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1.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 18(3): 315-327, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A cancer diagnosis can impose substantial medical financial burden on individuals and may limit their ability to work. However, less is known about worry for nonmedical financial needs and food insecurity among cancer survivors. METHODS: The National Health Interview Survey (2013-2017) was used to identify cancer survivors (age 18-39 years, n=771; age 40-64 years, n=4,269; age ≥65 years, n=7,101) and individuals without a cancer history (age 18-39 years, n=53,262; age 40-64 years, n=60,141; age ≥65 years, n=30,261). For both cancer survivors and the noncancer group, adjusted proportions were generated for (1) financial worry ("very/moderately/not worried") about retirement, standard of living, monthly bills, and housing costs; and (2) food insecurity ("often/sometimes/not true") regarding whether food would run out, the fact that food bought did not last, and the inability to afford balanced meals. Further adjusted analyses examined intensity measures ("severe/moderate/minor or none") of financial worry and food insecurity among cancer survivors only. RESULTS: Compared with individuals without a cancer history, cancer survivors aged 18 to 39 years reported consistently higher "very worried" levels regarding retirement (25.5% vs 16.9%; P<.001), standard of living (20.4% vs 12.9%; P<.001), monthly bills (14.9% vs 10.3%; P=.002), and housing costs (13.6% vs 8.9%; P=.001); and higher "often true" levels regarding worry about food running out (7.9% vs 4.6%; P=.004), food not lasting (7.6% vs 3.3%; P=.003), and being unable to afford balanced meals (6.3% vs 3.4%; P=.007). Findings were not as consistent for cancer survivors aged 40 to 64 years. In contrast, results were generally similar for adults aged ≥65 years with/without a cancer history. Among cancer survivors, 57.6% (age 18-39 years; P<.001), 51.9% (age 40-64 years; P<.001), and 23.8% (age ≥65 years; referent) reported severe/moderate financial worry intensity, and 27.0% (age 18-39 years; P<.001), 14.8% (age 40-64 years; P<.001), and 6.3% (age ≥65 years; referent) experienced severe/moderate food insecurity intensity. Lower income and higher comorbidities were generally associated with greater intensities of financial worry and food insecurity in all 3 age groups. CONCLUSIONS: Younger cancer survivors experience greater financial worry and food insecurity. In addition to coping with medical costs, cancer survivors with low income and multiple comorbidities struggle to pay for daily living needs, such as food, housing, and monthly bills.

2.
CA Cancer J Clin ; 2020 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32202312

RESUMO

Lack of health insurance coverage is strongly associated with poor cancer outcomes in the United States. The uninsured are less likely to have access to timely and effective cancer prevention, screening, diagnosis, treatment, survivorship, and end-of-life care than their counterparts with health insurance coverage. On March 23, 2010, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) was signed into law, representing the largest change to health care delivery in the United States since the introduction of the Medicare and Medicaid programs in 1965. The primary goals of the ACA are to improve health insurance coverage, the quality of care, and patient outcomes, and to maintain or lower costs by catalyzing changes in the health care delivery system. In this review, we describe the main components of the ACA, including health insurance expansions, coverage reforms, and delivery system reforms, provisions within these components, and their relevance to cancer screening and early detection, care, and outcomes. We then highlight selected, well-designed studies examining the effects of the ACA provisions on coverage, access to cancer care, and disparities throughout the cancer control continuum. Finally, we identify research gaps to inform evaluation of current and emerging health policies related to cancer outcomes.

