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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149855, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455280

RESUMO

In order to realize the active and synchronous control of nitrogen (N) and organic matter (OM) release from sediments, this study compared the spatiotemporal changes in the physical, chemical, and biological indicators in the water system under different CaO2 dosing modes. Results from 90-day incubation experiment showed that CaO2 formed a dense barrier layer near its dosing position, improved the anoxic condition of water system, increased the physical adsorption of pollutants by sediments, and reduced the nutrients in overlying water, interstitial water, and sediments. Comprehensive comparison, the improvement effect of shallow injection group (I1) was the most obvious. Meanwhile, the activities of ammonia oxidizing bacteria and nitrite oxidizing bacteria near dosing position and those of denitrifiers and anammox bacteria adjacent to dosing site were significantly increased in all test groups (p < 0.01), thereby realizing the biological removal of N and OM in sediments. In addition, DO and ORP were steadily higher than 5 mg L-1 and 100 mV in I1, where the NH4+-N concentration in overlying water was stable below 1 mg L-1, and the easily released N content in the upper (0-3 cm) and middle (4-6 cm) sediments decreased by 41.64% and 43.56%, respectively. Compared with the large pollutant flux in control (14.31 TN mg m-2 d-1 and 194.05 mg TCOD m-2 d-1), I1 completely inhibited the pollutant release and reduced the original nutrients in overlying water. In general, CaO2 efficiently and synchronously controlled the endogenous release of N and OM under the combined actions of physical interception, physical adsorption, chemical oxidation, and biological transformation. Therefore, this study may provide valuable reference and guidance for the active and synchronous removal of N and OM in sediments and inhibition of endogenous pollutant release under anoxic condition.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Sedimentos Geológicos , Nitrogênio/análise , Peróxidos , Fósforo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
2.
Neural Regen Res ; 17(5): 1115-1124, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34558540

RESUMO

Multiple sclerosis is associated with structural and functional brain alterations leading to cognitive impairments across multiple domains including attention, memory, and the speed of information processing. The hippocampus, which is a brain important structure involved in memory, undergoes microstructural changes in the early stage of multiple sclerosis. In this study, we analyzed hippocampal function and structure in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and explored correlations between the functional connectivity of the hippocampus to the whole brain, changes in local brain function and microstructure, and cognitive function at rest. We retrospectively analyzed data from 20 relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients admitted to the Department of Neurology at the China-Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University, China, from April 2015 to November 2019. Sixteen healthy volunteers were recruited as the healthy control group. All participants were evaluated using a scale of extended disability status and the Montreal cognitive assessment within 1 week before and after head diffusion tensor imaging and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Compared with the healthy control group, the patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis had lower Montreal cognitive assessment scores and regions of simultaneously enhanced and attenuated whole-brain functional connectivity and local functional connectivity in the bilateral hippocampus. Hippocampal diffusion tensor imaging data showed that, compared with the healthy control group, patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis had lower hippocampal fractional anisotropy values and higher mean diffusivity values, suggesting abnormal hippocampal structure. The left hippocampus whole-brain functional connectivity was negatively correlated with the Montreal cognitive assessment score (r = -0.698, P = 0.025), and whole-brain functional connectivity of the right hippocampus was negatively correlated with extended disability status scale score (r = -0.649, P = 0.042). The mean diffusivity value of the left hippocampus was negatively correlated with the Montreal cognitive assessment score (r = -0.729, P = 0.017) and positively correlated with the extended disability status scale score (r = 0.653, P = 0.041). The right hippocampal mean diffusivity value was positively correlated with the extended disability status scale score (r = 0.684, P = 0.029). These data suggest that the functional connectivity and presence of structural abnormalities in the hippocampus in patients with relapse-remission multiple sclerosis are correlated with the degree of cognitive function and extent of disability. This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of China-Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University, China (approval No. 201702202) on February 22, 2017.

