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1.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2021: 2298215, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34912443

RESUMO

Slime mould algorithm (SMA) is a population-based metaheuristic algorithm inspired by the phenomenon of slime mould oscillation. The SMA is competitive compared to other algorithms but still suffers from the disadvantages of unbalanced exploitation and exploration and is easy to fall into local optima. To address these shortcomings, an improved variant of SMA named MSMA is proposed in this paper. Firstly, a chaotic opposition-based learning strategy is used to enhance population diversity. Secondly, two adaptive parameter control strategies are proposed to balance exploitation and exploration. Finally, a spiral search strategy is used to help SMA get rid of local optimum. The superiority of MSMA is verified in 13 multidimensional test functions and 10 fixed-dimensional test functions. In addition, two engineering optimization problems are used to verify the potential of MSMA to solve real-world optimization problems. The simulation results show that the proposed MSMA outperforms other comparative algorithms in terms of convergence accuracy, convergence speed, and stability.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Simulação por Computador
2.
Br J Hosp Med (Lond) ; 82(11): 1-3, 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34817263
3.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2021: 9210050, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34721567

RESUMO

In this paper, a novel swarm-based metaheuristic algorithm is proposed, which is called tuna swarm optimization (TSO). The main inspiration for TSO is based on the cooperative foraging behavior of tuna swarm. The work mimics two foraging behaviors of tuna swarm, including spiral foraging and parabolic foraging, for developing an effective metaheuristic algorithm. The performance of TSO is evaluated by comparison with other metaheuristics on a set of benchmark functions and several real engineering problems. Sensitivity, scalability, robustness, and convergence analyses were used and combined with the Wilcoxon rank-sum test and Friedman test. The simulation results show that TSO performs better compared to other comparative algorithms.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Simulação por Computador , Benchmarking , Engenharia
4.
ACS Omega ; 6(43): 28587-28597, 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34746554

RESUMO

To reduce the cost of synthetic organic corrosion inhibitors in corrosion protection, dye wastewater exhibiting a synergistic effect is used with organic corrosion inhibitors to reduce the amount of high-cost molecules. The corrosion inhibition effects of the cationic dye methylene blue (MB) and the anionic dye methyl orange (MO) are tested. The test methods include electrochemical methods, weight-loss tests, and so on. MB exhibits better performance on the tested steel, with the anticorrosion efficiency reaching as high as 75.40%, which is chosen as an additive for organic corrosion inhibitors. After that, an organic inhibitor decamethylene bis-pyridinium dibromide (DBP) is selected for compounding with MB, and the corrosion inhibition effect under different ratios is tested. Similar effects of the compound inhibitor to the pristine sample are obtained at a ratio of MB/DBP = 6:4. In addition to experiments, theoretical calculations have also confirmed that the addition of dye molecules can inhibit corrosion. This research not only provides a way to reuse dye wastewater but also proposes measures to reduce the cost of organic corrosion inhibitors and, at the same time, provides new ideas for environmental protection and metal protection.

5.
Cancer Cell Int ; 21(1): 599, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34758833

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The high potential for tumor recurrence and chemoresistance is a major challenge of clinical gastric cancer treatment. Increasing evidence suggests that the presence of tumor initiating cells (TICs) is the principal cause of tumor recurrence and chemoresistance. However, the underlying mechanism of TIC development remains controversial. METHODS: To identify novel molecular pathways in gastric cancer, we screened the genomic expression profile of 155 gastric cancer patients from the TCGA database. We then described an improved 3D collagen I gels and tested the effects of collagen on the TIC phenotype of gastric cells using colony formation assay, transwell assay, and nude mouse models. Additionally, cell apoptosis assay was performed to examine the cytotoxicity of 5-fluorine and paclitaxel on gastric cancer cells cultured in 3D collagen I gels. RESULTS: Elevated expression of type I collagen was observed in tumor tissues from high stage patients (stage T3-T4) when compared to the low stage group (n=10, stage T1-T2). Furthermore, tumor cells seeded in a low concentration of collagen gels acquired TIC-like phenotypes and revealed enhanced resistance to chemotherapeutic agents, which was dependent on an integrin ß1 (ITGB1)/Y-box Binding Protein 1 (YBX1)/Secreted Phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1)/NF-κB signaling pathway. Importantly, inhibition of ITGB1/NF-κB signaling efficiently reversed the chemoresistance induced by collagen and promoted anticancer effects in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrated that type I collagen promoted TIC-like phenotypes and chemoresistance through ITGB1/YBX1/SPP1/NF-κB pathway, which may provide novel insights into gastric cancer therapy.