3.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(2): 308-317, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941708

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With rising costs of cancer care, this study aims to estimate the prevalence of, and factors associated with, medical financial hardship intensity and financial sacrifices due to cancer in the United States. METHODS: We identified 963 cancer survivors from the 2016 Medical Expenditures Panel Survey - Experiences with Cancer. Medical financial hardship due to cancer was measured in material (e.g., filed for bankruptcy), psychological (e.g., worry about paying bills and finances), and behavioral (e.g., delaying or forgoing care due to cost) domains. Nonmedical financial sacrifices included changes in spending and use of savings. Multivariable logistic models were used to identify characteristics associated with hardship intensity and sacrifices stratified by age group (18-64 or 65+ years). RESULTS: Among cancer survivors ages 18 to 64 years, 53.6%, 28.4%, and 11.4% reported at least one, two, or all three domains of hardship, respectively. Among survivors ages 65+ years, corresponding percentages were 42.0%, 12.7%, and 4.0%, respectively. Moreover, financial sacrifices due to cancer were more common in survivors ages 18 to 64 years (54.2%) than in survivors 65+ years (38.4%; P < 0.001). Factors significantly associated with hardship intensity in multivariable analyses included low income and educational attainment, racial/ethnic minority, comorbidity, lack of private insurance coverage, extended employment change, and recent cancer treatment. Most were also significantly associated with financial sacrifices. CONCLUSIONS: Medical financial hardship and financial sacrifices are substantial among cancer survivors in the United States, particularly for younger survivors. IMPACT: Efforts to mitigate financial hardship for cancer survivors are warranted, especially for those at high risk.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944232

RESUMO

Importance: Medicaid expansions as part of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) are associated with decreases in the percentage of uninsured patients who have received a new diagnosis of cancer. Little is known about the association of Medicaid expansions with stage at diagnosis and time to treatment initiation (TTI) for patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Objective: To determine the association of Medicaid expansions as part of the ACA with stage at diagnosis and TTI for patients with HNSCC. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective cohort study was conducted at Commission on Cancer-accredited facilities among 90 789 patients identified from the National Cancer Database aged 18 to 64 years with HNSCC that was diagnosed during the period from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2016. Statistical analysis was conducted from February 18 to November 8, 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Outcome measures included health insurance coverage, stage at diagnosis, and TTI. Absolute percentage change in health insurance coverage, crude and adjusted difference in differences (DD) in absolute percentage change in coverage, stage at diagnosis, and TTI before (2010-2013) and after (2014-2016) ACA implementation were calculated for Medicaid expansion and nonexpansion states. Results: Of the 90 789 nonelderly adults with newly diagnosed HNSCC (mean [SD] age, 54.7 [7.0] years), 70 907 (78.1%) were men, 72 911 (80.3%) were non-Hispanic white, 52 142 (57.4%) were between 55 and 64 years of age, and 54 940 (60.5%) resided in states with an ACA Medicaid expansion. Compared with nonexpansion states, the percentage of patients with HNSCC with Medicaid increased more in expansion states after the implementation of the ACA (adjusted DD, 4.6 percentage points [95% CI, 3.7-5.4 percentage points]). The percentage of patients with localized disease (American Joint Committee on Cancer stage I-II) at diagnosis increased in expansion states compared with nonexpansion states for the overall cohort (adjusted DD, 2.3 percentage points [95% CI, 1.1-3.5 percentage points]) and for the subset of patients with nonoropharyngeal HNSCC (adjusted DD, 3.4 percentage points [95% CI, 1.5-5.2 percentage points]). The mean TTI did not differ between expansion and nonexpansion states for the cohort (adjusted DD, -12.7 percentage points [95% CI, -27.4 to 4.2 percentage points]) but improved for patients with nonoropharyngeal HNSCC (adjusted DD, -26.5 percentage points [95% CI, -49.6 to -3.4 percentage points]). Conclusions and Relevance: This study suggests that Medicaid expansions were associated with a greater increase in the percentage of patients with HNSCC with Medicaid coverage, an increase in the percentage of patients with localized disease at diagnosis for the overall cohort of patients with HNSCC, and improved TTI for patients with nonoropharyngeal HNSCC.

