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1.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113860, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626947

RESUMO

Humans face threats from air pollutants present in both indoor and outdoor environments. The emerging role of plants in remediating the atmospheric environment is now being actively investigated as a possible solution for this problem. Foliar surfaces of plants (e.g., the leaves of cotton) can absorb a variety of airborne pollutants (e.g., formaldehyde, benzene, trimethylamine, and xylene), thereby reducing their concentrations in indoor environments. Recently, theoretical and experimental studies have been conducted to offer better insights into the interactions between plants and the surrounding air. In our research, an overview on the role of plants in reducing air pollution (often referred to as phytoremediation) is provided based on a comprehensive literature survey. The major issues for plant-based research for the reduction of air pollution in both outdoor and indoor environments are discussed in depth along with future challenges. Analysis of the existing data confirms the effectiveness of phytoremediation in terms of the absorption and purification of pollutants (e.g., by the leaves and roots of plants and trees), while being controlled by different variables (e.g., pore characteristics and planting patterns). Although most lab-scale studies have shown that plants can effectively absorb pollutants, it is important for such studies to reflect the real-world conditions, especially with the influence of human activities. Under such conditions, pollutants are to be replenished continually while the plant surface area to ambient atmosphere volume ratio vastly decreases (e.g., relative to lab-based experiments). The replication of such experimental conditions is the key challenge in this field of research. This review is expected to offer valuable insights into the innate ability of various plants in removing diverse pollutants (such as formaldehyde, benzene, and particulate matter) under different environmental settings.

2.
J Healthc Eng ; 2021: 6725625, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34630993

RESUMO

This paper aims to explore the influence of virtual reality technology interactive rehabilitation training system and PT and OT operation therapy on the exercise function, daily life activity ability (ADL), and the quality of life in patients with a sports injury. In this context, this paper mainly designed three experiments to test the virtual rehabilitation system: two action experiments (experiment 1), two experiments with actions in 3 different positions (experiment 2), and five different actions (experiment 3), and the motion intention recognition rate, average total time, and task completion degree of the three experiments were calculated. The virtual scene and hardware equipment were kept stable, and the human-machine interaction effect was good. The effectiveness of the proposed virtual reality rehabilitation training system is demonstrated from other aspects. The results showed that the average completion time of 5 volunteers was 57.72 seconds, with an average offline accuracy of 89.03%. In experiment 2, the five volunteers averaged 54.98 seconds, with an average offline accuracy of 91.73%. The average recognition accuracy of the training system reached 90%, demonstrating the effectiveness of the virtual reality rehabilitation training system in terms of motor intention recognition rate, average total use time, and task completion.

3.
Hisp Health Care Int ; : 15404153211040244, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34617469

RESUMO

Background: Caregiver frustration with inconsolable crying is a commonly cited antecedent factor of Abusive head trauma (AHT) in infants. Objective: To assess the effectiveness of an educational intervention to improve patients' knowledge of normal crying patterns in infants and the implications of AHT among women of Hispanic population. Methods: The Period of PURPLE Crying program was piloted as part of Centering Prenatal Care at an outpatient clinic site in the Harris County Health Department system, which cares for a primarily underserved and Spanish speaking population. Educational material and direct counseling were delivered by the clinician. Demographic data was collected and a pre- and post-test survey was administrated to assess participant's knowledge and behavior. Results: Between April 2017 and April 2018, 63 Hispanic women were included in this study. Prior to implementation of the educational tool, most of the survey questions were answered incorrectly. After the intervention, knowledge regarding normal infant crying patterns was significantly improved in all questions. However, knowledge gaps persisted especially in relation to the adequacy of parents' ability to soothe a crying infant and normalcy of excessive crying. Conclusions: The educational curriculum was an effective tool for improving knowledge about normal infant crying patterns in Hispanic mothers.

4.
Chemistry ; 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626039

RESUMO

Low-bandgap organic semiconductors have attracted much attention for their multiple applications in optoelectronics. However, the realization of narrow bandgap is challenging particularly for small molecules. Herein, we have synthesized four quinoidal compounds, i.e., QSN3 , QSN4 , QSN5 and QSN6 , with electron rich S,N-heteroacene as the quinoidal core and indandione as the end-groups. The optical bandgap of the quinoidal compounds is systematically decreased with the extension of quinoidal skeleton, while maintaining stable closed-shell ground state. QSN6 absorbs an intense absorption in the first and second near-infrared region in the solid state, and has extremely low optical bandgap of 0.74 eV. Cyclic voltammetry analyses reveal that the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy levels of the four quinoidal compounds all lie below -4.1 eV, resulting in good electron-transporting characteristics in organic thin-film transistors. These results demonstrated that the combination of π-extended quinoidal core and end-groups in quinoidal compounds is an effective strategy for the synthesis of low-bandgap small molecules with good stability.

