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1.
Front Public Health ; 9: 625834, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33816418

RESUMO

This study evaluated the association between long-term low-dose aspirin use and decreased risk of pneumonia in patients with cardio-cerebra-vascular ischemic diseases (CCVDs). This retrospective cohort study used records from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database of claims made between 1997 and 2013. After propensity score matching (PSM), patients who took a low dose of aspirin for more than 90 days within 1 year of diagnosis with CCVDs were identified as the exposure group (n = 15,784). A matched total of 15,784 individuals without aspirin use were selected for the non-aspirin group. The main outcome was the development of pneumonia after the index date. Multivariable Cox regression analysis and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis were performed to estimate the adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) and cumulative probability of pneumonia. The result after PSM indicated a lower hazard ratio for pneumonia in aspirin users (aHR = 0.890, 95% confidence interval = 0.837-0.945). Therefore, patients with CCVDs who took aspirin had a lower risk of developing pneumonia than those who did not. In conclusion, this population-based cohort study demonstrated that long-term low-dose aspirin use is associated with a slightly decreased risk of pneumonia in patients with CCVDs.

2.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol ; 77(4): 470-479, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33818550

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Dysfunction of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) assumes a fundamental part in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis (AS). Circular RNA granulin precursor (circ_GRN) was identified to promote the proliferation and invasion of human VSMCs (HVSMCs) in an in vitro AS model. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Levels of circ_GRN, microRNA (miR)-214-3p, and forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) were detected using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot assays. The proliferation, migration, and inflammatory response of HVSMCs were evaluated by using flow cytometry, colony formation, Cell Counting Kit-8, Western blot, transwell assays, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. The binding interaction between miR-214-3p and circ_GRN or FOXO1 was detected by dual-luciferase reporter assay. In this study, we found that circ_GRN was elevated in the serum of AS and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced HVSMCs. The in vitro AS model was established by exposing HVSMCs to ox-LDL, and we found circ_GRN knockdown reversed ox-LDL-evoked cell proliferation, migration, and inflammation. In a mechanical study, miR-214-3p directly bound to circ_GRN or FOXO1, and circ_GRN could regulate FOXO1 expression by competitively binding to miR-214-3p. Importantly, we demonstrated that miR-214-3p inhibition attenuated the protective effects of circ_GRN knockdown on ox-LDL-induced HVSMCs; besides that, miR-214-3p overexpression abolished ox-LDL-triggered HVSMC proliferation, migration, and inflammation, which were counteracted by FOXO1 upregulation. In conclusion, circ_GRN promoted the proliferation, migration, and inflammation of HVSMCs through miR-214-3p/FOXO1 axis in ox-LDL-induced AS model in vitro, suggesting the potential involvement in an AS process, which provided a potential candidate for future clinic intervention in AS.

3.
Neural Regen Res ; 16(11): 2276-2283, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33818513

RESUMO

Axon regeneration and remyelination of the damaged region is the most common repair strategy for spinal cord injury. However, achieving good outcome remains difficult. Our previous study showed that porcine decellularized optic nerve better mimics the extracellular matrix of the embryonic porcine optic nerve and promotes the directional growth of dorsal root ganglion neurites. However, it has not been reported whether this material promotes axonal regeneration in vivo. In the present study, a porcine decellularized optic nerve was seeded with neurotrophin-3-overexpressing Schwann cells. This functional scaffold promoted the directional growth and remyelination of regenerating axons. In vitro, the porcine decellularized optic nerve contained many straight, longitudinal channels with a uniform distribution, and microscopic pores were present in the channel wall. The spatial micro topological structure and extracellular matrix were conducive to the adhesion, survival and migration of neural stem cells. The scaffold promoted the directional growth of dorsal root ganglion neurites, and showed strong potential for myelin regeneration. Furthermore, we transplanted the porcine decellularized optic nerve containing neurotrophin-3-overexpressing Schwann cells in a rat model of T10 spinal cord defect in vivo. Four weeks later, the regenerating axons grew straight, the myelin sheath in the injured/transplanted area recovered its structure, and simultaneously, the number of inflammatory cells and the expression of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans were reduced. Together, these findings suggest that porcine decellularized optic nerve loaded with Schwann cells overexpressing neurotrophin-3 promotes the directional growth of regenerating spinal cord axons as well as myelin regeneration. All procedures involving animals were conducted in accordance with the ethical standards of the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Sun Yat-sen University (approval No. SYSU-IACUC-2019-B034) on February 28, 2019.