5.
Cancer ; 126(3): 559-566, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31709523

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To the authors' knowledge, little is known regarding the impact of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) on people living with HIV and cancer (PLWHC), who have lower cancer treatment rates and worse cancer outcomes. To investigate this research gap, the authors examined the effects of the ACA on insurance coverage and receipt of cancer treatment among PLWHC in the United States. METHODS: HIV-infected individuals aged 18 to 64 years old with cancer diagnosed between 2011 and 2015 were identified in the National Cancer Data Base. Health insurance coverage and cancer treatment receipt were compared before and after implementation of the ACA in non-Medicaid expansion and Medicaid expansion states using difference-in-differences analysis. RESULTS: Of the 4794 PLWHC analyzed, approximately 49% resided in nonexpansion states and were more often uninsured (16.7% vs 4.2%), nonwhite (65.2% vs 60.2%), and of low income (36.3% vs 26.9%) compared with those in Medicaid expansion states. After 2014, the percentage of uninsured individuals decreased in expansion states (from 4.9% to 3%; P = .01) and nonexpansion states (from 17.6% to 14.6%; P = .06), possibly due to increased Medicaid coverage in expansion states (from 36.9% to 39.2%) and increased private insurance coverage in nonexpansion states (from 29.5% to 34.7%). There was no significant difference in cancer treatment receipt noted between Medicaid expansion and nonexpansion states. However, the percentage of PLWHC treated at academic facilities increased significantly only in expansion states (from 40.2% to 46.7% [P < .0001]; difference-in-differences analysis: 7.2 percentage points [P = .02]). CONCLUSIONS: The implementation of the ACA was associated with improved insurance coverage among PLWHC. Lack of insurance still is common in non-Medicaid expansion states. Patients with minority or low socioeconomic status more often resided in nonexpansion states, thereby highlighting the need for further insurance expansion.

6.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854444

RESUMO

The impact of the Dependent Coverage Expansion (DCE) under the Affordable Care Act (ACA) on receipt of colorectal cancer treatment has yet to be determined. We identified newly diagnosed DCE-eligible (aged 19-25 years, n = 1,924) and DCE-ineligible (aged 27-34 years, n = 8,313) colorectal cancer patients from the National Cancer Database during 2007-2013. All statistical tests were two-sided. Post-ACA, there was a statistically significant increase in early stage diagnosis among DCE-eligible (15 percentage points increase, p<.001), but not DCE-ineligible (p = .09) patients. DCE-eligible patients resected for IIB-IIIC colorectal cancer were more likely to receive timely adjuvant chemotherapy (HR = 1.34, CI = 1.05, 1.71; 7.0 days decrease in restricted mean time from surgery to chemotherapy, p=.01), with no differences in DCE-ineligible patients (HR = 1.10, CI = 0.98, 1.24; 2.1 days decrease, p=.41) post-ACA. Our findings highlight the role of the ACA in improving access to potentially life-saving cancer care, including a shift to early-stage diagnosis and more timely receipt of adjuvant chemotherapy.

7.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675070

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Use of genomic testing is increasing in the United States. Testing can be expensive, and not all tests and related treatments are covered by health insurance. Little is known about how often oncologists discuss costs of testing and treatment, or about the factors associated with those discussions. METHODS: We identified 1220 oncologists who reported discussing genomic testing with their cancer patients from the 2017 National Survey of Precision Medicine in Cancer Treatment. Multivariable polytomous logistic regression analyses were used to assess associations between oncologist and practice characteristics and the frequency of cost discussions. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Among oncologists who discussed genomic testing with patients, 50.0% reported often discussing the likely costs of testing and related treatments; 26.3% reported sometimes discussing costs; and 23.7% reported never or rarely discussing costs. In adjusted analyses, oncologists with training in genomic testing or working in practices with electronic medical record (EMR) alerts for genomic tests were more likely to have cost discussions sometimes or often [(OR = 2.09; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.19, 3.69) and (OR = 2.22; 95%CI: 1.30, 3.79), respectively] compared to rarely/never. Other factors statistically significantly associated with more frequent cost discussions included treating solid tumors (rather than only hematological cancers), using next-generation sequencing gene panel tests, having higher patient volume, and working in practices with higher percentages of patients insured by Medicaid, or self-paid or uninsured. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions targeting modifiable oncologist and practice factors, such as training in genomic testing and use of EMR alerts, may help improve cost discussions about genomic testing and related treatments.