5.
Appl Opt ; 60(25): 7714-7720, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613241

RESUMO

In this paper, we demonstrate a novel, to the best of our knowledge, transverse-load and high-temperature sensor based on the cascaded Vernier effect. Two Fabry-Perot interferometers fabricated by a piece of hollow-core fiber (HCF) and a piece of polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber (PM-PCF) are connected by a long part of single-mode fiber with a length of 1 m, and play the roles of transverse-load sensor and high-temperature sensor, respectively. The sensitivity of not only the transverse load but also that of temperature can be enhanced by the Vernier effect. The sensitivity of the transverse load is raised by 7.7 times to 5.84 nm/N, and the temperature sensitivities increased by 5.5 and 5.9 times to -0.0689nm/∘C and -0.1038nm/∘C within the temperature range of 50-400°C to 400-900°C. Moreover, both the HCF cavity and PM-PCF cavity can be split and combined flexibly. Hence, such a sensor could have great potential in sensing applications.

6.
Hypertens Pregnancy ; : 1-8, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488526

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A potential manner to lower the morbidity with the hypertensive disoreders of pregancy is to explore the time of day of delivery. OBJECTIVE: To compare composite neonatal adverse outcomes among term women with hypertensive disorders. METHODS: This population-based cohort study used the U.S. vital statistics dataset from 2013 to 2017. Time of delivery was categorized into three shifts. The primary outcome was composite neonatal adverse outcome.. RESULTS: Compared to neonates delivered at the first shift, the risk of composite neonatal adverse outcome was higher at the third shift (aRR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.13-1.25). CONCLUSION: the risk of composite neonatal adverse outcome is higher if the delivery occurs at the third (23:00-7:00) shift.

7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502212

RESUMO

Age is a major risk factor for severe outcome of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19). In this study, we followed the hypothesis that particularly patients with accelerated epigenetic age are affected by severe outcomes of COVID-19. We investigated various DNA methylation datasets of blood samples with epigenetic aging signatures and performed targeted bisulfite amplicon sequencing. Overall, epigenetic clocks closely correlated with the chronological age of patients, either with or without acute respiratory distress syndrome. Furthermore, lymphocytes did not reveal significantly accelerated telomere attrition. Thus, these biomarkers cannot reliably predict higher risk for severe COVID-19 infection in elderly patients.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , COVID-19/patologia , Epigênese Genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/virologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ilhas de CpG , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/etiologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Telômero/metabolismo , Encurtamento do Telômero
8.
Dermatol Ther ; : e15136, 2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34538013

RESUMO

The routine options for onychomycosis are oral, topical, and device-based therapies which are often limited in terms of efficacy and unsatisfactory side effects. Topical agents such as luliconazole, tioconazole, terbinafine, and tazarotene can be more effective when combined with laser therapies. Our aim was to compare the efficacy and satisfaction rates of CO2 laser therapy with topical agents in patients with onychomycosis. PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Embase, and Ovid databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of combined therapies. Selected study data were analyzed for differences expressed as odds ratio (OR) and relative ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for dichotomous outcomes. Efficacy and satisfaction outcomes were assessed using quantitative methods. Our investigations showed that combined CO2 laser and topical treatments significantly increased efficacy 5.38-fold when compared with topical agents alone (OR 5.38; 95% CI; 3.20-9.04; p < 0.00001), with low heterogeneity observed among studies (I2  = 38%). Mycological clearance comparison rates were also improved by combined treatments. The higher satisfaction of the combined group was assessed by pooled effect (OR 4.56; 95% CI; 2.78-7.49; p < 0.00001). Our evidence suggests combined therapy may exert positive effects and satisfactory safety for patients with moderate to severe onychomycosis, however, optimal combination options and appropriate dosages require more comprehensive RCTs.

