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1.
Psych J ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692266

RESUMO

Amotivational symptoms are observed in schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder (BD), and major depressive disorder (MDD). Effort-cost computation may be a potential contributor to amotivation transdiagnostically. This study examined effort-cost computation in these three diagnostic groups. This study recruited 141 outpatients (49 SCZ, 52 non-psychotic BD, and 40 non-psychotic MDD) and 57 healthy controls (HCs). We administered the Effort-Expenditure for Reward Task (EEfRT), which manipulated different levels of reward magnitude and probability relating to a high and low physical effort task. There were significant interactions between group and reward magnitude, group and reward probability, and group and expected value on the percentage of high-effort choices. SCZ, BD, and MDD patients made comparably fewer high-effort choices than HCs in the high-reward magnitude, high-reward probability, and high-expected-value conditions. Self-reported amotivation did not correlate with decision-making on the EEfRT. Our findings suggest that reduced effort expenditure for reward is a transdiagnostic phenotype in SCZ, BD, and MDD.

2.
Nat Chem ; 11(12): 1085-1090, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31758160

RESUMO

Air pollution by nitrogen oxides, NOx, is a major problem, and new capture and abatement technologies are urgently required. Here, we report a metal-organic framework (Manchester Framework Material 520 (MFM-520)) that can efficiently confine dimers of NO2, which results in a high adsorption capacity of 4.2 mmol g-1 (298 K, 0.01 bar) with full reversibility and no loss of capacity over 125 cycles. Treatment of NO2@MFM-520 with water in air leads to a quantitative conversion of the captured NO2 into HNO3, an important feedstock for fertilizer production, and fully regenerates MFM-520. The confinement of N2O4 inside nanopores was established at a molecular level, and the dynamic breakthrough experiments using both dry and humid NO2 gas streams verify the excellent stability and selectivity of MFM-520 and confirm its potential for precious-metal-free deNOx technologies.

3.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 121: 109599, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707345

RESUMO

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a common but intractable diabetic microvascular complication. Tripterygium, a Chinses herb, has been proven to be effective for DN treatment. In this review, the efficacy and pharmacological mechanism of tripterygium and its extracts on DN is elucidated. Tripterygium and its extracts could effectively reduce urine protein and protect renal function. Its pharmacological mechanism involves anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, anti-glomerulosclerosis and anti-fibrosis, which is achieved by balancing the Th1/Th2 cells, regulating macrophage infiltration, and regulating the following pathways: p38 MAPK, NF-κB, TGF-ß, Wnt/ß-catenin, Akt and Notch1. Although tripterygium and its extracts may result in some adverse effects, including liver-function damage, gastrointestinal reaction, menstrual disorders, and reproductive problems, they are considered good alternative medicines for DN if used with caution and in the proper manner.

4.
J Food Sci ; 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31750946

RESUMO

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) prevents obesity and related diseases by uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation with adenosine triphosphate. Previous studies have demonstrated that polyphenols can promote the thermogenesis of BAT in mice. Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is a common phenolic acid found in fruits and vegetables, as well as traditional Chinese medicine, which is responsible for a variety of physiological activities. However, it is still unclear whether CGA has positive effects on the thermogenesis of BAT. In this study, CGA enhances the thermogenesis and proton leak of brown adipocytes, however, no changes are evident regarding the differentiation of C3 H10 T1/2 into brown adipocytes. Surprisingly, CGA promotes the uptake of glucose by upregulating the glucose transporter 2 and phosphofructokinase. Moreover, CGA increases the number and the function of mitochondrial. Taken together, CGA stimulates thermogenesis of brown adipocytes by promoting the uptake of glucose and the function of mitochondria. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is widely found in fruits, vegetables, and traditional Chinese medicines, which has been considered to have antibacterial and anti-inflammatory function. However, whether it has the function of resisting obesity and promoting thermogenesis is still unclear. In this study, brown adipocyte was used to explore the function and mechanism of CGA on thermogenesis. It provides new ideas for the utilization of foods rich in CGA and traditional Chinese medicine.