8.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31688923

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about changes in socioeconomic disparities in noninsurance and care unaffordability among non-elderly cancer survivors following the Affordable Care Act (ACA). METHODS: Cancer survivors aged 18-64 years nationwide were identified from Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Trend and difference-in-differences (DD) analyses were conducted to examine changes in percent uninsured and percent reporting care unaffordability pre-(2011-2013) and post-(2014-2017) ACA Medicaid expansion, by sociodemographic factors. RESULTS: A total of 118,631 cancer survivors were identified from Medicaid expansion (N = 72,124) and nonexpansion (N = 46,507) states. Following the ACA, percent uninsured and percent reporting care unaffordability decreased nationwide. Medicaid expansion was associated with a 1.8 (95% CI: 0.1, 3.5) percentage points (ppt) net decrease in noninsurance and a 2.9 (95% CI: 0.7, 5.1) ppt net decrease in care unaffordability. In stratified analyses by sociodemographic factors, substantial decreases were observed in female survivors, those with low/medium household incomes, unemployed and survivors with multiple comorbidities. However, we observed slightly increased percentages in reporting noninsurance (1.7 [95% CI: -1.2, 4.5] ppt) and care unaffordability (3.1 [95% CI: -0.4, 6.5] ppt) in nonexpansion states between 2016-2017, translating to 67,163 and 124,160 survivors, respectively. CONCLUSION: We observed reductions in disparities by sociodemographic factors in noninsurance and care unaffordability among nonelderly cancer survivors following the ACA, with largest decreases in females, those with low/medium income, multiple comorbid conditions, the unemployed, and those residing in Medicaid expansion states. However, the uptick of 82,750 uninsured survivors in 2017, mainly from nonexpansion states, is concerning. Ongoing monitoring of the effects of the ACA is warranted, especially in evaluating health outcomes.

9.
Exp Ther Med ; 18(5): 3333-3340, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602206

RESUMO

Bone tissue engineering provides a substitute for bone transplantation to address various bone defects. However, bone regeneration involves a large number of cellular events. In addition, obtaining sufficient source material for autogenous bone or alloplastic bone substitutes remains an unsolved issue. In previous studies, it was confirmed that bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) had the capacity to promote bone regeneration. Additionally, bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) has been demonstrated to be an active inducer of osteoblast differentiation. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to produce an effective integration system, including a scaffold, reparative cells and growth factors, that may enhance bone regeneration. Firstly, bone marrow-derived BMSCs and EPCs were isolated and identified by flow cytometry. Cell proliferation ability, secreted BMP-2 levels and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were highest in the cell sheets containing BMP-2-modified BMSCs and EPCs. In addition, the expression levels of osteogenesis-associated genes, including runt related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), distal-less homeobox 5 (Dlx5), ALP and integrin-binding sialoprotein (Ibsp), and osteogenesis-associated proteins, including Runx2, Dlx, ALP, Ibsp, vascular endothelial growth factor, osteonectin, osteopontin and type I collagen, gradually increased during the co-culture of ad-BMP-2-BMSCs/EPCs. The levels of these genes and proteins were increased compared with those observed in the BMSC, EPC and BMP-2-modified BMSC groups. Finally, scanning electron microscopy observation also demonstrated that the BMP2-modified BMSCs were able to combine well with EPCs to construct a cell sheet for bone formation. Collectively, these results describe an adenovirus (ad)-BMP2-BMSCs/EPCs co-culture system that may significantly accelerate bone regeneration compared with a BMSCs/EPCs co-culture system or ad-BMP2-BMSCs alone.