6.
New Phytol ; 232(6): 2400-2417, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618923

RESUMO

Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MPK) is a critical regulator of the antioxidant defence system in response to various stimuli. However, how MPK directly and exactly regulates antioxidant enzyme activities is still unclear. Here, we demonstrated that a NAC transcription factor ZmNAC49 mediated the regulation of antioxidant enzyme activities by ZmMPK5. ZmNAC49 expression is induced by oxidative stress. ZmNAC49 enhances oxidative stress tolerance in maize, and it also reduces superoxide anion generation and increases superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. A detailed study showed that ZmMPK5 directly interacts with and phosphorylates ZmNAC49 in vitro and in vivo. ZmMPK5 directly phosphorylates Thr-26 in NAC subdomain A of ZmNAC49. Mutation at Thr-26 of ZmNAC49 does not affect the interaction with ZmMPK5 and its subcellular localisation. Further analysis found that ZmNAC49 activates the ZmSOD3 expression by directly binding to its promoter. ZmMPK5-mediated ZmNAC49 phosphorylation improves its ability to bind to the ZmSOD3 promoter. Thr-26 of ZmNAC49 is essential for its transcriptional activity. In addition, ZmSOD3 enhances oxidative stress tolerance in maize. Our results show that phosphorylation of Thr-26 in ZmNAC49 by ZmMPK5 increased its DNA-binding activity to the ZmSOD3 promoter, enhanced SOD activity and thereby improved oxidative stress tolerance in maize.

7.
Nat Hum Behav ; 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34711977

RESUMO

Urbanicity is a growing environmental challenge for mental health. Here, we investigate correlations of urbanicity with brain structure and function, neuropsychology and mental illness symptoms in young people from China and Europe (total n = 3,867). We developed a remote-sensing satellite measure (UrbanSat) to quantify population density at any point on Earth. UrbanSat estimates of urbanicity were correlated with brain volume, cortical surface area and brain network connectivity in the medial prefrontal cortex and cerebellum. UrbanSat was also associated with perspective-taking and depression symptoms, and this was mediated by neural variables. Urbanicity effects were greatest when urban exposure occurred in childhood for the cerebellum, and from childhood to adolescence for the prefrontal cortex. As UrbanSat can be generalized to different geographies, it may enable assessments of correlations of urbanicity with mental illness and resilience globally.

8.
Front Neurol ; 12: 697487, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34566843

RESUMO

Background: Olfactory functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of responses to a pleasant odor (PO) (lavender) can objectively evaluate olfactory dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. The brain responses to a PO and unpleasant odor (UPO) were shown to differ in normal young people. Whether AD patients with olfactory dysfunction have the same brain response is not yet known. Objective: Our aim was to explore whether olfactory fMRI with both a PO and UPO can provide more information regarding olfactory impairment in AD than a PO alone. Methods: Twenty-five normal controls (NC), 26 individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 22 AD patients underwent olfactory fMRI with lavender and pyridine odorants at three concentrations (0.10, 0.33, and 1.00%) with a 3.0-T MRI scanner. Results: There were no differences in the number of activated voxels in the primary olfactory cortex (POC) between PO and UPO conditions in the NC, MCI, and AD groups (SPM, paired t-test, uncorrected p < 0.001, extent threshold = 70). In the right inferior frontal gyrus, orbital part (F3O), the number of activated voxels was greater with the UPO than with the PO in the NC group (SPM, paired t-test, uncorrected p < 0.001, extent threshold = 70), but there were no differences in the MCI and AD groups. Regardless of PO or UPO conditions, there were significant differences in the number of activated voxels in the POC among the NC, MCI, and AD groups. With increasing odor concentration, the number of activated voxels in the POC decreased in the NC group but increased in the AD group. When 0.10% UPO was presented, the NC group (21/25) showed a lower breathing amplitude and shorter inhalation time, whereas the AD patients (0/22) did not show such changes in breathing. Conclusions: After PO and UPO inhalation, brain activation and respiratory behavior in AD patients were significantly different than in NC patients. Therefore, olfactory fMRI using both PO and UPO stimulation, compared with PO stimulation only, can provide more objective information regarding hyposmia associated with AD based on imaging and behavior.