9.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; : 102539, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555533

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) is considered to be among the principal pathogens in periodontal disease. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) mediated by cationic amino acid-porphyrin conjugate 4i on P. gingivalis METHODS: The uptake of 4i by P. gingivalis over different times of incubation was evaluated by optical density using a microplate reader. Laser radiation at λ=650nm-660nm with I =50 mW/cm2 at doses of 0, 3.0, 6.0, 9.0, and 12 J/cm2 was used for aPDT. A colony-counting method and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) were used to observe the neutralization of P. gingivalis. The fluorescent molecular probe 3'(p-hydroxyphenyl)-fluorescein and the reagent Singlet Oxygen Sensor Green were used to measure the quantities of HO• and 1O2 produced by 4i after irradiation with different light energies. RESULTS: The 4i conjugate was absorbed gradually by P. gingivalis, reaching a maximum at 30 mins. A clear cytotoxic effect on P. gingivalis was observed with aPDT using 62.5 µM 4i, with colony counts dropping by a factor of 3.35 log10, indicating a sterilization rate of 99.95%. Light irradiation resulted principally in the production of HO• by 4i. A live/dead viability assay demonstrated substantial red fluorescence in P. gingivalis treated with aPDT. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that 4i-aPDT caused substantial cytotoxicity in P. gingivalis.

10.
Mar Drugs ; 19(9)2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34564186

RESUMO

The green alga Caulerpa microphysa, which is native to Taiwan, has a relatively high economic value and a well-developed culture technique, and is used mainly as a foodstuff. Its extract has been shown to exhibit antitumor properties, but the polysaccharide content of the extract and its anti-inflammatory and wound-healing effects and moisture-absorption and -retention capacity remain unknown. Hence, the objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of the polysaccharides in C. microphysa extract (CME) for use in cosmetics. The overall polysaccharide yield from the CME was 73.93% w/w, with four molecular weight fractions. The polysaccharides comprised 59.36 mol% mannose, 27.16 mol% glucose, and 13.48 mol% galactose. In addition, the CME exhibited strong antiallergic, wound-healing, transdermal-delivery, and moisture-absorption and -retention effects. In conclusion, the results suggested that CME potentially has anti-inflammatory and wound-healing effects and a good moisture capacity, which can be used in cosmetic applications.

11.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e044616, 2021 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380714

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to examine the associations of both individual-level and county-level social capital with individual health in China during a period of rapid economic growth. DESIGN AND SETTING: A serial cross-sectional study in China. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: The participants were 42 829 Chinese adults (aged ≥18 years) from the 2010, 2012, 2013 and 2015 Chinese General Social Survey. The outcomes were self-rated physical and mental health in all time points. We assessed social capital by the individual-level and county-level indicators, including frequency of socialising, civic participation and trust. We conducted multilevel binary logistic regression models to examine the associations of individual-level and county-level social capital with self-rated physical and mental health. RESULTS: At the individual level, high frequency of socialising (2010-OR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.33 to 1.66; 2012-OR: 1.39, 95% CI: 1.26 to 1.54; 2013-OR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.15 to 1.42; 2015-OR: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.23 to 1.50) and high trust (2010-OR: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.22 to 1.47; 2012-OR: 1.30, 95% CI: 1.18 to 1.42; 2013-OR: 1.21, 95% CI: 1.10 to 1.33; 2015-OR: 1.41, 95% CI: 1.28 to 1.55) was significantly associated with good physical health in all years. At the individual level, high frequency of socialising (2010-OR: 1.27, 95% CI: 1.14 to 1.42; 2012-OR: 1.21, 95% CI: 1.09 to 1.34; 2013-OR: 1.30, 95% CI: 1.17 to 1.45; 2015-OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.22 to 1.50) and high trust (2010-OR: 1.47, 95% CI: 1.34 to 1.61; 2012-OR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.30 to 1.56; 2013-OR: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.24 to 1.49; 2015-OR: 1.43, 95% CI: 1.30 to 1.57) was also significantly associated with good mental health in all years. No evidence showed that the associations of individual-level frequency of socialising and trust with physical and mental health changed over time. There were no consistent associations of individual-level civic participation or any county-level social capital indicators with physical or mental health. CONCLUSION: The positive associations of individual-level social capital in terms of socialising and trust with physical and mental health were robust during a period of rapid economic growth. Improving individual-level socialising and trust for health promotion could be a long-term strategy even within a rapidly developing society.