3.
iScience ; 24(11): 103263, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34761183

RESUMO

Recent improvements in genetically encoded voltage indicators enabled optical imaging of action potentials and subthreshold transmembrane voltage in vivo. To perform high-speed voltage imaging of many neurons simultaneously over a large anatomical area, widefield microscopy remains an essential tool. However, the lack of optical sectioning makes widefield microscopy prone to background cross-contamination. We implemented a digital-micromirror-device-based targeted illumination strategy to restrict illumination to the cells of interest and quantified the resulting improvement both theoretically and experimentally with SomArchon expressing neurons. We found that targeted illumination increased SomArchon signal contrast, decreased photobleaching, and reduced background cross-contamination. With the use of a high-speed, large-area sCMOS camera, we routinely imaged tens of spiking neurons simultaneously over minutes in behaving mice. Thus, the targeted illumination strategy described here offers a simple solution for widefield voltage imaging of many neurons over a large field of view in behaving animals.

4.
Zool Res ; 42(6): 825-833, 2021 11 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34755501

RESUMO

As a top predator, the Eurasian otter ( Lutra lutra) is an indicator of healthy freshwater ecosystems and a flagship species for conservation. Once widespread in China, the species is now distributed mainly in the upper reaches of the great rivers of western China. However, a lack of knowledge on local otter populations continues to hinder their conservation in China. Here, we conducted a detailed study on habitat use of Eurasian otters in Yushu City and Tangjiahe National Nature Reserve in western China using transect surveys. At both study sites, otters preferred to defecate on large rocks close to or protruding from the river and about 50 cm above the waterline. In Yushu, no spraints were found along the 5 km river bank section in the downtown area, with otters preferring sprainting sites with natural banks, riparian zones, and lower human population density. However, this pattern was not obvious at Tangjiahe, where river transformation and human disturbance are minor. Otter river use intensity was negatively correlated with elevation and human population density in Yushu in both seasons. In Tangjiahe, otter river use intensity was positively correlated with prey mass and flow rate and negatively correlated with human population in spring, but positively correlated with human population and negatively correlated with flow rate in autumn. These results reflect the flexible habitat use strategies of otters at different sites, underlining the necessity to study otters living in different regions and habitat types. We provide suggestions for river modification and call for more site-specific studies to promote otter conservation in China.

5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6489, 2021 11 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34764264

RESUMO

The role of focal amplifications and extrachromosomal DNA (ecDNA) is unknown in gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA). Here, we identify frequent focal amplifications and ecDNAs in Chinese GCA patient samples, and find focal amplifications in the GCA cohort are associated with the chromothripsis process and may be induced by accumulated DNA damage due to local dietary habits. We observe diverse correlations between the presence of oncogene focal amplifications and prognosis, where ERBB2 focal amplifications positively correlate with prognosis and EGFR focal amplifications negatively correlate with prognosis. Large-scale ERBB2 immunohistochemistry results from 1668 GCA patients show survival probability of ERBB2 positive patients is lower than that of ERBB2 negative patients when their surviving time is under 2 years, however, the tendency is opposite when their surviving time is longer than 2 years. Our observations indicate that the ERBB2 focal amplifications may represent a good prognostic marker in GCA patients.

6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 228: 113029, 2021 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34847436

RESUMO

Ethoprophos is an effective and widely pesticide that used in controlling nemathelminth and soil insect. However, ethoprophos has been frequently detected in environment and freshwater. The potential toxicity to aquatic organisms is still not be explored. In this study, zebrafish embryo model was used to evaluated the toxicity of ethoprophos during cardiovascular developmental process of zebrafish. Zebrafish embryos were separately exposed to 10 mg/L, 20 mg/L, 30 mg/L, 40 mg/L and 50 mg/L of ethoprophos exposure at 96 h post-fertilization (hpf), which induced cardiac defects, such as low heart rate, pericardium edema and long SV-BA distance, but had no influence to vascular development. Mechanistically, the expression of cardiac-related genes were abnormal. Moreover, ethoprophos exposure significantly increased oxidative stress in zebrafish embryos by inhibiting the production of antioxidant enzyme (SOD) and activating reactive oxygen species. Expectedly, some apoptosis genes were induced and the apoptotic cardiomyocytes were detected by acridine orange staining. In addition, ethoprophos exposure also inhibited the expression of genes in wnt signaling pathway, such as ß-catenin, Axin2, GSK3ß and Sox9b. BML284, an activator of wnt signaling pathway, can rescue the cardiotoxic effect of embryos. These results indicated that oxidative stress and blocking wnt signaling pathway were molecular basis of ethoprophos-induced injure in zebrafish. Generally, our study showed that ethoprophos exposure led to severe cardiotoxicity to zebrafish embryo.