9.
Phytochemistry ; 192: 112939, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536803

RESUMO

The Cephalotaxus genus is well-known owing to the numerous complex, biologically relevant natural products that can be obtained from its constituent species. The successful identification of various Cephalotaxus alkaloids and natural, structurally diverse cephalotane diterpenoids that exhibit antitumor activities and excellent pharmacological properties has encouraged the discovery of previously undescribed compounds from this genus. The present review summarizes the different strategies for the total synthesis of cephalotane diterpenoids as well as their diverse chemical structures, antitumor activities, structure-activity relationships (SARs), and biosynthetic pathways.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos , Produtos Biológicos , Cephalotaxus , Diterpenos , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
10.
J Immunol Res ; 2021: 6439975, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34541005

RESUMO

In this study, a comprehensive analysis of TNF family members in colorectal cancer (CRC) was conducted and a TNF family-based signature (TFS) was generated to predict prognosis and immunotherapy response. Using the expression data of 516 CRC patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, TNF family members were screened to construct a TFS by using the univariate Cox proportional hazards regression and the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator- (LASSO-) Cox proportional hazards regression method. The TFS was then validated in a meta-Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) cohort (n = 1162) from the GEO database. Additionally, the tumor immune characteristics and predicted responses to immune checkpoint blockade in TFS-based risk subgroups were analyzed. Eight genes (TNFRSF11A, TNFRSF10C, TNFRSF10B, TNFSF11, TNFRSF25, TNFRSF19, LTBR, and NGFR) were used to construct the TFS. Compared to the high-risk patients, the low-risk patients had better overall survival, which was verified by the GEO data. In addition, a high TFS risk score was associated with high infiltration of regulatory T cells (Tregs), nonactivated macrophages (M0), natural killer cells, immune escape phenotypes, poor immunotherapy response, and tumorigenic and metastasis-related pathways. Conversely, a low TFS risk score was related to high infiltration of resting CD4 memory T cells and resting dendritic cells, few immune escape phenotypes, and high sensitivity to immunotherapy. Thus, the eight gene-based TFS is a promising index to predict the prognosis, immune characteristics, and immunotherapy response in CRC, and our results also provide new understanding of the role of the TNF family members in the prognosis and treatment of CRC.

11.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 46(7): 631-4, 2021 Jul 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34369687

RESUMO

In the randomized controlled clinical trials of acupuncture, the setting of the control group (sham acupuncture) directly affected the interpretations about their outcomes (beyond placebo), and has been being the hot spot and difficult problem. In the present paper, we discussed various types of sham acupuncture (invade and non-invade needling) commonly used nowadays and made an in-depth analysis on the factors contributing to the successful blinding to patients with episodic migraine without aura in a clinical study published in British Medical Journal (2020, 368:m697). Moreover, we put forward some thoughts on how to optimize the setting of sham acupuncture in the treatment of pain diseases. These thoughts are 1) setting different placebo control group for different types of pain, 2) selecting conventional acupoints not associated with the disease, 3) selecting the most sui-table type of placebo acupuncture through pre-tests, 4) choosing the distal non-meridian and non-acupoint not in the same neuronal segment with the pain locus when using non-invade consolation needling, 5) trying best to reduce the patients' doubts about placebo acupuncture operation, 6) selecting subjects with little or without acupuncture experience for multicenter studies, and 7) trying best to select objective indicators and to avoid the subjects' report bias when evaluating the effects of acupuncture and consolation acupuncture.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Acupuntura , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Pontos de Acupuntura , Humanos , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/terapia
12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4952, 2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34400649

RESUMO

Heterojunctions modulated internal electric field (IEF) usually result in suboptimal efficiencies in carrier separation and utilization because of the narrow IEF distribution and long migration paths of photocarriers. In this work, we report distinctive bismuth oxyhydroxide compound nanorods (denoted as BOH NRs) featuring surface-exposed open channels and a simple chemical composition; by simply modifying the bulk anion layers to overcome the limitations of heterojunctions, the bulk IEF could be readily modulated. Benefiting from the unique crystal structure and the localization of valence electrons, the bulk IEF intensity increases with the atomic number of introduced halide anions. Therefore, A low exchange ratio (~10%) with halide anions (I-, Br-, Cl-) gives rise to a prominent elevation in carrier separation efficiency and better photocatalytic performance for benzylamine coupling oxidation. Here, our work offers new insights into the design and optimization of semiconductor photocatalysts.