10.
J Oncol Pract ; 15(11): e957-e968, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393809

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine the associations among high-deductible health plan (HDHP) enrollment, cancer survivorship, and access to care and utilization. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The 2010 to 2017 National Health Interview Survey was used to identify privately insured adults ages 18 to 64 years (cancer survivors, n = 4,321; individuals without a cancer history, n = 95,316). We used multivariable logistic regressions to evaluate the associations among HDHP/health savings account (HSA) status, delayed/forgone care for financial reasons, and hospital emergency department (ED) visits among cancer survivors compared with individuals without a cancer history. RESULTS: Among cancer survivors, HDHPs with or without HSA (8.9% and 13.9%, respectively; both P < .05) were associated with more delayed/forgone care compared with low-deductible health plans (LDHPs) (7.9%). HSA enrollment was associated with less delayed/forgone care among HDHP cancer survivors (P < .05). ED visits were similar by insurance type. Among individuals without a cancer history, HDHP with or without HSA (9.5% and 10.8%, respectively; both P < .05) were both associated with more delayed/forgone care compared with LDHPs (5.9%). HSA enrollment also was associated with less delayed/forgone care among HDHP enrollees without a cancer history. A small difference in ED visits was observed between HDHPs without HSA (15.3%) and LDHPs (14.1%; P < .05) or HDHPs with HSA (13.4%; P < .05) among individuals without a cancer history. CONCLUSION: HDHP enrollment and HSA status affect access to care and hospital ED visits similarly by cancer history. HDHP enrollment may serve as a barrier to access to care among cancer survivors, although HSA enrollment coupled with an HDHP may mitigate the impact on access. HDHPs and HSA status were not associated with ED visits among cancer survivors. Improvement to care coordination efforts may be needed to reduce ED visits among privately insured cancer survivors.

12.
JAMA Oncol ; 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31268465

RESUMO

Importance: Information on the economic burden of cancer mortality can serve as a tool in setting policies and prioritizing resources for cancer prevention and control. However, contemporary data are lacking for the United States nationally and by state. Objective: To estimate lost earnings due to death from cancer overall and for the major cancers in the United States nationally and by state. Design, Setting, and Participants: Person-years of life lost (PYLL) were calculated using numbers of cancer deaths and life expectancy data in individuals aged 16 to 84 years who died from cancer in the United States in 2015. The annual median earnings in the United States were used to assign a monetary value for each PYLL by age and sex. Cancer mortality and life expectancy data were obtained from the National Center for Health Statistics and annual median earnings from the US Census Bureau's 2016 Current Population Survey's March Annual Social and Economic Supplement. Data analysis was performed from October 22, 2018, to February 25, 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Lost earnings due to cancer death, represented as estimated future wages in the absence of premature death. Results: A total of 8 739 939 person-years of life were lost to cancer death in persons aged 16 to 84 years in the United States in 2015, translating to lost earnings of $94.4 billion (95% CI, $91.7 billion-$97.3 billion). For individual cancer sites, lost earnings were highest for lung cancer ($21.3 billion), followed by colorectal ($9.4 billion), female breast ($6.2 billion), and pancreatic ($6.1 billion) cancer. Age-standardized lost earning rates per 100 000 were lowest in the West and highest in the South, ranging from $19.6 million (95% CI, $19.1 million-$20.2 million) in Utah to $35.3 million ($34.4 million-$36.3 million) in Kentucky. Approximately 2.4 million PYLL and $27.7 billion (95% CI, $26.9 billion-$28.5 billion) in lost earnings (29.3% of total that occurred in 2015) would have been avoided in 2015 if all states had the same age-specific PYLL or lost earning rates as Utah. Conclusions and Relevance: Our findings indicate large state variation in the economic burden of cancer and suggest the potential for substantial financial benefit through delivery of effective cancer prevention, screening, and treatment to minimize premature cancer mortality in all states.