4.
Intern Med ; 2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33840692

RESUMO

Membranous nephropathy often achieves spontaneous remission. However, there are scarce reports of spontaneous remission of thrombospondin type-1 domain-containing 7A (THSD7A)-associated membranous nephropathy. A 64-year-old female presented with nephrotic syndrome and edema of the lower extremities. We diagnosed membranous nephropathy by kidney biopsy and confirmed positive THSD7A on immunofluorescence using frozen sections; serum THSD7A antibodies were also detected. Thirty-four months after the initial diagnosis, she achieved a spontaneous complete remission without immunosuppressive therapy. With the complete remission, no serum THSD7A levels were detected. In this study, we describe serial examinations of kidney biopsies and serum THSD7A antibodies.

5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809693

RESUMO

The N-terminal of Myc-like basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors (bHLH TFs) contains an interaction domain, namely the MYB-interacting region (MIR), which interacts with the R2R3-MYB proteins to regulate genes involved in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. However, the functions of MIR-domain bHLHs in this pathway are not fully understood. In this study, PbbHLH2 containing the MIR-domain was identified and its function investigated. The overexpression of PbbHLH2 in "Zaosu" pear peel increased the anthocyanin content and the expression levels of late biosynthetic genes. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation showed that PbbHLH2 interacted with R2R3-MYB TFs PbMYB9, 10, and 10b in onion epidermal cells and confirmed that MIR-domain plays important roles in the interaction between the MIR-domain bHLH and R2R3-MYB TFs. Moreover, PbbHLH2 bound and activated the dihydroflavonol reductase promoter in yeast one-hybrid (Y1H) and dual-luciferase assays. Taken together these results suggested that the MIR domain of PbbHLH2 regulated anthocyanin biosynthesis in pear fruit peel.

6.
J Immunol ; 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827895

RESUMO

Asthma is an allergic chronic respiratory disease that affects more than 300 million people around the world. Dysbiosis of intestinal commensal microbiota influences the development of asthma. Dectin-1 (gene symbol: Clec7a), a C-type lectin receptor, plays an important role in the intestinal immune homeostasis by controlling regulatory T (Treg) cell differentiation through regulation of intestinal microbiota. However, it is not clear whether intestinal immune conditions affect immune responses in other organs. In this study, we examined the effects of Dectin-1 deficiency on allergic airway inflammation (AAI). OVA-induced AAI was attenuated in Clec7a-/- mice. Treg cells were more abundant in colonic lamina propria, mesenteric lymph nodes, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of Clec7a -/- mice after AAI induction. Treatment with antibiotics, but not an antifungal agent, decreased the abundance of intestinal Treg cells and aggravated the symptoms of AAI in Clec7a -/- mice. Transplantation of gut microbiota from Clec7a -/- mice into antibiotic-treated hosts increased the abundance of intestinal Treg cells and ameliorated AAI. Overcolonization by Lactobacillus murinus, a Dectin-1 signaling-regulated commensal bacterium, also promoted expansion of Treg cells in the colon and suppressed lung inflammation. Depletion of Treg cells with anti-CD25 Ab eliminated the phenotypic differences between wild-type and Clec7a-/- mice in OVA-induced AAI. These observations suggest that inhibition of Dectin-1 signaling ameliorates AAI by increasing the abundance of Treg cells in lungs through modification of intestinal commensal bacteria, suggesting a role for commensal microbiota in regulating inflammation in organs other than the intestine.