13.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 23(7): 702-706, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34266527

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study whether there are differences in the resuscitation process and early outcomes between the extremely preterm infants delivered on off-hours (6 pm to 8 am of working days, weekends, and national holidays) and those delivered on working hours. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on the medical data of extremely preterm infants who were born in the Peking University Third Hospital from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2020 and transferred to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). According to the time of birth, they were divided into two groups:working hours (n=77) and off-hours (n=98). The resuscitation process and early outcomes were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: Compared with the working hours group, the off-hours group had a significantly lower proportion of infants with the use of full-dose dexamethasone before delivery (P < 0.05) and a significantly higher proportion of infants with a 1-minute Apgar score of < 7, positive pressure ventilation, or tracheal intubation (P < 0.05). The incidence rates of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome and intrauterine pneumonia in the off-hours group were significantly higher than those in the working hours group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Extremely preterm infants delivered on off-hours tend to have a low Apgar score at 1 minute after birth, with a higher proportion of infants requiring positive pressure ventilation or tracheal intubation during resuscitation than those delivered on working hours, and they tend to develop neonatal respiratory distress syndrome and intrauterine pneumonia. This suggests that it is important to make adequate preparations in terms of personnel and supplies for resuscitation of extremely preterm infants after birth and that NICUs should develop a detailed management plan for extremely preterm infants at each period of time before, during, and after birth.


Assuntos
Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Ressuscitação , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 794, 2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238250

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Enhancer RNAs (eRNAs) are demonstrated to be closely associated with tumourigenesis and cancer progression. However, the role of eRNAs in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) remains largely unclear. Thus, a comprehensive analysis was constructed to identify the key eRNAs, and to explore the clinical utility of the identified eRNAs in LUAD. METHODS: First, LUAD expression profile data from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset and eRNA-relevant information were integrated for Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Spearman's correlation analysis to filtered the key candidate eRNAs that was associated with survival rate and their target genes in LUAD. Then, the key eRNA was selected for subsequent clinical correlation analysis. KEGG pathway enrichment analyses were undertaken to explore the potential signaling pathways of the key eRNA. Data from the human protein atlas (HPA) database were used to validate the outcomes and the quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis was conducted to measure eRNA expression levels in tumor tissues and paired normal adjacent tissues from LUAD patients. Finally, the eRNAs were validated in pan-cancer. RESULTS: As a result, TBX5-AS1 was identified as the key eRNA, which has T-box transcription factor 5 (TBX5) as its regulatory target. KEGG analysis indicated that TBX5-AS1 may exert a vital role via the PI3K/AKT pathway, Ras signaling pathway, etc. Additionally, the qRT-PCR results and the HPA database indicated that TBX5-AS1 and TBX5 were significantly downregulated in tumour samples compared to matched-adjacent pairs. The pan-cancer validation results showed that TBX5-AS1 was associated with survival in four tumors, namely, adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC), LUAD, lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC), and uterine corpus endometrial carcinoma (UCEC). Correlations were found between TBX5-AS1 and its target gene, TBX5, in 26 tumor types. CONCLUSION: Collectively, our results indicated that TBX5-AS1 may be a potential prognostic biomarker for LUAD patients and promote the targeted therapy of LUAD.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Proteínas com Domínio T/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Prognóstico
15.
Neuroradiol J ; : 19714009211026920, 2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34159814

