet was used and removed when the tip of the endotracheal tube was thought to have passed the larynx. In Group L, a lighted stylet was used and removed after confirming transillumination of the suprasternal notch. The success rate at the first attempt, total intubation time, incidence of mucosal bleeding, and severity of postoperative sore throat were compared. Compared to a simple stylet, the lighted stylet significantly increased the success rate of tracheal intubation at the first attempt (128 (90%) vs. 140 (99%), p = 0.003, Groups S and L, respectively). The incidence of mucosal bleeding was significantly higher in Group S (35 (25%) vs. 19 (13%), p = 0.011, Groups S and L, respectively). The total intubation time and degree of postoperative sore throat were not significantly different between the two groups. A lighted stylet increased the success rate of tracheal intubation during stylet-assisted tracheal intubation with direct laryngoscopy.

12.
Anesth Analg ; 129(2): 500-506, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30113394

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During induction of general anesthesia, proper mask ventilation is crucial for supplying sufficient oxygen to unconscious patients. Midazolam has a relaxing effect on airway muscles. We hypothesized that sedative premedication with midazolam would facilitate mask ventilation during anesthetic induction. METHODS: Patients undergoing elective surgery under general anesthesia were randomized into 2 groups. The midazolam group received midazolam premedication at the reception area, 3 minutes before transfer to the operating room. Patients in the control group were treated with normal saline as a placebo. The primary outcome was difficulty of mask ventilation during induction, as evaluated using the Warters scales. RESULTS: A total of 97 patients completed the analysis: 49 in the control group and 48 in the midazolam group. The patients in the midazolam group showed a significantly lower mask ventilation difficulty score on the Warters scale than that of the control group (mean [standard deviation], 0.92 [1.13] vs 0.19 [0.57]; estimated difference [95% confidence interval], 0.73 [0.37-1.09]; P < .001). The incidence of difficult mask ventilation (≥2 Warters scale) was significantly lower in the midazolam group than in the control group (risk ratio [95% confidence interval], 0.15 [0.03-0.72]; P = .015). CONCLUSIONS: This randomized clinical trial demonstrated that midazolam premedication enhanced mask ventilation during induction of general anesthesia.


Assuntos
Anestesia Geral/instrumentação , Midazolam/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Neuromusculares/administração & dosagem , Pré-Medicação , Respiração Artificial/instrumentação , Adulto , Anestesia Geral/efeitos adversos , Esquema de Medicação , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Midazolam/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fármacos Neuromusculares/efeitos adversos , Pré-Medicação/efeitos adversos , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , Seul , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
13.
Paediatr Anaesth ; 29(1): 98-105, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30365231

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: An immersive virtual reality tour of the operating theater could reduce preoperative anxiety. This study was designed to determine whether a preoperative immersive virtual reality tour demonstrates a reduction in emergence delirium through reducing the preoperative anxiety in children undergoing general anesthesia. METHODS: Eighty-six children were randomly allocated into either the control or virtual reality group. The control group received conventional education regarding the perioperative process. The virtual reality group watched a 4-minute virtual reality video showing the operating theater and explaining the perioperative process. Incidence and severity of emergence delirium were the main outcomes. Secondary outcomes included preoperative anxiety using modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale and postoperative behavioral disturbance. RESULTS: Eighty children completed the final analysis (control group = 39, virtual reality group = 41). The incidence (risk ratio [95% CI]: 1.1 [0.5-2.8], P = 0.773) and severity of emergence delirium (mean difference [95% CI]: -0.2 [-2.7 to 2.2], P = 0.791) were similar in the two groups. After the intervention, children in the virtual reality group had a significantly lower modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety score than those in the control group (mean difference [95% CI]: 9.2 [0.3-18.2], P = 0.022). No difference was observed regarding postoperative behavioral disturbance between the two groups at postoperative 1 day (mean difference [95% CI]: -0.1 [-0.3 to 0.1], P = 0.671) and 14 day (mean difference [95% CI]: -0.0 [-0.1 to 0.0], P = 0.329). CONCLUSION: Preoperative immersive virtual reality tour of the operating theater did not reduce the incidence and severity of emergence delirium, although it was effective in alleviating preoperative anxiety in children.


Assuntos
Anestesia Geral/métodos , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Delírio do Despertar/prevenção & controle , Realidade Virtual , Anestesia Geral/psicologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Delírio do Despertar/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/psicologia , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/psicologia , Estudos Prospectivos
14.
Food Sci Biotechnol ; 27(6): 1599-1605, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30483423

RESUMO

This study evaluated the applicability of isomaltulose as a sucrose substitute in the osmotic extraction of Prunus mume fruit juice. Isomaltulose (20 mM) significantly reduced the uptake of a fluorescent tracer-2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diaxol-4-yl) amino]-2-deoxyglucose. Juice extracted by isomaltulose had similar pH and titratable acidity values to those of the other sugars. Citric and malic acids were the main organic acids in the extracted juices. The radical-scavenging ability of the plum juice extracted by isomaltulose was significantly higher than in juices extracted by other sugars (p < 0.05) and polyphenols content of the juice was also significantly higher than those of other sugars. The blood glucose level of P. mume juice extracted by fructose or isomaltulose was increased slowly compared to the juice extracted by sucrose. Therefore, the use of isomaltulose or an isomaltulose mixture in the manufacture of P. mume juice will help maintain health by reducing sugar intake.