7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7506, 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33820927

RESUMO

We aimed to assess the clinicopathological features and to determine the prognostic factors of cervical adenocarcinoma (AC). Relevant data were extracted from surveillance, epidemiology and end results database from 2004 to 2015. The log-rank test and Cox proportional hazard analysis were subsequently utilized to identify independent prognostic factors. A total of 3102 patients were identified. The enrolled patients were characterized by higher proportion of early FIGO stage (stage I: 65.9%; stage II: 14.1%), low pathological grade (grade I/II: 49.1%) and tumor size ≤ 4 cm (46.8%). The 5- and 10-year cancer-specific survival rates of these patients were 74.47% and 70.00%, respectively. Meanwhile, the 5- and 10-year overall survival (OS) rates were 71.52% and 65.17%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that married status, surgery as well as chemotherapy were independent favorable prognostic indicators. Additionally, aged > 45, tumor grade III/IV, tumor size > 4 cm, advanced FIGO stage and pelvic lymph node metastasis (LNM) were unfavorable prognostic factors (all P < 0.01). Stratified analysis found that patients without surgery could significantly benefit from chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In addition, chemotherapy could significantly improve the survival in stage II-IV patients and radiotherapy could only improve the survival in stage III patients (all P < 0.01). Marital status, age, grade, tumor size, FIGO stage, surgery, pelvic LNM and chemotherapy were significantly associated with the prognosis of cervical AC.

8.
HLA ; 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33792198

RESUMO

HLA-A*30:170 has one nucleotide change from HLA-A*30:01:01:01 at nucleotide 755 where Threonine T (228) is changed to Methionine M. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

9.
Theranostics ; 11(10): 4672-4687, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33754020

RESUMO

Rationale: Oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy (OIPN) is a common adverse effect that causes delayed treatment and poor prognosis among colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. However, its mechanism remains elusive, and no effective treatment is available. Methods: We employed a prospective cohort study of adult patients with pathologically confirmed stage III CRC receiving adjuvant chemotherapy with an oxaliplatin-based regimen for investigating OIPN. To further validate the clinical manifestations and identify a potential therapeutic strategy, animal models, and in vitro studies on the mechanism of OIPN were applied. Results: Our work found that (1) consistent with clinical findings, OIPN was observed in animal models. Targeting the enzymatic activity of cathepsin S (CTSS) by pharmacological blockade and gene deficiency strategy alleviates the manifestations of OIPN. (2) Oxaliplatin treatment increases CTSS expression by enhancing cytosol translocation of interferon response factor 1 (IRF1), which then facilitates STIM-dependent store-operated Ca2+ entry homeostasis. (3) The cytokine array demonstrated an increase in anti-inflammatory cytokines and suppression of proinflammatory cytokines in mice treated with RJW-58. (4) Mechanistically, inhibiting CTSS facilitated olfactory receptors transcription factor 1 release from P300/CBP binding, which enhanced binding to the interleukin-10 (IL-10) promoter region, driving IL-10 downstream signaling pathway. (5) Serum CTSS expression is increased in CRC patients with oxaliplatin-induced neurotoxicity. Conclusions: We highlighted the critical role of CTSS in OIPN, which provides a therapeutic strategy for the common adverse side effects of oxaliplatin.