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The trend of atherosclerotic plaque feature evolution is unclear in stroke patients with and without recurrence. We aimed to use three-dimensional whole-brain magnetic resonance vessel wall imaging to quantify the morphological changes of causative lesions during medical therapy in patients with symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic disease. METHODS: Patients with acute ischemic stroke attributed to intracranial atherosclerotic disease were retrospectively enrolled if they underwent both baseline and follow-up magnetic resonance vessel wall imaging. The morphological features of the causative plaque, including plaque volume, peak normalized wall index, maximum wall thickness, degree of stenosis, pre-contrast plaque-wall contrast ratio, and post-contrast plaque enhancement ratio, were quantified and compared between the non-recurrent and recurrent groups (defined as the recurrence of a vascular event within 18 months of stroke). RESULTS: Twenty-nine patients were included in the final analysis. No significant differences were found in plaque features in the baseline scan between the non-recurrent (n = 22) and recurrent groups (n = 7). The changes in maximum wall thickness (-13.32% vs. 8.93%, P = 0.026), plaque-wall contrast ratio (-0.82% vs. 3.42%, P = 0.005) and plaque enhancement ratio (-11.03% vs. 9.75%, P = 0.019) were significantly different between the non-recurrent and recurrent groups. Univariable logistic regression showed that the increase in plaque-wall contrast ratio (odds ratio 3.22, 95% confidence interval 1.55-9.98, P = 0.003) was related to stroke recurrence. CONCLUSION: Morphological changes of plaque features on magnetic resonance vessel wall imaging demonstrated distinct trends in symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic disease patients with and without stroke recurrence.

16.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 567: 86-91, 2021 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146906

RESUMO

NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2, and CUC2) transcription factors play vital roles in response to multiple abiotic stresses. Our previous study has demonstrated that ZmNAC84, a maize NAC transcription factor, enhanced the drought tolerance by increasing abscisic acid (ABA)-induced antioxidant enzyme activities of APX and SOD, and Ser-113, a key phosphorylation site, of ZmNAC84 played an important role in this process. However, the target gene of ZmNAC84 in this process is still unknown. Here, we found that ZmNAC84 only regulated the luciferase activity driven by ZmSOD2 promoter in tobacco. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative PCR (ChIP-qPCR) assay showed that ZmNAC84 directly bound to the CACGTG motif of ZmSOD2 promoter. Furthermore, phosphorylation of ZmNAC84 at Ser-113 up-regulated the ZmSOD2 expression by enhancing the DNA binding ability of ZmNAC84 to ZmSOD2 promoter and improved the drought tolerance. Taken together, our results demonstrate that ZmNAC84 directly regulates ZmSOD2 expression to enhance drought tolerance and Ser-113 of ZmNAC84 is crucial in this process.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Zea mays/genética , Secas , Fosforilação , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Estresse Fisiológico , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Zea mays/fisiologia
17.
Onco Targets Ther ; 14: 3729-3737, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34163175

RESUMO

Background: Accumulating evidence has indicated that dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) contributes to the tumorigenesis of prostate cancer (PCa). Nevertheless, the role of miR-593-3p in the development of PCa remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the role and mechanisms of miR-593-3p in PCa cells. Methods: RT-PCR was used to detect the expression levels of miR-593-3p. CCK-8, colony formation, spheroid formation and transwell assays were performed to examine the proliferation, migration and invasion of C4-2, DU145 and RWPE-1 cells. And then, transcriptome sequencing, dual-luciferase reporter assay and Western blot were taken to identify the target gene and downstream mechanisms of miR-593-3p. Results: Here, we found that miR-593-3p promoted PCa cell proliferation, colony formation, spheroid formation, migration and invasion. Further mechanistic studies revealed that miR-593-3p possessed binding sites of ADIPOR1 3'-UTR and played an important role in 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process. In addition, the transfection of si-ADIPOR1 also enhanced the PCa cell proliferation and invasion. Conclusion: Our study provides an empirical investigation of miR-593-3p, which exerts oncogenic function through targeting ADIPOR1 in PCa cells.