13.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 3(1): pkz001, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31360889

RESUMO

The dependent coverage expansion (DCE) and Medicaid expansions (ME) under the Affordable Care Act (ACA) may differentially affect eligibility for health insurance coverage in young adult cancer patients. Studies examining temporal patterns of coverage changes in young adults following these policies are lacking. We used data from the National Cancer Database 2003-2015 to conduct a quasi-experimental study of cancer patients ages 19-34 years, grouped as DCE-eligible (19- to 25-year-olds) and DCE-ineligible (27- to 34-year-olds). Although private insurance coverage in DCE-eligible cancer patients increased incrementally following DCE implementation (0.5 per quarter; P < .001), an immediate effect on Medicaid coverage gains was observed after ME in all young adult cancer patients (3.01 for DCE-eligible and 1.62 for DCE-ineligible, both P < .001). Therefore, DCE and ME each had statistically significant and distinct effects on insurance coverage gains. Distinct temporal patterns of ACA policies' impact on insurance coverage gains likely affect patterns of receipt of cancer care. Temporal patterns should be considered when evaluating the impact of health policies.

14.
J Oncol Pract ; 15(11): e916-e924, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265350

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of the current study was to assess whether the quality of patient-provider communication on key elements of cancer survivorship care changed between 2011 and 2016. METHODS: Participating survivors completed the 2011 or 2016 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Experiences with Cancer Surveys (N = 2,266). Participants reported whether any clinician ever discussed different aspects of survivorship care. Responses ranged from "Did not discuss at all" to "Discussed it with me in detail". Distributions of responses were compared among all respondents and only among those who had received cancer-directed treatment within 3 years of the survey. RESULTS: In 2011, the percentage of survivors who did not receive detailed instructions on follow-up care, late or long-term adverse effects, lifestyle recommendations, and emotional or social needs were 35.1% (95% CI, 31.9% to 38.4%), 54.2% (95% CI, 50.7% to 57.6%), 58.9% (95% CI, 55.3% to 62.5%), and 69.2% (95% CI, 65.9% to 72.3%), respectively, and the corresponding proportions for 2016 were 35.4% (95% CI, 31.9% to 37.8%), 55.5% (95% CI, 51.7% to 59.3%), 57.8% (95% CI, 54.2% to 61.2%), and 68.2% (95% CI, 64.3% to 71.8%), respectively. Findings were similar among recently treated respondents. Only 24% in 2011 and 22% in 2016 reported having detailed discussions about all four topics. In 2016, 47.6% of patients (95% CI, 43.8% to 51.4%) reported not having detailed discussions with their providers about a summary of their cancer treatments. CONCLUSION: Clear gaps in the quality of communication between survivors of cancer and providers persist. Our results highlight the need for continued efforts to improve communication between survivors of cancer and providers, including targeted interventions in key survivorship care areas.

15.
Value Health ; 22(7): 762-767, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277821

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship between cancer history and cost-related medication nonadherence (CRN) as well as cost-coping strategies, by health insurance coverage. METHODS: We used the 2013 to 2016 National Health Interview Survey to identify adults aged 18 to 64 years with (n = 3599) and without (n = 56 909) a cancer history. Cost-related changes in medication use included (1) CRN, measured as skipping, taking less, or delaying medication because of cost, and (2) cost-coping strategies, measured as requesting lower cost medication or using alternative therapies to save money. Separate multivariable logistic regressions were used to calculate the adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of CRN and cost-coping strategies associated with cancer history, stratified by insurance. RESULTS: Cancer survivors were more likely than adults without a cancer history to report CRN (AOR 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10-1.43) and cost-coping strategies (AOR 1.10; 95% CI 0.99-1.19). Among the privately insured, the difference in CRN by cancer history was the greatest among those enrolled in high-deductible health plans (HDHPs) without health savings accounts (HSAs) (AOR 1.78; 95% CI 1.30-2.44). Among adults with HDHP and HSA, cancer survivors were less likely to report cost-coping strategies (AOR 0.62; 95% CI 0.42-0.90). Regardless of cancer history, CRN and cost-coping strategies were the highest for those uninsured, enrolled in HDHP without HSA, and without prescription drug coverage under their health plan (all P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: Cancer survivors are prone to CRN and more likely to use cost-coping strategies. Expanding options for health insurance coverage, use of HSAs for those with HDHP, and enhanced prescription drug coverage may effectively address CRN.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/economia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Gastos em Saúde , Cobertura do Seguro/economia , Seguro Saúde/economia , Adesão à Medicação , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Redução de Custos , Dedutíveis e Cosseguros/economia , Substituição de Medicamentos/economia , Medicamentos Genéricos/economia , Medicamentos Genéricos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Poupança para Cobertura de Despesas Médicas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/psicologia , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(22): 494-499, 2019 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170127