10.
World J Surg Oncol ; 19(1): 89, 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33771184

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent researches have suggested that long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) is involved in the tumorigenesis and development of stomach cancer (SC). This meta-analysis aimed to identify the diagnostic performance of circulating lncRNAs in SC. METHODS: All relevant studies were systematically searched through PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and EMBASE databases. The diagnostic values of lncRNAs were mainly assessed by pooled sensitivity, specificity, and summary receiver operating characteristic area under the curve (SROC AUC). Meta-DiSc 1.4, Review Manager 5.3, and STATA 12.0 were used for statistical analysis. The protocol for this systematic review was registered on INPLASY (INPLASY202120079) and is available in full on the inplasy.com ( https://doi.org/10.37766/inplasy2021.2.0079 ). RESULTS: A total of 42 eligible studies were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, and SROC AUC were 0.78 (95%CI 0.75-0.81), 0.75 (95%CI 0.71-0.78), and 0.83 (95%CI 0.80-0.86), respectively, suggesting that the lncRNAs test had a high accuracy for the diagnosis of SC. Obvious heterogeneity might come from the type of lncRNA through subgroup and meta-regression analysis. Fagan diagram shows the clinical value of lncRNAs test in SC. CONCLUSIONS: Abnormal expression of circulating lncRNAs exhibits a high efficacy for diagnosing SC, which is promising in clinical application.

11.
Clin Chim Acta ; 518: 78-82, 2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33741360

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The DGKE gene encodes the diacylglycerol kinase epsilon (DGKε). Loss-of-function mutations of DGKE caused a group of rare renal diseases, which are called DGKE nephropathy. We report the clinical manifestations and therapeutic effects of a patient diagnosed with DGKE nephropathy. CASE REPORT: The patient's initial symptoms were fever, diarrhea, eyelid edema, acute anemia, acute thrombocytopenia, an elevation of plasm D-dimer, proteinuria, microscopic hematuria, without oliguria or renal insufficiency at the age of 7.6 months. Hemolytic uremic syndrome was diagnosed. His proteinuria and hematuria turned out negative 2 months later. Proteinuria was noticed again at the age of 5.5-year old when he was brought to the hospital because of failure to thrive. Since then, he had been noticed with persistent proteinuria. RESULTS: Genetic analysis revealed 2 novel heterozygous mutations on DGKE of the patient. Renal pathology mimicked membrane proliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN). CONCLUSIONS: After a 5-month treatment of cyclosporine A (CsA), proteinuria and hypoproteinemia have relieved apparently. We also observed an improvement of his growth.

12.
Environ Res ; 197: 111026, 2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33744265

RESUMO

Here we developed the functionalized biochar as low-cost and heavy metal-free photocatalysts via a facile iodine doping method, which exhibit efficient adsorption and visible-light-driven photocatalytic degradation of representative organic pollutants, phenol and tetracycline. On one hand, iodine doping elevates the adsorption via creating extra pores, e.g., the adsorbed amounts of phenol by iodine-doped WSP and OSR biochar are increased by 161.8% and 146.3%, respectively, which in turn facilitates the photocatalytic oxidation of the adsorbed pollutants. On the other hand, iodine doping leads to the strong photo-induced excitation and remarkably reduced charge carrier transfer resistance, boosting the photocatalytic activity of iodine-doped biochar by more than 20 orders towards organic pollutants (e.g., phenol) degradation. The systematic analysis of reactive species reveals the active roles of O2-, H2O2, 1O2, OH, electrons, and holes in photocatalytic process and identifies O2- to be the major contributor. This work affords a facile approach to generating porous and visible-light-driven photocatalyst from biomass for efficient adsorbing and degrading organic pollutants, opening up an avenue to turn biowaste into biomaterials for sustainable environmental remediation.