5.
Am J Nephrol ; : 1-9, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770758

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Successful parathyroidectomy (PTX) with stable postoperative parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels is associated with the stabilization of coronary artery calcification score (CACS) in patients with severe secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) undergoing hemodialysis. To use computed tomography (CT) to evaluate the influence of PTX on CACS in asymptomatic patients. METHODS: This study was performed with institutional review board approval. Written consent was obtained from each patient. Forty-eight patients (mean age ± SD 54.50 ± 13.14 years; range 33-77 years) undergoing maintenance hemodialysis who underwent PTX and 56 patients (mean age 55.28 ± 12.32 years; range 35-76 years) who did not undergo PTX received prospective follow-up for 2 years. CACS was quantitatively performed using the Agatston method after CT scan. The differences between baseline and end-of-study PTX parameters were analyzed with the paired Student t test. RESULTS: For patients who underwent PTX, mean square root of CACS did not increase from 23.16 ± 18.58 to 23.68 ± 18.16 (t = 1.846, p = 0.072) from baseline to follow-up. In patients who did not undergo PTX, mean square root of CACS increased from 20.21 ± 16.47 to 28.72 ± 20.95 (t = 10.110, p < 0.001) from baseline to follow-up. In addition, the median annual progression rate of CACS was lower among PTX patients (4.89%), compared with the marked annual progression rate of CACS in non-PTX patients (52.81%; t = 11.264, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Dysregulation of calcium and phosphate metabolism caused by SHPT may result in significant CAC progression in asymptomatic hemodialysis patients. Low PTH state after PTX may stabilize CAC progression in hemodialysis patients.

6.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(14): 3035-3041, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602850

RESUMO

The taste is the key to the research and design for formulation prescription of traditional Chinese medicine buccal tablets( TCMBTs). TCMBTs are dissolved in the oral cavity in parallel with the release of the drug,providing a sufficient " time window" for the perception of various basic taste,tactile and retention. The overall taste is the result of competitive inhibition,comprehensive superposition and dynamic change of multiple tastes. Traditional evaluation methods rely mostly on recalled experience score,difficult to reflect the dynamic changes of taste for buccal tablets. Therefore,it is urgent to establish a new optimized model for taste evaluation and formulation prescription according to the formulation characteristics of TCMBTs. To this end,this paper proposed for the first time to construct a research method for the optimal formulation of TCMBTs based on temporal dominant description of sensations combined with multivariate statistical analysis: the sensory test of volunteers was carried out by temporal dominant description analysis method,and elements separation was conducted for the time and taste in the process of inclusion to form a temporal dominant descriptive score of multi-time points and multi-sensory attributes. Finally,the optimal formulation was obtained by multivariate statistical analysis. Taking the formulation prescription of Compound Caoshanhu Buccal Tablets as an example,the research ideas of this method were explained,and the optimal formulation prescription was obtained as follows,Glabrous Sarcandra Extract of 20. 0 g,mannitol of 24. 0 g,microcrystalline cellulose of 12. 0 g,aspartame of 1. 0%,menthol of 0. 7%,and menthol oil of 0. 7%. This study provides a new method for the taste evaluation and formulation research of TCMBTs,providing a new idea for the fine manufacturing and innovative development of TCM buccal tablets in the new era.


Assuntos
Composição de Medicamentos , Comprimidos , Paladar , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Sensação , Solubilidade
7.
Inorg Chem ; 58(20): 14145-14150, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566954

RESUMO

We report a comparative study of the binding of I2 (iodine) in a pair of redox-active metal-organic framework (MOF) materials, MFM-300(VIII) and its oxidized, deprotonated analogue, MFM-300(VIV). Adsorption of I2 in MFM-300(VIII) triggers a host-to-guest charge-transfer, accompanied by a partial (∼30%) oxidation of the VIII centers in the host framework and formation of I3- species residing in the MOF channels. Importantly, this charge-transfer induces a significant enhancement in the electrical conductivity (Δσ = 700000) of I2@MFM-300(VIII/IV) in comparison to MFM-300(VIII). In contrast, no host-guest charge-transfer or apparent change in the conductivity was observed upon adsorption of I2 in MFM-300(VIV). High-resolution synchrotron X-ray diffraction of I2@MFM-300(VIII/IV) confirms the first example of self-aggregation of adsorbed iodine species (I2 and I3-) into infinite helical chains within a MOF.