Assuntos
Capital Social , Adolescente , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Apoio Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Confiança
12.
J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 50(1): 51, 2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384505

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple surgical approaches have been proposed to repair the congenital choanal atresia. However, there remains no general consensus about the optimal surgical technique. This study aimed to describe and evaluate outcomes of the endoscopic septonasal flap technique combined with bioabsorbable steroid-eluting stents for repair of congenital choanal atresia in neonates and infants. METHODS: Clinical data of 37 neonates and infants with congenital choanal atresia who received nasal endoscopic surgery with the flap technique between January 2018 and July 2020 were analyzed retrospectively. All patients underwent the ultra­low­dose paranasal sinus computed tomography imaging preoperatively to confirm diagnosis and plan the surgery. In these patients, the mirrored L-shaped flap technique was performed for bilateral atresia and the cross-over L-shaped flap technique was performed for unilateral atresia. A total of 22 patients had silicone stents postoperatively and 15 patients had bioabsorbable steroid-eluting stents postoperatively. Silicone stents were removed at one month postoperatively under secondary general anesthesia, while no anesthesia was needed to remove the bioabsorbable steroid-eluting stents. Postoperative follow-up ranged from 10 months to 3 years. RESULTS: The septonasal flap technique was performed in all patients. Compared with the silicone stents group, the average operative duration and the hospital length of stay in the bioabsorbable steroid-eluting stents group were decreased [(97.46 ± 15.37) min vs (83.49 ± 19.16) min t = 13.733, P < 0.001] [(12.8 ± 3.22) d vs (7.67 ± 3.91) d t = 15.082, P < 0.001], the average number of procedures was reduced [(2.04 ± 0.64) vs (1.00 ± 0.001), t = 82.689, P < 0.001], the differences were statistically significant. There were no reports of postoperative restenosis and complications in the bioabsorbable steroid-eluting stents group, and follow-up endoscopic examinations showed patency and stable nasal passages in all cases. CONCLUSIONS: The endoscopic septonasal flap technique can effectively expose and expand the choanal bony structure for repair of congenital choanal atresia in neonates and infants. The combined use of this technique along with bioabsorbable steroid-eluting stents can help prevent the need for revision procedures and also against stent-related injuries.

13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(31): e26623, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397798

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cyclin F (CCNF) dysfunction has been implicated in various forms of cancer, offering a new avenue for understanding the pathogenic mechanisms underlying hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We aimed to evaluate the role of CCNF in HCC using publicly available data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). METHOD: We used TCGA data and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) data to analyze the differential expression of CCNF between tumor and adjacent tissues and the relationship between CCNF and clinical characteristics. We compared prognosis of patients with HCC with high and low CCNF expression and constructed receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. In addition, we also explored the types of gene mutations in relevant groups and conducted Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA). RESULTS: The expression of CCNF in liver cancer tissues was significantly increased compared with that in adjacent tissues, and patients with high CCNF expression had a worse prognosis than those with low CCNF expression. Patients with high CCNF expression also had more somatic mutations. High expression of CCNF hampers the prognosis independently. The GSEA showed that the "http://www.gsea-msigdb.org/gsea/msigdb/cards/BIOCARTA_WNT_PATHWAY" Wnt pathway, "http://www.gsea-msigdb.org/gsea/msigdb/cards/BIOCARTA_P53_PATHWAY" P53 pathway, "http://www.gsea-msigdb.org/gsea/msigdb/cards/HALLMARK_PI3K_AKT_MTOR_SIGNALING" PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, "http://www.gsea-msigdb.org/gsea/msigdb/cards/HALLMARK_NOTCH_SIGNALING" Notch pathway were enriched in patients with the high CCNF expression phenotype. CONCLUSION: High CCNF expression can be seen as an independent risk factor for poor survival in HCC. Its expression may serve as a target for the diagnosis and treatment of liver cancer.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Ciclinas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Ciclinas/metabolismo , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Curva ROC , Receptores Notch/metabolismo , Taxa de Sobrevida , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Via de Sinalização Wnt/genética
14.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2021: 1767308, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34456990

RESUMO

The inconsistency of the detection period of blast furnace data and the large time delay of key parameters make the prediction of the hot metal silicon content face huge challenges. Aiming at the problem that the hot metal silicon content is not consistent with the detection period of time series of multiple control parameters, the cubic spline interpolation fitting model was used to realize the data integration of multiple detection periods. The large time delay of the blast furnace iron making process was analyzed. Moreover, Spearman analysis was combined with the weighted moving average method to optimize the data set of silicon content prediction. Aiming at the problem of low prediction accuracy of the ordinary neural network model, genetic algorithm was used to optimize parameters on the BP neural network model to improve the convergence speed of the model to achieve global optimization. Combined with the autocorrelation analysis of the hot metal silicon content, a modified model for the prediction of hot metal silicon content based on error analysis was proposed to further improve the accuracy of the prediction. The model comprehensively considers problems such as data detection inconsistency, large time delay, and inaccuracy of prediction results. Its average absolute error is 0.05009, which can be used in actual production.