RESUMO

In the United States in 2019, an estimated 16.9 million persons are living after receiving a cancer diagnosis (1). These cancer survivors face many challenges, including functional limitations, serious psychological distress (2), and other lasting and late effects of cancer treatments. Because of the high cost of cancer therapy, many cancer survivors are more likely to face substantial out-of-pocket health care expenditures and financial hardship, compared with persons without a history of cancer (3,4). Out-of-pocket expenditures and financial hardship associated with cancer have been higher among survivors aged 18-64 years than they have been among older survivors (5). To estimate annual out-of-pocket expenditures and financial hardship among cancer survivors aged 18-64 years, compared with persons without a cancer history, CDC, the American Cancer Society, and the National Cancer Institute analyzed data from the 2011-2016 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS).* The average annual out-of-pocket spending per person was significantly higher among cancer survivors ($1,000; 95% confidence interval [CI] = $886-$1,113) than among persons without a cancer history ($622; CI = $606-$639). Financial hardship was common; 25.3% of cancer survivors reported material hardship (e.g., problems paying medical bills), and 34.3% reported psychological hardship (e.g., worry about medical bills). These findings add to accumulating evidence documenting the financial difficulties of many cancer survivors. Mitigating the negative impact of cancer in the United States will require implementation of strategies aimed at alleviating the disproportionate financial hardship experienced by many survivors. These strategies include systematic screening for financial hardship at cancer diagnosis and throughout cancer care, integration of discussions about the potential for adverse financial consequences of treatments in shared treatment decision-making, and linkage of patients and survivors to available resources to ensure access to high-quality evidence-based care.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Sobreviventes de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/terapia , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Gen Intern Med ; 34(8): 1494-1502, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31044413

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High patient out-of-pocket (OOP) spending for medical care is associated with medical debt, distress about household finances, and forgoing medical care because of cost in the USA. OBJECTIVE: To examine the national prevalence of medical financial hardship domains: (1) material conditions from increased OOP expenses (e.g., medical debt), (2) psychological responses (e.g., distress), and (3) coping behaviors (e.g., forgoing care); and factors associated with financial hardship. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: We identified adults aged 18-64 years (N = 68,828) and ≥ 65 years (N = 24,614) from the 2015-2017 National Health Interview Survey. Multivariable analyses of nationally representative cross-sectional survey data were stratified by age group, 18-64 years and ≥ 65 years. MAIN MEASURES: Prevalence of material, psychological, and behavioral hardship and hardship intensity. KEY RESULTS: Approximately 137.1 million (95% CI 132.7-141.5) adults reported any medical financial hardship in the past year. Hardship is more common for material, psychological and behavioral domains in adults aged 18-64 years (28.9%, 46.9%, and 21.2%, respectively) than in adults aged ≥ 65 years (15.3%, 28.4%, and 12.7%, respectively; all p < .001). Lower educational attainment and more health conditions were strongly associated with hardship intensity in multivariable analyses in both age groups (p < .001). In the younger group, the uninsured were more likely to report multiple domains of hardship (52.8%), compared to those with some public (26.5%) or private insurance (23.2%) (p < .001). In the older group, individuals with Medicare only were more likely to report hardship in multiple domains (17.1%) compared to those with Medicare and public (12.1%) or Medicare and private coverage (10.1%) (p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Medical financial hardship is common in the USA, especially in adults aged 18-64 years and those without health insurance coverage. With trends towards higher patient cost-sharing and increasing health care costs, risks of hardship may increase in the future.