8.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(42): 16584-16589, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588745

RESUMO

A nickel-catalyzed asymmetric allylation of secondary phosphine oxides (SPO) for the synthesis of tertiary phosphine oxides (TPO) was realized with high enantioselectivity. The dynamic kinetic asymmetric transformation of SPO was accomplished in the presence of nickel complex. By elucidating the absolute configurations of the reacted SPO starting material and the TPO product, we confirmed that the allylation reaction proceeded through a P-stereo retention process. The protocol represents the first example of synthesizing P-stereogenic phosphine oxides by allylation reaction.

9.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 227: 117607, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654846

RESUMO

The level of alkaline phosphate (ALP) is a significant biomarker index in organism. In this work, a label-free and sensitive G-quadruplex fluorescence assay for monitoring ALP activity has been developed with the assistance of Cu2+ based on the competitive binding effect between pyrophosphate (PPi) and G-quadruplex-N-methylmesoporphyrin (G4/NMM) complex to Cu2+. In the sensing assay, the G4/NMM complex is employed as a signal indicator, while the Cu2+ as a quencher and the PPi as recovery agent as well as the hydrolytic substance for ALP. In details, the fluorescence of the G4/NMM complex was efficiently quenched by introducing Cu2+ due to the proximal carboxylate groups of NMM coordinating with the Cu2+ as well as the unfolding of G-quadruplex by Cu2+, while the higher affinity between PPi and Cu2+ could lead to the fluorescence recovery. However, in the presence of ALP, the PPi was hydrolyzed to phosphate ions (Pi) which cannot integrate with Cu2+, resulting in the fluorescence quenching once again. Thus, a simple and facile way to inspect ALP has been exploited. The proposed assay shows a good linear relationship in the range from 0.5 to 100 U/L with the detection limit of 0.3 U/L. Moreover, the fabricated method is succeeded in detecting ALP in human serum samples, indicating the potential as a profitable candidate in biological and biomedical application.

10.
Anat Histol Embryol ; 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571240

RESUMO

The distribution of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1)-positive cells in digestive tracts and pancreases of aquatic vertebrates was investigated by immunohistochemical staining method. The results suggested that GLP-1-positive cells were distributed in the columnar mucous epithelium and tubular glands of lamina propria in the digestive system. However, GLP-1-positive cells were also found in subepithelial lamina propria of the mucosae and muscularis in each segment of the digestive tract of Rana nigromaculata. The distribution densities of these cells reached peaks in the stomachs, and the middle or end segments of small intestines of Chinese softshell turtle, Bufo gargarizans, R. nigromaculata and catfish, and there was the third distribution density peak in the rectum of catfish. The total amount or overall density of GLP-1-positive cells varied a lot in the digestive tracts of different animal species. The distribution density was relatively low in the digestive tract of chub and reached the maximum in the digestive tracts of snakehead and catfish, but no GLP-1-positive cells were found in the digestive tract of bighead carp. GLP-1-positive cells were densely distributed in the pancreases of Chinese softshell turtle, B. gargarizans and R. nigromaculata. These cells spread over the superficial layers of islets or scattered in exocrine pancreas in the pancreas of B. gargarizans, spread in the endocrine cells or scattered in the pancreas of Chinese softshell turtle, scattered in the pancreas of R. nigromaculata and distributed in the superficial layers of islets in the pancreas of catfish.

11.
Nat Mater ; 18(12): 1358-1365, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31611671

RESUMO

Emissions of SO2 from flue gas and marine transport have detrimental impacts on the environment and human health, but SO2 is also an important industrial feedstock if it can be recovered, stored and transported efficiently. Here we report the exceptional adsorption and separation of SO2 in a porous material, [Cu2(L)] (H4L = 4',4‴-(pyridine-3,5-diyl)bis([1,1'-biphenyl]-3,5-dicarboxylic acid)), MFM-170. MFM-170 exhibits fully reversible SO2 uptake of 17.5 mmol g-1 at 298 K and 1.0 bar, and the SO2 binding domains for trapped molecules within MFM-170 have been determined. We report the reversible coordination of SO2 to open Cu(II) sites, which contributes to excellent adsorption thermodynamics and selectivities for SO2 binding and facile regeneration of MFM-170 after desorption. MFM-170 is stable to water, acid and base and shows great promise for the dynamic separation of SO2 from simulated flue gas mixtures, as confirmed by breakthrough experiments.