13.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33734137

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For patients with B cell acute lymphocytic leukemia (B-ALL) who underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT), many variables have been demonstrated to be associated with leukemia relapse. In this study, we attempted to establish a risk score system to predict transplant outcomes more precisely in patients with B-ALL after allo-SCT. METHODS: A total of 477 patients with B-ALL who underwent allo-SCT at Peking University People's Hospital from December 2010 to December 2015 were enrolled in this retrospective study. We aimed to evaluate the factors associated with transplant outcomes after allo-SCT, and establish a risk score to identify patients with different probabilities of relapse. The univariate and multivariate analyses were performed with the Cox proportional hazards model with time-dependent variables. RESULTS: All patients achieved neutrophil engraftment, and 95.4% of patients achieved platelet engraftment. The 5-year cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR), overall survival (OS), leukemia-free survival (LFS), and non-relapse mortality were 20.7%, 70.4%, 65.6%, and 13.9%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that patients with positive post-transplantation minimal residual disease (MRD), transplanted beyond the first complete remission (≥CR2), and without chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) had higher CIR (P  < 0.001, P = 0.004, and P  < 0.001, respectively) and worse LFS (P  < 0.001, P = 0.017, and P  < 0.001, respectively), and OS (P  < 0.001, P = 0.009, and P  < 0.001, respectively) than patients without MRD after transplantation, transplanted in CR1, and with cGVHD. A risk score for predicting relapse was formulated with the three above variables. The 5-year relapse rates were 6.3%, 16.6%, 55.9%, and 81.8% for patients with scores of 0, 1, 2, and 3 (P  < 0.001), respectively, while the 5-year LFS and OS values decreased with increasing risk score. CONCLUSION: This new risk score system might stratify patients with different risks of relapse, which could guide treatment.

14.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1383, 2021 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33654063

RESUMO

In this study, we investigate the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among blood donors in the cities of Wuhan, Shenzhen, and Shijiazhuang in China. From January to April 2020, 38,144 healthy blood donors in the three cities were tested for total antibody against SARS-CoV-2 followed by pseudotype SARS-CoV-2 neutralization tests, IgG, and IgM antibody testing. Finally, a total of 398 donors were confirmed positive. The age- and sex-standardized SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence among 18-60 year-old adults (18-65 year-old in Shenzhen) was 2.66% (95% CI: 2.24%-3.07%) in Wuhan, 0.033% (95% CI: 0.0029%-0.267%) in Shenzhen, and 0.0028% (95% CI: 0.0001%-0.158%) in Shijiazhuang, respectively. Female sex and older-age were identified to be independent risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity among blood donors in Wuhan. As most of the population of China remained uninfected during the early wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, effective public health measures are still certainly required to block viral spread before a vaccine is widely available.


Assuntos
/patogenicidade , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Doadores de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , /epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Testes de Neutralização , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , /imunologia
15.
J Vasc Surg ; 2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684473

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) are predisposed to postprocedure adverse limb events (ALE). Previous single-center studies investigating the relationship between baseline C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and postprocedure ALE have reported inconsistent results. Therefore, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of reported data to determine the association between CRP levels and the occurrence of postprocedure ALE in patients with PAD. METHODS: Studies investigating the association between the CRP levels and postprocedure ALE (ie, target vessel revascularization, amputation, restenosis, disease progression, composite endpoint of any of these ALE) were identified in the Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases. Meta-analyses of the reported hazard ratios (HRs) were conducted using an inverse variance-weighted random effects model. Subgroup analyses were performed to determine the differences in outcomes between open surgery and endovascular treatment. Pooled estimates are reported as HRs to compare higher and lower CRP levels and odds ratio or relative risk per unit increase in logeCRP (natural logarithm C-reactive protein). RESULTS: A total of eight studies involving 1460 participants were included in our meta-analysis. Patients with higher baseline CRP levels had a greater risk of ALE (HR, 1.09; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.18; P = .04) compared with those with lower baseline CRP levels. The pooled estimate of odds ratio and relative risk for ALE was 2.25 (95% confidence interval, 1.49-3.41; P < .01) per unit increase in logeCRP. Subgroup analyses found no significant differences in the pooled estimates in studies of open surgery vs endovascular treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Our results have demonstrated that high baseline CRP levels are predictive of ALE in patients with PAD after lower limb revascularization.