7.
Front Oncol ; 11: 755341, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34804946

RESUMO

Aim: Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) is one of the main members of the tyrosine protein kinase receptor family. This receptor binds insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) with a high affinity. IGF-1 is a member of a family of proteins involved in mediating growth and development. However, the correlations of IGF-1 and IGF-1R to prognosis and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in different cancers remain unclear. Method: This research comprehensively analyzed the expression pattern of IGF-1 and IGF-1R and the influence of IGF-1 and IGF-1R on clinical significance in prognosis prediction among 33 types of malignancies using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE) databases. The correlation between IGF-1, IGF-1R, and cancer immunity was explored. Results: IGF-1 and IGF-1R displayed inconsistent gene expression levels among diverse cancer cell lines. Typically, high expression level of IGF-1 and IGF-1R was detected in most malignant tumors. High expression of IGF-1 was closely bound up with the unfavorable overall survival (OS) for patients in BLCA, CHOL, and LAML upon Cox and Kaplan-Meier analyses. While high expression of IGF-1R was closely bound up with the unfavorable overall survival (OS) for patients in BLCA, LIHC, and LUAD. Furthermore, high expression level of IGF-1 and IGF-1R were closely connected with high degrees of tumor infiltrates, including CD4+ T cell, dendritic cells, and macrophages. In addition, we found that IGF-1 was commonly positively correlated with the expression of gene markers including LAIR1, ICOS, CD40LG, CTLA4, CD48, CD28, CD200R1, HAVCR2, and CD86. Whereas, IGF-1R was commonly positively correlated with the expression of gene markers including NRP1 and CD276. More importantly, IGF-1 and IGF-1R expression were correlated with tumor mutation burden (TMB), microsatellite instability (MSI), mismatch repair (MMR), and DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) of different types of cancers. Conclusions: The impact of high IGF-1 and IGF-1R on prognosis and immune infiltrates differs across cancer types. Anti-IGF-1R therapy may inhibit tumor growth and contribute to immunotherapy in LIHC and KIRC.

8.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; : e2100619, 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34806832

RESUMO

SCOPE: Many infants suffer from complementary feeding-induced diarrhea (CFID). Studies have shown that intestinal microbes can enhance the intestinal barrier and prevent diarrhea by producing indole derivatives that promote pregnane X receptor (PXR) expression. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, the indole test and determination of the PXR concentration were performed on tryptophan broth cultures of 320-suspected Lactobacillus and Enterococcus strains. Four strains that produce indole derivatives that promote the expression of PXR were screened as potential functional probiotics. Both Lactobacillus rhamnosus MN-431 (L. rhamnosus MN-431) and Lactobacillus oris FN-448 (L. oris FN-448) can colonize the intestine of rat pups, and L. rhamnosus MN-431 can significantly decrease the incidence of diarrhea and intestinal permeability in rat pups. Using real time qPCR and the analysis of the intestinal morphology using immunohistochemistry, it was observed that the metabolized tryptophan from L. rhamnosus MN-431 can reduce small intestinal mucosal damage by stimulating PXR/NF-κB signaling and activating PXR and aryl hydrocarbon receptor. The intestinal barrier is also enhanced by promoting the expression of tight junction proteins such as Occludin and zonula occludens-1 in baby rats. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrated that L. rhamnosus MN-431 can metabolize tryptophan to prevent infantile CFID by promoting the expression of PXR. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

9.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(46): 19300-19305, 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34780153