12.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 132(19): 2333-2339, 2019 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Very few studies have been conducted regarding the optimal time interval between hysteroscopic adhesiolysis and the embryo transfer (ET). Investigation of this optimal time may be helpful for assisted reproductive technology. Therefore, we investigated effects of the interval between hysteroscopic adhesiolysis and ET upon in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle outcomes. METHODS: Patients were recruited between January 2014 and September 2017 at the Reproductive Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University. Patients who were diagnosed with intra-uterine adhesion (IUA) and underwent hysteroscopic adhesiolysis before fresh IVF-ET or intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection cycles were classified into three groups according to the interval between hysteroscopic adhesiolysis and ET: less than 90 days (Group 1), 90 to 180 days (Group 2), and greater than 180 days (Group 3). Baseline characteristics, controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) response, and pregnancy outcomes after ET were compared. Analysis of variance or non-parametric tests were used to test numerical data. The Pearson's Chi-squared test was used to test categorical data. RESULTS: A total of 312 patients were recruited as follows: 112 in Group 1, 137 in Group 2, and 63 in Group 3. There were no differences in baseline and COS characteristics among the three groups. The live-birth rate in Group 2 (40.1%) was significantly higher than that in Group 1 (17.9%; χ = 14.545, P < 0.001). There were no significant differences in the rates of biochemical, ongoing, and clinical pregnancy, and biochemical and clinical pregnancy abortion, as well as stillbirth among the groups. In the mild IUA patients, the live-birth rate was significantly higher in Group 2 (42.6%) compared with Group 1 (22%; χ = 8.413, P = 0.004). In the moderate IUA patients, Group 2 (35.7%) had a higher frequency of live births than Group 1 (6.7%; χ = 8.187, P = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: The optimal waiting period for fresh ET after hysteroscopic adhesiolysis was 90 to 180 days in the current study.

13.
Nature ; 574(7778): 413-417, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597963

RESUMO

A longstanding goal in neuroscience has been to image membrane voltage across a population of individual neurons in an awake, behaving mammal. Here we describe a genetically encoded fluorescent voltage indicator, SomArchon, which exhibits millisecond response times and is compatible with optogenetic control, and which increases the sensitivity, signal-to-noise ratio, and number of neurons observable several-fold over previously published fully genetically encoded reagents1-8. Under conventional one-photon microscopy, SomArchon enables the routine population analysis of around 13 neurons at once, in multiple brain regions (cortex, hippocampus, and striatum) of head-fixed, awake, behaving mice. Using SomArchon, we detected both positive and negative responses of striatal neurons during movement, as previously reported by electrophysiology but not easily detected using modern calcium imaging techniques9-11, highlighting the power of voltage imaging to reveal bidirectional modulation. We also examined how spikes relate to the subthreshold theta oscillations of individual hippocampal neurons, with SomArchon showing that the spikes of individual neurons are more phase-locked to their own subthreshold theta oscillations than to local field potential theta oscillations. Thus, SomArchon reports both spikes and subthreshold voltage dynamics in awake, behaving mice.

14.
FASEB J ; : fj201900716RR, 2019 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657628

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to establish a novel targeting nanobubble (TNB) conjugated with small interfering RNA (siRNA)-cyanine 5 (Cy5) and to validate its theranostic ability in vivo. The TNB conjugated with neuroepithelial transforming gene 1 (NET-1) siRNA-Cy5 was prepared by thin-film hydration and mechanical sonication method. A hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) xenograft model was established by subcutaneously injecting SMMC-7721 cells in BALB/c nude mice. The NET-1 siRNA-conjugated TNB was utilized for accurate contrast-enhanced ultrasound in vivo imaging, which was enabled by the target ligand GPC-3 antibody and specific gene transfection with the aid of low-frequency ultrasound (LFUS) irradiation. BALB/c nude mice bearing tumors were randomized into 5 groups and irradiated with LFUS for 5 min after TNB administration; mice were treated twice a week for a total of 60 d. The mean particle size of TNB was <500 nm. Mice treated with NET-1 siRNA-conjugated TNB showed a significant decrease in tumor growth and the highest survival rate. Our findings offer an effective and safe gene vehicle and probe for molecular imaging in vivo. It may improve the early diagnosis and treatment effects of HCC.-Wu, B., Shang, H., Liang, X., Sun, Y., Jing, H., Han, X., Cheng, W. Preparation of novel targeting nanobubbles conjugated with small interfering RNA for concurrent molecular imaging and gene therapy in vivo.