16.
Ann Hematol ; 100(5): 1267-1281, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712867

RESUMO

The prognosis of 11q23/KMT2A-rearranged (KMT2A-r) acute leukemia (AL) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is poor. Minimal residual disease (MRD) is an important prognostic factor for relapse. Thus, we aimed to identify the evolution of KMT2A before and after allo-HSCT and the efficacy of preemptive immunotherapies for KMT2A-r AL patients receiving allo-HSCT. KMT2A expression was determined through TaqMan-based RQ-PCR technology. Preemptive immunotherapies included interferon-α and donor lymphocyte infusion. We collected 1751 bone marrow samples from 177 consecutive KMT2A-r AL patients. Pre-HSCT KMT2A positivity was correlated with post-HSCT KMT2A positivity (correlation coefficient=0.371, P<0.001). The rates of achieving KMT2A negativity after allo-HSCT were 96.6%, 92.9%, and 68.8% in the pre-HSCT low-level group (>0, <0.1%), intermediate-level group (≥ 0.1%, <1%), and high-level group (≥1%), respectively. The rates of regaining KMT2A positivity after allo-HSCT were 7.7%, 35.7%, 38.5%, and 45.5% for the pre-HSCT KMT2A-negative, low-level, intermediate-level, and high-level groups, respectively (P<0.001). The 4-year cumulative incidence of relapse after allo-HSCT was as high as 53.7% in the pre-HSCT KMT2A expression ≥ 0.1% group, which was compared to the KMT2A-negative group (15.1%) and KMT2A <0.1% group (31.2%). The clinical outcomes of patients with post-HSCT KMT2A positivity were poorer than those of patients with persistent KMT2A negativity. Although post-HSCT preemptive immunotherapies might help to achieve KMT2A negativity, the long-term efficacy was unsatisfactory. Thus, pre-HSCT KMT2A positivity was significantly associated with post-HSCT KMT2A positivity. The clinical outcomes of patients with post-HSCT KMT2A positivity were poor, which might not be overcome by commonly used immunotherapies.

17.
Part Fibre Toxicol ; 18(1): 14, 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33766066

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diesel exhaust (DE) is a major source of ultrafine particulate matters (PM) in ambient air and contaminates many occupational settings. Airway remodeling assessed using computerized tomography (CT) correlates well with spirometry in patients with obstructive lung diseases. Structural changes of small airways caused by chronic DE exposure is unknown. Wall and lumen areas of 6th and 9th generations of four candidate airways were quantified using end-inhalation CT scans in 78 diesel engine testers (DET) and 76 non-DETs. Carbon content in airway macrophage (CCAM) in sputum was quantified to assess the dose-response relationship. RESULTS: Environmental monitoring and CCAM showed a much higher PM exposure in DETs, which was associated with higher wall area and wall area percent for 6th generation of airways. However, no reduction in lumen area was identified. No study subjects met spirometry diagnosis of airway obstruction. This suggested that small airway wall thickening without lumen narrowing may be an early feature of airway remodeling in DETs. The effect of DE exposure status on wall area percent did not differ by lobes or smoking status. Although the trend test was of borderline significance between categorized CCAM and wall area percent, subjects in the highest CCAM category has a 14% increase in wall area percent for the 6th generation of airways compared to subjects in the lowest category. The impact of DE exposure on FEV1 can be partially explained by the wall area percent with mediation effect size equal to 20%, Pperm = 0.028). CONCLUSIONS: Small airway wall thickening without lumen narrowing may be an early image feature detected by CT and underlie the pathology of lung injury in DETs. The pattern of changes in small airway dimensions, i.e., thicker airway wall without lumen narrowing caused by occupational DE exposure was different to that (i.e., thicker airway wall with lumen narrowing) seen in our previous study of workers exposed to nano-scale carbon black aerosol, suggesting constituents other than carbon cores may contribute to such differences. Our study provides some imaging indications of the understanding of the pulmonary toxicity of combustion derived airborne particulate matters in humans.