RESUMO

The development of porous solids for adsorptive separation of propylene and propane remains an important and challenging line of research. State-of-the-art sorbent materials often suffer from the trade-off between adsorption capacity and selectivity. Here, we report the regulated separation of propylene and propane in a metal-organic framework via designed pore distortion. The distorted pore structure of HIAM-301 successfully excludes propane and thus achieved simultaneously high selectivity (>150) and large capacity (∼3.2 mmol/g) of propylene at 298 K and 1 bar. Dynamic breakthrough measurements validated the excellent separation of propane and propylene. In situ neutron powder diffraction and inelastic neutron scattering revealed the binding domains of adsorbed propylene molecules in HIAM-301 as well as host-guest interaction dynamics. This study presents a new benchmark for the adsorptive separation of propylene and propane.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34843165

RESUMO

Air pollutions by SO 2 and NO 2 have caused significant risks on the environment and human health. Understanding the mechanism of active sites within capture materials is of fundamental importance to the development of new clean-up technologies. Here we report the crystallographic observation of reversible coordinative binding of SO 2 and NO 2 on open Ni(II) sites in a metal-organic framework (NKU-100) incorporating an unprecedented {Ni 12 }-wheel, which exhibits six open Ni(II) sites on desolvation. Immobilised gas molecules are further stabilised by cooperative host-guest interactions comprised of hydrogen bonds, π ··· π interactions and dipole interactions. At 298 K and 1.0 bar, NKU-100 shows adsorption uptakes of 6.21 and 5.80 mmol g -1 for SO 2 and NO 2 , respectively. Dynamic breakthrough experiments have confirmed the selective retention of SO 2 and NO 2 at low concentrations under dry conditions. This work will inspire the future design of efficient sorbents for the capture of SO 2 and NO 2 .

11.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(25): 7459-7467, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34616812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is a rare mucinous neoplasm with a relatively low incidence of 1 to 2 per million individuals. It is typically characterized by a type of gelatinous ascites named "jelly belly". Most cases of PMP occur in association with ruptured primary mucinous tumors of the appendix (90%). Periodically, PMP can originate from mucinous carcinomas at other sites, including the colorectum, gallbladder, and pancreas. However, unusual origin can occur, as noted in this case report. CASE SUMMARY: A 52-year-old woman had an unusual derivation of PMP from intestinal duplication. The patient complained of abdominal distension and increasing abdominal girth. Abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed a mass in the greater omentum located on the left side of the abdomen, likely to be a cystic mass of peritoneal origin. A PMP diagnosis was presumed based on the specific signs of the mass with flocculent and stripe-like echoes in ultrasound images. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous aspiration suggested a high likelihood of PMP. Once the PMP diagnosis was recognized, identification of the origin of the primary tumor was indicated. Thus, an exploratory laparoscopy was performed. In the absence of a primary tumor of appendix origin, the diagnosis of a low-grade mucinous neoplasm of intestinal duplication origin was finally confirmed by histopathology. CONCLUSION: PMP is secondary to mucinous carcinomas of the appendix mostly. This case resulted from an unusual derivation from intestinal duplication.

12.
Chem Soc Rev ; 50(20): 11270-11292, 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34632985

RESUMO

The development of efficient catalysts to break down and convert woody biomass will be a paradigm shift in delivering the global target of sustainable economy and environment via the use of cheap, highly abundant, and renewable carbon resources. However, such development is extremely challenging due to the complexity of lignocellulose, and today most biomass is treated simply as waste. The solution lies in the design of multifunctional catalysts that can place effective control on substrate activation and product selectivity. This is, however, severely hindered by the lack of fundamental understanding of (i) the precise role of active sites, and (ii) the catalyst-substrate chemistry that underpins the catalytic activity. Moreover, active sites alone often cannot deliver the desired selectivity of products, and full understanding of the microenvironment of the active sites is urgently needed. Here, we review key recent advances in the study of reaction mechanisms of biomass conversion over emerging heterogeneous catalysts. These insights will inform the design of future catalytic systems showing improved activity and selectivity.