15.
Complement Ther Clin Pract ; 37: 109-114, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) therapies have increased, several empirical studies have shown that the quality of TCM trials is generally low in terms of risk of bias. This qualitative study aimed to investigate the factors influencing the quality of TCM clinical trials to provide strategic advice on trial quality improvement. METHODS: One focus group with clinical trial auditors (n = 4) and six in-depth semi-structured interviews with clinical research organization managers (n = 2), lecturers and researchers in TCM academic institutions (n = 2), a chief physician in a TCM oncology department and a PhD candidate specialized in non-pharmaceutical TCM interventions were conducted. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and thematically analyzed. RESULTS: Factors that influenced the quality of TCM clinical trials emerged with the following 6 themes: trial design; trialists/participants; trial conducting; TCM specified problems; trial monitoring, and finally societal influences. The lack of expertise and time inputs of the trialists were repeatedly mentioned. Methodological difficulties experienced when conducting TCM trials including calculating sample size, analyzing the efficacy of TCM decoctions with multiple ingredients, blinding in trials investigating non-pharmaceutical TCM interventions were highlighted. Interviewees agreed that third-party monitoring can help improving trial quality and improve participant welfare, may accelerate recruiting processes and increase compliance; however more comprehensive regulations and funding requirements would be needed. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified real-life issues influencing the quality of TCM clinical trials from design to reporting. In addition to mandatory training for TCM trial designers and coordinators, more effective institutional oversight is required. Future studies should explore specific measures to address the methodological problems in TCM trials and explore how the quality of TCM trials can affect further evidence synthesis and clinical practice.

16.
World J Urol ; 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562533

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis in perioperative period of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic literature search using Pubmed, Embase, and the Chinese SinoMed, CNKI, WanFang and VIP databases was performed to find comparative studies on the efficacy of different antibiotic prophylaxis strategies in PCNL for preventing postoperative sepsis. The last search was conducted on 21 April 2019. All selected articles were reviewed independently by two, and in case of discordance, three reviewers. Summarized unadjusted odds ratios (ORs) or risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to assess the efficacy of different antibiotic prophylaxis strategies. RESULTS: Thirteen independent studies comprising up to 1549 individuals were included. Compared with single dose before anesthesia, preoperative prophylactic antibiotics significantly reduced postoperative sepsis (OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.20-0.50; P < 0.00001) and fever (OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.14-0.48; P < 0.0001). But no remarkable difference in sepsis risk between patients with and without postoperative prophylactic antibiotics was detected (RR 1.19, 95% CI 0.72-1.97; P = 0.49). And patients receiving postoperative prophylactic antibiotics were at a significantly high risk of fever (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.01-3.05; P = 0.05). Compared with single dose before anesthesia, preoperative prophylactic antibiotics significantly reduced positive pelvic urine (RR 0.22, 95% CI 0.09-0.54; P = 0.0009) and stone cultures (RR 0.40, 95% CI 0.25-0.64; P = 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The conclusion is drawn that preoperative prophylactic antibiotics indeed lowered the risk of postoperative sepsis and fever, whereas its postoperative use seems unnecessary. Besides, preoperative prophylactic antibiotics reduced positive pelvic urine and stone cultures significantly, which are a risk factor for sepsis. In our meta-analysis, the efficacy of different types of antibiotics and different courses of preoperative antibiotics could not be assessed. To verify the correctness of these conclusions, randomized controlled trials with a larger sample size and more rigorous study design are required.