15.
J Clin Med ; 7(9)2018 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30227602

RESUMO

The use of gamification in healthcare has been gaining popularity. This prospective, randomized, clinical trial was designed to evaluate whether gamification of the preoperative process-via virtual reality (VR) gaming that provides a vivid, immersive and realistic experience-could reduce preoperative anxiety in children. Seventy children scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia were randomly divided into either the control or gamification group. Children in the control group received conventional education regarding the preoperative process, whereas those in the gamification group played a 5 min VR game experiencing the preoperative experience. Preoperative anxiety, induction compliance checklist (ICC), and procedural behavior rating scale (PBRS) were measured. Sixty-nine children were included in the final analysis (control group = 35, gamification = 34). Preoperative anxiety (28.3 [23.3⁻36.7] vs. 46.7 [31.7⁻51.7]; p < 0.001) and intraoperative compliance measured using ICC (p = 0.038) were lower in the gamification group than in the control group. However, PBRS (p = 0.092) and parent/guardian satisfaction (p = 0.268) were comparable between the two groups. VR experience of the preoperative process could reduce preoperative anxiety and improve compliance during anesthetic induction in children undergoing elective surgery and general anesthesia.

16.
Food Sci Biotechnol ; 27(3): 781-788, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30263804

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to compare the beneficial effects of galactooligosaccharide (GOS), lactulose, and a complex-oligosaccharide composed with GOS and lactulose (Com-oligo) on loperamide-induced constipation in SD rats. Rats were randomly divided into the following eight groups: the normal group (Nor); constipation control group (Con); and 6 constipation groups fed low and high doses of GOS, lactulose (Lac), and Com-oligo, respectively. Com-oligo increased intestinal transit ratio and relieved constipation in loperamide-treated rats. The group receiving a high dose of Com-oligo favorably regulated gastrointestinal functions such as pellet number, weight, moisture content, short chain fatty acid, intestinal transit ratio, and bifidobacterium number in constipated rats. In addition, Com-oligo restored peristalsis of the small intestine, morphology of colon, and increased interstitial cells of Cajal area. Thus, providing Com-oligo as an oligosaccharide ingredient in nutritional formulas could benefit the health of the gastrointestinal tract.

17.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 41(8): 1269-1276, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30068876

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of romaine lettuce leaves extract (RE), skullcap root extract (SE) and their mixture on sleep behaviors in vertebrate models. HPLC analysis showed that RE contains lactucopicrin (0.02±0.01 mg/g extract), chlorogenic acid (4.05±0.03 mg/g extract), caffeic acid (2.38±0.03 mg/g extract), and chicoric acid (7.02±0.32 mg/g extract) as main phenolic compounds, while SE includes baicalin (99.4±0.5 mg/g extract), baicalein (8.28±0.21 mg/g extract), and wogonin (3.09±0.32 mg/g extract). The mixture of RE (100 mg/g extract) and SE (40 mg/g extract) increased total sleep time by 50.9% compared with the control in pentobarbital-induced sleep model. In electroencephalography (EEG) analysis, RE/SE mixture significantly increased Non-Rapid Eye Movement (NREM), in which delta wave was enhanced by around 40% compared with normal control, leading to the increase of sleep time. In caffeine-induced wake model, RE/SE mixture greatly decreased (53%) caffeine-induced wake time, showing a similar level to normal control. In addition, caffeine-induced decreased of NREM and delta wave effectively increased with RE/SE mixture; NREM and delta wave increased by 85% and 108%, respectively. Furthermore, RE/SE mixture was shown to bind to a gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA)-benzodiazepine (BZD) receptor stronger than RE or SE single extract. Taken together, RE/SE mixture effectively improved sleep behavior with the increase of NREM via GABAA-BZD receptor binding. RE/SE mixture can be used as an herbal agent for sleep disorders.