14.
Exp Ther Med ; 22(6): 1400, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34675994

RESUMO

Safranal (SFR), an active ingredient extracted from saffron, exhibits a protective effect on the cardiovascular system. However, the mechanism of SFR against hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-induced cardiomyocyte injury has previously not been investigated in vitro. The aim of the present study was therefore to observe the protective effects of SFR on H/R-induced cardiomyocyte injury and to explore its mechanisms. A H/R injury model of H9c2 cardiac myoblasts was established by administering 800 µmol/l CoCl2 to H9c2 cells for 24 h and reoxygenating the cells for 4 h to induce hypoxia. H9c2 cardiac myoblasts were pretreated with SFR for 12 h to evaluate the associated protective effects. A Cell Counting Kit-8 assay was used for cell viability detection, and the expression levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA) and caspase-3, and the intracellular Ca2+ concentration were measured using the corresponding commercial kits. Levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cells were detected using 2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate. Flow cytometry was used to determine the degree of apoptosis and the level of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Moreover, the expression levels of phosphorylated (p-)PI3K, AKT, p-AKT, glycogen synthase kinase 3ß (GSK3ß), p-GSK3ß, Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-3 were measured using western blot analysis. Results of the present study demonstrated that the H9c2 cardiac myoblasts treated with SFR exhibited significantly improved levels of viability and significantly reduced levels of ROS, compared with the H/R group. Furthermore, compared with the H/R group, SFR treatment significantly increased the MMP levels and antioxidant enzyme levels, including CAT, SOD and GSH-px; whereas the levels of CK-MB, LDH, MDA and intracellular Ca2+ concentration were significantly decreased. Moreover, the results of the present study demonstrated that SFR significantly reduced caspase-3, cleaved caspase-3 and Bax protein expression levels, but upregulated the Bcl-2 protein expression levels. SFR also increased the protein expressions of PI3K/AKT/GSK3ß. In summary, the results suggested that SFR may exert a protective effect against H/R-induced cardiomyocyte injury, which occurs in connection with the inhibition of oxidative stress and apoptosis via regulation of the PI3K/AKT/GSK3ß signaling pathway.

15.
Chemosphere ; 288(Pt 2): 132541, 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648782

RESUMO

The spatiotemporal presence of overall disinfection by-products (DBPs) in two full-scale drinking water supply systems (DWSSs) were investigated using quantification of total organic halogen (TOX). The relationships of TOX with water quality parameters (especially the most regulated DBPs, trihalomethanes (THMs)) were also evaluated. The TOX levels ranged between 2.6 and 70.3 µg Cl/L and between 46.6 and 205.9 µg Cl/L in raw water and distribution water, respectively. The TOX concentration in water increased by an average of nine times after water treatment and varied slightly during distribution, suggesting that TOX in drinking water was mainly formed during chlorination disinfection rather than distribution. No clear seasonality in TOX level was observed. Positive correlations were found between raw water dissolved organic carbon (DOC) with an increase in TOX in treated water and between DOC level with TOX content in distributed water, emphasizing a key role of organics in TOX formation. Chloroform (TCM) was the dominant THM, followed by bromodichloromethane (BDCM) in the drinking water, and the levels of the other two measured THMs (dibromochloromethane and bromoform) were negligible. THM2 (sum of TCM and BDCM) made up average of 18% of the TOX, and was weakly correlated with TOX content (rs = 0.321; P < 0.05), implying that THM is not a suitable surrogate measure for TOX in drinking water. This study provides basic data on the occurrence and variation of TOX within conventional DWSSs and highlights the importance of using TOX measurements to obtain more accurate information about DBP occurrence, for exposure assessment and regulatory determination.

16.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 21(1): 395, 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34686147

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) often have comorbid dyslipidemia, and determining the degree of hepatic steatosis can help predict the risk of cardiovascular events in PBC patients. The aim of our study was to analyze the characteristics of lipid distribution and the degree of hepatic steatosis in PBC. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 479 cases of PBC, chronic hepatitis B (CHB), chronic hepatitis C (CHC), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and healthy subjects (Normal) diagnosed by liver biopsy or definitive clinical diagnosis. Controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) values were applied to assess the degree of steatosis of the liver, and lipid levels were also compared in the five cohorts. RESULTS: We found that among the five groups of subjects, the PBC group had the lowest CAP values (P < 0.001), and the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level in the PBC group was higher than normal, CHC and CHB group (P = 0.004, P = 0.033, P < 0.001, respectively).In the multivariate linear analysis, only BMI (ß = 1.280, P = 0.028), ALP (ß = - 0.064, P = 0.012), TBA (ß = - 0.126, P = 0.020), TG (ß = 12.520, P = 0.000), HDL-C (ß = - 11.338, P = 0.001) and LDL-C (ß = 7.012, P = 0.002) were independent predictors of CAP. CONCLUSIONS: Among PBC, CHB, CHC, NAFLD and healthy subjects, PBC had the lowest degree of hepatic steatosis and higher HDL-C levels, all of which were found to be protective factors against atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk and would provide a valuable reference for the risk of developing cardiovascular events in PBC patients.