18.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 27(3): 253.e1-253.e9, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33781524

RESUMO

Acute cholecystitis (AC) is a potentially fatal complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT); however, only limited information is available on its clinical features, outcomes, and risk management strategies. This retrospective, nested, case-control study included 6701 patients undergoing allo-HSCT at our center from January 2004 to June 2019. In total, 72 patients (1.1%) were diagnosed with AC; among these, acute acalculous cholecystitis had a slightly higher prevalence (42 patients, 58.3%). Patients with moderate and severe AC exhibited remarkably worse overall survival (P = .001) and non-relapse mortality (P = .011) than others. Survival of haploidentical HSCT recipients with AC was comparable to that for patients with human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-identical donors. Age ≥ 18 years, antecedent stage II to IV acute graft-versus-host disease, and total parenteral nutrition were identified as potential risk factors for AC following allo-HSCT, while haploidentical transplantations were not more susceptible to AC than HLA-identical HSCT. Based on these criteria, a risk score model was developed and validated to estimate the probability of AC following allo-HSCT. The model separates all patients into low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups and thereby provides a basis for early detection of this complication in the management of allo-HSCT.

19.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(3): 277, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33723244

RESUMO

Glioma stem cells (GSCs) contribute to therapy resistance and poor outcomes for glioma patients. A significant feature of GSCs is their ability to grow in an acidic microenvironment. However, the mechanism underlying the rewiring of their metabolism in low pH remains elusive. Here, using metabolomics and metabolic flux approaches, we cultured GSCs at pH 6.8 and pH 7.4 and found that cells cultured in low pH exhibited increased de novo purine nucleotide biosynthesis activity. The overexpression of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, encoded by G6PD or H6PD, supports the metabolic dependency of GSCs on nucleotides when cultured under acidic conditions, by enhancing the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). The high level of reduced glutathione (GSH) under acidic conditions also causes demand for the PPP to provide NADPH. Taken together, upregulation of G6PD/H6PD in the PPP plays an important role in acidic-driven purine metabolic reprogramming and confers a predilection toward glioma progression. Our findings indicate that targeting G6PD/H6PD, which are closely related to glioma patient survival, may serve as a promising therapeutic target for improved glioblastoma therapeutics. An integrated metabolomics and metabolic flux analysis, as well as considering microenvironment and cancer stem cells, provide a precise insight into understanding cancer metabolic reprogramming.

20.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 96, 2021 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) induces uncontrolled and self-amplified pulmonary inflammation, and has high morbidity and mortality rates in critically ill patients. In recent years, many bioactive ingredients extracted from herbs have been reported to effectively ameliorate ALI/ARDS via different mechanisms. Ferroptosis, categorized as regulated necrosis, is more immunogenic than apoptosis and contributes to the progression of ALI. In this study, we examined the impact of panaxydol (PX), isolated from the roots of Panax ginseng, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI in mice. METHODS: In vivo, the role of PX on LPS-induced ALI in mice was tested by determination of LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation, pulmonary edema and ferroptosis. In vitro, BEAS-2B cells were used to investigate the molecular mechanisms by which PX functions via determination of inflammation, ferroptosis and their relationship. RESULTS: Administration of PX protected mice against LPS-induced ALI, including significantly ameliorated lung pathological changes, and decreased the extent of lung edema, inflammation, and ferroptosis. In vitro, PX inhibited LPS-induced ferroptosis and inflammation in bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B cells. The relationship between ferroptosis and inflammation was investigated. The results showed that ferroptosis mediated inflammation in LPS-treated BEAS-2B cells, and PX might ameliorate LPS-induced inflammation via inhibiting ferroptosis. Meanwhile, PX could upregulate Keap1-Nrf2/HO-1 pathway, and selective inhibition of Keap1-Nrf2/HO-1 pathway significantly abolished the anti-ferroptotic and anti-inflammatory functions of PX in LPS-treated cells. CONCLUSION: PX attenuates ferroptosis against LPS-induced ALI via Keap1-Nrf2/HO-1 pathway, and is a promising novel therapeutic candidate for ALI.

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