Assuntos
Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Alface , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Scutellaria , Sono/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Cafeína , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/análise , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores de GABA-A/metabolismo , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/induzido quimicamente , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/tratamento farmacológico
18.
Lipids Health Dis ; 17(1): 162, 2018 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30021606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Krill (Euphausia superba) is a small marine crustacean with a lipid content. The mechanism of Krill oil function is not clear yet and research reports on the absorption rate of the phospholipids of krill oil in the blood and brain are very poor. METHODS: We studied the effect of oral short-term and long-term administration of Krill oils (KOs) on bioavailability in the blood and brain of rats. For short-term testing of fish and KO bioavailability, rats were divided into four groups: normal, fish oil (FO), Krill oil 1 (KO), and Krill oil 2 (CKO). The blood and brain were collected at 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 h after oral administration (1000 mg/rat). Five hundred milligrams of FO, KO, and CKO were orally administered daily for 2 weeks for long-term administration, and then the brain and blood were collected. RESULTS: Two types of KOs showed high content of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the PL. The EPA content of CKO and KO were 41.13 and 32.49%, respectively. After short-term KO administration, KO showed a higher EPA content than CKO in the blood after 2 h. KO showed higher content of DHA than CKO even after 2 h. FO increased until 8 h, but then decreased rapidly until 12 h. Although the total unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) content of KOs was lower than the total UFS content in FO, the remaining UFS content in the brain was higher than that in FO over time. Following oral administration of FO, KO, and CKO for 1 and 2 weeks, triglycerides (TG) and PL contents in the blood for KOs were slightly higher than for FO. EPA and DHA levels in the brain were slightly higher in KOs following long-term administration, but the difference was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: Base on these findings, KOs have functional potential for the brain and vascular diseases, and can be utilized as a multi-functional material composed mainly of functional ingredients.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/sangue , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/sangue , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/sangue , Euphausiacea/química , Óleos de Peixe/sangue , Administração Oral , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Química Encefálica , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Óleos de Peixe/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Fosfolipídeos/sangue , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Triglicerídeos/sangue
19.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 99: 913-920, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29710491

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the beneficial effect of Valerian/Cascade mixture on sleeping in mammal models. In pentobarbital-induced sleep model, Valerian, Cascade, and Valerian/Cascade mixture significantly reduced the latency time for sleeping, and total sleeping time effectively increased in these sample groups compared with the control. Valerian/Cascade mixture increased sleep duration by 37%. The mixture significantly increased the non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep time by 53% compared with the control, while REM sleeping time was decreased by 33% with Valerian/Cascade mixture, in Electroencephalography (EEG) analysis, resulting in the increase of total sleep time and the decrease of awakening. This sleep-promoting effect was obvious in caffeine-induced awakening model; Valerian, Cascade, and the mixture significantly enhanced NREM and total sleep time, which were reduced by caffeine. Caffeine-induced increase of awakening was effectively deceased to the normal level by these three samples. In particular, delta wave responsible for deep sleep in NREM was greatly increased by the mixture in both normal and caffeine-induced awake models. This sleep-promoting effect of Valerian/Cascade mixture was shown to be due to the upregulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor (GABAAR). Valerian/Cascade mixture showed 91% binding capacity to GABAA-BZD receptor. Two compounds, Valerenic acid and Xanthohumol, were shown to significantly contribute to the binding activity of Valerian/Cascade mixture on the GABA receptor.


Assuntos
Humulus/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sono/efeitos dos fármacos , Valeriana/química , Animais , Cafeína/farmacologia , Eletroencefalografia , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/isolamento & purificação , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores de GABA-A/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de GABA-A/metabolismo , Fases do Sono/efeitos dos fármacos , Sono REM/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Neurol Res ; 40(7): 600-606, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29583107

RESUMO

Objective To investigate the effects of morphine on microglial phagocytosis during neuroinflammation. Methods C8-B4 mouse microglial cells were exposed to various concentrations of morphine after the stimulation with lipopolysaccharide and interferon-γ and then fluorescent immunostaining was performed to assess the percentage of microglia that engulfed fluorescent microspheres in total microglia. Naloxone, ß funaltrexamine, or naltrindole was used with 1 µM morphine to assess the involvement of specific opioid receptor. P38 and phosphorylated p38 were determined by Western blotting. A p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activator (anisomycin 0.1 µM) or inhibitor (SB 203580, 20 µM) was used to determine the involvement of p38 MAPK pathway. Results Morphine decreased lipopolysaccharide and interferon-γ-induced microglial engulfment except the highest concentration (10 µM) and both naloxone and naltrindole (a selective δ opioid receptor antagonist) attenuated morphine effect (p < 0.001). The phosphorylated p38 was up-regulated in lipopolysaccharide and interferon-γ group compared with control group (p < 0.001). This up-regulation was decreased by 1 µM morphine (p < 0.001). However, naltrindole abolished this morphine effect (p = 0.015). SB203580 blocked the increased microglial engulfment induced by lipopolysaccharide and interferon-γ (p < 0.001); whereas, anisomycin enhanced the morphine-induced decrease of engulfment (p < 0.001). Conclusion Morphine reduced mouse microglial engulfment induced by lipopolysaccharide and interferon-γ. This morphine effect seems to be mediated by δ opioid receptor and via p38 MAPK inhibition.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/farmacologia , Interferon gama/farmacologia , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Morfina/farmacologia , Receptores Opioides delta/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Anisomicina/farmacologia , Células Cultivadas , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ativadores de Enzimas , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Camundongos , Naloxona/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/farmacologia , Piridinas/farmacologia
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