19.
Am J Prev Med ; 57(1): 3-12, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31128952

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Medicaid expansions following the Affordable Care Act have improved insurance coverage in low-income adults, but little is known about its impact on cancer screening. This study examined associations between Medicaid expansion timing and colorectal cancer (CRC) and breast cancer (BC) screening. METHODS: Up-to-date and past 2-year CRC (n=95,400) and BC (women, n=43,279) screening prevalence were computed among low-income respondents aged 50-64 years in 2012, 2014, and 2016 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data. Respondents were grouped according to Medicaid expansion timing as: very early ([VE] six states expanding March 1, 2010-April 14, 2011), early (21 states expanding January 1, 2014-August 15, 2014), late (five states expanding January 1, 2015-July 1, 2016), and non-expansion states (19 states). Absolute adjusted difference-in-differences (aDDs) were computed in 2018-2019 (ref, non-expansion states). RESULTS: Between 2012 and 2016, absolute up-to-date CRC screening increased by 8.8%, 2.9%, 2.4%, and 3.8% among low-income adults in VE, early, late, and non-expansion states, respectively. Past 2-year CRC screening increased by 8.0% in VE and 2.8% in non-expansion states, with an aDD of 4.9% (p=0.041). In 2012-2016, up-to-date BC screening increased by 5.1%, 4.9%, and 3.7% among low-income women in VE, early, and non-expansion states, respectively, but aDDs were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of CRC and BC screening among low-income adults rose in Medicaid expansion states, though increases were significantly higher than those in non-expansion states only for recent CRC screening in VE expansion states. Large-scale improvements in cancer screening may take several years following expansion in access to care.

20.
Cancer ; 125(16): 2868-2876, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People living with HIV (PLWH) are at an increased risk of developing several cancers, but to the authors' knowledge less is known regarding how HIV impacts the rate of progression to advanced cancer or death. METHODS: The authors compared stage of disease at the time of presentation and mortality after diagnosis between 14,453 PLWH and 6,368,126 HIV-uninfected patients diagnosed with cancers of the oral cavity, stomach, colorectum, anus, liver, pancreas, lung, female breast, cervix, prostate, bladder, kidney, and thyroid and melanoma using data from the National Cancer Data Base (2004-2014). Polytomous logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards regression were used to evaluate the association between HIV, cancer stage, and stage-adjusted mortality after diagnosis, respectively. Regression models accounted for the type of health facility at which cancer treatment was administered and the type of individual health insurance. RESULTS: HIV-infected patients with cancer were found to be more likely to be uninsured (HIV-infected: 5.0% vs HIV-uninfected: 3.3%; P < .0001) and were less likely to have private health insurance (25.4% vs 44.7%; P < .0001). Compared with those not infected with HIV, the odds of being diagnosed at an advanced stage of disease were significantly elevated in PLWH for melanoma and cancers of the oral cavity, liver, female breast, prostate, and thyroid (odds ratio for stage IV vs stage I range, 1.24-2.06). PLWH who were diagnosed with stage I to stage III disease experienced elevated mortality after diagnosis across 13 of the 14 cancer sites evaluated, with hazard ratios ranging from 1.20 (95% CI, 1.14-1.26) for lung cancer to 1.85 (95% CI, 1.68-2.04), 1.85 (95% CI, 1.51-2.27), and 2.93 (95% CI, 2.08-4.13), respectively, for cancers of the female breast, cervix, and thyroid. CONCLUSIONS: PLWH were more likely to be diagnosed with advanced-stage cancers and to experience elevated mortality after a cancer diagnosis, even after accounting for health care-related factors.

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