18.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 655060, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34168665

RESUMO

The promotion and application of transgenic Bt crops provides an approach for the prevention and control of target lepidopteran pests and effectively relieves the environmental pressure caused by the massive usage of chemical pesticides in fields. However, studies have shown that Bt crops will face a new risk due to a decrease in exogenous toxin content under elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, thus negatively affecting the ecological sustainability of Bt crops. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are important beneficial microorganisms that can effectively improve the nutrient status of host plants and are expected to relieve the ecological risk of Bt crops under increasing CO2 due to global climate change. In this study, the Bt maize and its parental line of non-transgenic Bt maize were selected and inoculated with a species of AMF (Funneliformis caledonium, synonyms: Glomus caledonium), in order to study the secondary defensive chemicals and yield of maize, and to explore the effects of F. caledonium inoculation on the growth, development, and reproduction of the pest Mythimna separata fed on Bt maize and non-Bt maize under ambient carbon dioxide concentration (aCO2) and elevated carbon dioxide concentration (eCO2). The results showed that eCO2 increased the AM fungal colonization, maize yield, and foliar contents of jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA), but decreased foliar Bt toxin content and Bt gene expression in Bt maize leaves. F. caledonium inoculation increased maize yield, foliar JA, SA contents, Bt toxin contents, and Bt gene expression in Bt maize leaves, and positively improved the growth, development, reproduction, and food utilization of the M. separata fed on non-Bt maize. However, F. caledonium inoculation was unfavorable for the fitness of M. separata fed on Bt maize, and the effect was intensified when combined with eCO2. It is indicated that F. caledonium inoculation had adverse effects on the production of non-Bt maize due to the high potential risk of population occurrence of M. separata, while it was just the opposite for Bt maize. Therefore, this study confirms that the AMF can increase the yield and promote the expression levels of its endogenous (JA, SA) and exogenous (Bt toxin) secondary defense substances of Bt maize under eCO2, and finally can enhance the insect resistance capacity of Bt crops, which will help ensure the sustainable utilization and safety of Bt crops under climate change.

19.
Front Genet ; 12: 605778, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34054912

RESUMO

Objective: Variant non-ketotic hyperglycinaemia (NKH) is a rare disorder characterized by variable clinical, biochemical, and imaging features. The variant form of NKH is rare and characterized by variable clinical, biochemical and imaging features. Subjects: Herein, we report a girl with variant NKH with two mutations in glutaredoxin 5 (GLRX5), which has been described in only three patients. Results: The clinical and biochemical phenotypes of the patient are also described. She suffered from developmental regression associated with spasticity, developmental delay, anemia and optic atrophy. The mitochondrial leukoencephalopathy was used to designate these disorders. An increased T2 signal from the medulla oblongata to the C6 spinal region was also observed on spinal cord MRI. Tandem mass analysis of a dried blood sample revealed elevated levels of glycine. The patient has two compound heterozygous mutations (c.151_153 del AAG and c.196C>T) in the GLRX5 gene. The c.196C>T mutation led to a stop codon (p.Q66Ter). Activities of mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) complexes II+III in the patient's fibroblasts were abnormal. Conclusions: We present the case of a girl with variant NKH who manifested spasticity and bilateral cavitating leukoencephalopathy. The patient had a deficiency of a respiratory chain enzyme, and this is the first report. Genetic testing is important for physicians to evaluate suspected variant NKH patients and to provide proper genetic counseling.

20.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(5)2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807751

RESUMO

The unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) path planning problem is a type of complex multi-constraint optimization problem that requires a reasonable mathematical model and an efficient path planning algorithm. In this paper, the fitness function including fuel consumption cost, altitude cost, and threat cost is established. There are also four set constraints including maximum flight distance, minimum flight altitude, maximum turn angle, and maximum climb angle. The constrained optimization problem is transformed into an unconstrained optimization problem by using the penalty function introduced. To solve the model, a multiple population hybrid equilibrium optimizer (MHEO) is proposed. Firstly, the population is divided into three subpopulations based on fitness and different strategies are executed separately. Secondly, a Gaussian distribution estimation strategy is introduced to enhance the performance of MHEO by using the dominant information of the populations to guide the population evolution. The equilibrium pool is adjusted to enhance population diversity. Furthermore, the Lévy flight strategy and the inferior solution shift strategy are used to help the algorithm get rid of stagnation. The CEC2017 test suite was used to evaluate the performance of MHEO, and the results show that MHEO has a faster convergence speed and better convergence accuracy compared to the comparison algorithms. The path planning simulation experiments show that MHEO can steadily and efficiently plan flight paths that satisfy the constraints, proving the superiority of the MHEO algorithm while verifying the feasibility of the path planning model.

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