17.
Drug Deliv ; 26(1): 944-951, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544556

RESUMO

This study aimed at investigating the tumor stiffness of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) bearing mice model in vivo to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of targeting nanobubbles (TNBS) conjugated with NET-1 siRNA (NET-1 siRNA-TNBS). Also tested whether shear wave elastography (SWE) could demonstrate the pathological tumor changes and used to monitor therapeutic efficacy as a noninvasive method. The HCC bearing mice model was established by injecting human HCC cell line (HepG2). The mice were then divided into three groups randomly, and were treated with TNBS conjugated with NET-1 siRNA, TNBS conjugated with negative control gene, and saline as control. US-SWE was performed for three times. SWE values of all the tumors in three groups were increased with tumor growth. Emax was correlated with tumor size (p < .05). NET-1 gene (treatment group) significantly delayed the growth of tumor size compared to other two groups (p < .0001), showing a significantly increased Emax (p < .05). Immunohistochemical results showed that the NET-1 protein expression was significantly lower than the negative control and blank groups. In conclusion, TNBS conjugated with NET-1 siRNA inhibited tumor growth and prolonged the life of experimental animals. SWE provided a noninvasive and real time imaging method to detect the changes in tumor development.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546002

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Patients with advanced-stage cancer often suffer many physical and psychological symptoms. Exercise has been shown to improve quality of life (QoL), decrease cancer-related symptoms, and maintain or improve functional status in cancer survivors or patients with early stage cancer. However, the effect of exercise on these outcomes in patients with advanced-stage cancer is unclear. OBJECTIVES: This meta-analysis aimed to assess the effectiveness of exercise interventions for patients with advanced-stage cancer in improving cancer-related symptoms and functional status outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive literature search in PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Web of Science from their inception to February 3, 2019, to include randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing exercise and usual care for improving outcomes in patients with advanced-stage cancer. Two reviewers independently screened the studies, extracted data of interest, and assessed the risk of bias of individual RCTs using the Cochrane Handbook, Version 5.1.0. RESULTS: About 15 RCTs enrolling 1208 patients were included. Compared with usual care, exercise showed a significant improvement in QoL (standardized mean difference [SMD] 0.22; 95% CI 0.06-0.38; P = 0.009), fatigue (SMD -0.25; 95% CI -0.45 to -0.04; P = 0.02), insomnia (SMD -0.36; 95% CI -0.56 to -0.17; P = 0.0002), physical function (SMD 0.22; 95% CI 0.05-0.38; P = 0.009), social function (SMD 0.18; 95% CI 0.02-0.34; P = 0.03), and dyspnea reduction (SMD -0.18; 95% CI -0.34 to -0.01; P = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Exercise serves as an effective intervention to improve QoL and alleviate fatigue, insomnia, dyspnea, and physical and social functions for patients with advanced-stage cancer.

19.
Oncogene ; 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511646

RESUMO

A correction to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

20.
J Psychopharmacol ; 33(10): 1227-1236, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487208

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of aripiprazole, olanzapine and risperidone in first-episode schizophrenia (FES). METHODS: The eight-week, open, randomised study was conducted in six Chinese medical centres. Altogether, 498 FES subjects were randomised to aripiprazole (n = 165), olanzapine (n = 168) or risperidone (n = 165). Efficacy was measured with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), tolerability with the Udvalg for Kliniske Undersogelser Side Effect Rating Scale (UKU) and functioning with the Personal and Social Performance Scale (PSP). RESULTS: All three antipsychotics significantly improved the baseline to end-point PANSS total and each of the sub-scale scores (p < 0.001). Risperidone was superior to olanzapine and aripiprazole regarding PANSS total end-point scores (p < 0.05). Cumulative response (PANSS total score reduction ⩾30%) was similar between risperidone, olanzapine and aripiprazole (74.8%, 73.5% and 70.1%; p = 0.707), but risperidone was superior to aripiprazole regarding PANSS total score reduction ⩾50% (37.8% vs. 26.6%; p < 0.05). Olanzapine was associated with the largest weight gain at week 4 and 8 (p < 0.01), weight gain ⩾7% (olanzapine = 49.0% vs. risperidone = 32.5% vs. aripiprazole = 17.0%; p < 0.01), more psychic side effects at week 8 (p < 0.01 each) and more 'other' side effects at week 4 (p < 0.001) and week 8 (p < 0.05) but fewer neurological side effects at week 4 (p < 0.05) and week 8 (p < 0.01). PSP improved more with risperidone than with aripiprazole at week 4 and 8 (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: For FES, risperidone might be a better choice than aripiprazole due to improved efficacy and functional improvement, without inferior tolerability. Aripiprazole is a better choice to avoid relevant short-term weight gain. Olanzapine could be chosen to avoid neurological adverse effects.

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