Assuntos
Cirrose Hepática Biliar , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , HDL-Colesterol , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática Biliar/complicações , Cirrose Hepática Biliar/epidemiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Am J Cancer Res ; 11(9): 4347-4363, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34659891

RESUMO

Human apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide (APOBEC) 3 cytidine deaminases are the prominent drivers of somatic mutations in cancers. However, the effect of APOBEC3s functional polymorphisms on the development of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remains unknown. Five genetic polymorphisms affecting the expression of APOBEC3A (A3A), APOBEC3B, and APOBEC4 and uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG) were genotyped in 728 RCC patients and 1500 healthy controls. The effects of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and interleukin-6 on the activity of the A3A promoter with rs12157810-A or -C in four RCC cell lines (786-O, A498, Caki2, ACHN) and two colorectal cancer cell lines (HCT116, SW620) were evaluated using dual-luciferase assays. Transcriptional repressors to the A3A promoter were identified by chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative PCR. The proapoptotic effect of A3A on RCC cells was evaluated using cytometry. The prognostic values of A3A and ETS1 were evaluated by the Cox regression analysis. The expressions of A3A and ETS1 were evaluated in clear cell RCC (ccRCC) specimens with different polymorphic genotypes using quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Of those functional polymorphisms, CC genotype at rs12157810 in the A3A promoter was significantly associated with a decreased risk of ccRCC, compared to the AA genotype (odds ratio adjusted for age and gender, 0.41, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.28-0.57). Other polymorphic genotypes were not associated with the risk of RCC. The activity of the A3A promoter with rs12157810-C was significantly higher than that with rs12157810-A in the four RCC cell lines and two colorectal cancer cell lines. The activity of the A3A promoter with rs12157810-C was greatly up-regulated by TNFα and predominantly inhibited by a transcriptional repressor ETS1. The binding of ETS1 to the A3A promoter with rs12157810-C was looser than that with rs12157810-A. Ectopic expression of A3A significantly promoted apoptosis in ccRCC cells, rather than in colorectal cancer cells. Higher ETS1 expression predicted a favorable prognosis in ccRCC, with a hazard ratio of 0.58 (95% CI, 0.43-0.78). Rs121567810-C up-regulates the A3A promoter activity, possibly due to higher response to TNFα and looser transcriptional repression by ETS1. Up-regulation of A3A increases apoptosis, thus decreasing ccRCC risk in those carrying rs121567810-C.

18.
Can Respir J ; 2021: 6947037, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34621458

RESUMO

Objective: We design a prospective control study on the utilization of transbronchial cryobiopsy guided by EBUS-GS (EBUS-GS-TBCB) to diagnose PPLs. Methods: PPLs were defined as pulmonary nodules or masses with a diameter from 10 mm to 50 mm. PPLs were randomly divided into group EBUS-GS-TBCB and transbronchial biopsy by forceps guided under EBUS-GS (EBUS-GS-TBB). Results: 28 cases were involved in group EBUS-GS-TBCB and 31 cases were in group EBUS-GS-TBB. The mean sizes of PPLs were 30.23 ± 11.10 mm in group EBUS-GS-TBCB and 28.69 ± 8.62 mm in group EBUS-GS-TBB (t = 0.600, p=0.551). The diagnostic yields of EBUS-GS-TBCB and EBUS-GS-TBB were 75% and 64.52% respectively, and the difference between the two groups was not significant (χ 2 value = 0.137, p=0.711). If only the first specimen was taken into account, the diagnostic yields from EBUS-GS-TBCB and EBUS-GS-TBB were 64.29% (18/28 cases) and 35.48% (11/31 cases), respectively. The difference was statistically significant by Fisher's Exact Test (χ 2 value = 4.883, p=0.038). The total incidence rates of bleeding were 21.43% and 6.45%, respectively, in groups EBUS-GS-TBCB and EBUS-GS-TBB. The total incidence rates of pneumothorax were 7.14% and 0, respectively, in groups EBUS-GS-TBCB and EBUS-GS-TBB. Conclusion: The diagnostic yield of EBUS-GS-TBCB was slightly higher than that of EBUS-GS-TBB for the diagnosis of PPLs. EBUS-GS-TBCB might be useful if only the first sample was taken into account.

19.
Front Oncol ; 11: 709530, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34712607

RESUMO

Background: Carbon ion radiotherapy (CIRT) and proton beam therapy (PBT) are promising methods for prostate cancer, however, the consensus of an increasing number of studies has not been reached. We aimed to provide systematic evidence for evaluating the efficacy and safety of CIRT and PBT for prostate cancer by comparing photon radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: We searched for studies focusing on CIRT and PBT for prostate cancer in four online databases until July 2021. Two independent reviewers assessed the quality of included studies and used the GRADE approach to rate the quality of evidence. R 4.0.2 software was used to conduct the meta-analysis. A meta-regression test was performed based on the study design and tumor stage of each study. Results: A total of 33 studies including 13 CIRT- and 20 PBT-related publications, involving 54,101, participants were included. The quality of the included studies was found to be either low or moderate quality. Random model single-arm meta-analysis showed that both the CIRT and PBT have favorable efficacy and safety, with similar 5-year overall survival (OS) (94 vs 92%), the incidence of grade 2 or greater acute genitourinary (AGU) toxicity (5 vs 13%), late genitourinary (LGU) toxicity (4 vs 5%), acute gastrointestinal (AGI) toxicity (1 vs 1%), and late gastrointestinal (LGI) toxicity (2 vs 4%). However, compared with CIRT and PBT, photon radiotherapy was associated with lower 5-year OS (72-73%) and a higher incidence of grade 2 or greater AGU (28-29%), LGU (13-14%), AGI (14-19%), and LGI toxicity (8-10%). The meta-analysis showed the 3-, 4-, and 5-year local control rate (LCR) of CIRT for prostate cancer was 98, 97, and 99%; the 3-, 4-, 5-, and 8-year biochemical relapse-free rate (BRF) was 92, 91, 89, and 79%. GRADE assessment results indicated that the certainty of the evidence was very low. Meta-regression results did not show a significant relationship based on the variables studied (P<0.05). Conclusions: Currently available evidence demonstrated that the efficacy and safety of CIRT and PBT for prostate cancer were similar, and they may significantly improve the OS, LCR, and reduce the incidence of GU and GI toxicity compared with photon radiotherapy. However, the quantity and quality of the available evidence are insufficient. More high-quality controlled studies are needed in the future.

20.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 8(22): e2103302, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664424

RESUMO

Constructing the heterostructures is considered to be one of the most effective methods to improve the poor electrical conductivity and insufficient electrocatalytic properties of metal sulfide catalysts. In this work, MnCo2 S4 -CoS1.097 nanotubes are successfully prepared via a reflux- hydrothermal process. This novel cathode catalyst delivers high discharge/charge specific capacities of 21 765/21 746 mAh g-1 at 200 mA g-1 and good rate capability. In addition, a favorable cycling stability with a fixed specific capacity of 1000 mAh g-1 at high current density of 1000 mA g-1 (167 cycles) and 2000 mA g-1 (57 cycles) are delivered. It is proposed that fast transmission of ions and electrons accelerated by the built-in electric field, multiple active sites from the heterostructure, and nanotube architecture with large specific surface area are responsible for the superior electrochemical performance. To some extent, the rational design of this heterostructured metal sulfide catalyst provides guidance for the development of the stable and efficient cathode catalysts for Li-O2 batteries that can be employed under high current conditions.

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