Assuntos
Redes Neurais de Computação , Silício , Metais
15.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; : 1-7, 2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344270

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the rate of neonatal hypoglycemia among newborns delivered by individuals with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in two clinical scenarios: who attempted vaginal delivery vs. had a planned cesarean delivery (CD); who had intrapartum insulin infusion vs. who did not. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of individuals with insulin-treated T2DM who had non-anomalous singleton pregnancy and delivered at a single tertiary center (March 2012 and May 2018). Individuals with chronic renal failure, proliferative retinopathy, or major congenital anomalies were excluded. The primary outcome was neonatal hypoglycemia (blood glucose < 40 mg/dl <24 h of age or < 50 mg/dl >24 h of age). Secondary outcomes included neonatal outcomes. Multivariable Poisson regression models with robust error variance were used to examine the association between groups and the primary outcome. Adjusted relative risk (aRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. RESULTS: Of 233 individuals with T2DM, 215 (92.2%) met the inclusion criteria, of whom 95 (44%) attempted vaginal delivery and 120 (56%) had a planned CD. Individuals who labored had a higher gestational age at delivery (36.6 vs. 35.8 weeks, p = .005), and higher blood glucose levels upon admission (125 vs 103, p < .001) compared to those with a planned CD. After adjustment for potential confounders, there was no difference in risk of neonatal hypoglycemia between the groups (41.2 vs 44.1%, aRR 1.05, 95% CI = 0.75-1.45). Among those who attempted vaginal delivery, 34 (35.8%) required insulin infusion. There was no difference in the risk of neonatal hypoglycemia (aRR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.45-1.37) between newborns delivered by individuals who required insulin infusion and those who did not. CONCLUSION: Over 40% of newborns delivered by individuals with insulin-dependent T2DM had hypoglycemia; however, there was no significant difference in the risk of hypoglycemia, irrespective of the route of delivery and the use of insulin infusion.

16.
Tissue Eng Part A ; 2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34309417

RESUMO

Decellularized extracellular matrix hydrogel (dECM-G) has demonstrated its significant tissue-specificity, high biocompatibility, and versatile utilities in tissue engineering. However, the low mechanical stability and fast degradation are major drawbacks for its application in 3D printing. Herein, we report a hybrid hydrogel system consisting of dECM-Gs and photocrosslinkable gelatin methacrylate (GelMA), which resulted in significantly improved printability and structural fidelity. These pre-mixed hydrogels retained high bioactivity and tissue-specificity due to their containing dECM-Gs. More specifically, it was realized that the hydrogel containing dECM-G derived from porcine peripheral nerves (GelMA/pDNM-G) effectively facilitated neurite growth and Schwann cell migration from 2D cultured dorsal root ganglion explants. The nerve cells were also encapsulated in the GelMA/pDNM-G hydrogel for 3D culture or underwent cell-laden bioprinting with high cell viability. The preparation of such GelMA/dECM-G hydrogels enabled the recapitulation of functional tissues through extrusion-based bioprinting, which holds great potential for applications in regenerative medicine.

17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206347

RESUMO

In this study, an amphiphilic conjugate based on mPEG and cholesterol-modified chitosan with hydrazone bonds in the molecules (mPEG-CS-Hz-CH) was successfully synthesized. Using the polymer as the carrier, the paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded mPEG-CS-Hz-CH micelles were prepared by an ultrasonic probe method. The mean particle size and zeta potential of the optimized PTX-loaded micelles were 146 ± 4 nm and +21.7 ± 0.7 mV, respectively. An in vitro drug release study indicated that the PTX-loaded mPEG-CS-Hz-CH micelles were stable under normal physiological conditions (pH 7.4), whereas rapid drug release was observed in the simulated tumor intracellular microenvironment (pH 5.0). An in vitro cytotoxicity study demonstrated the non-toxicity of the polymer itself, and the PTX-loaded micelles exhibited superior cytotoxicity and significant selectivity on tumor cells. An in vivo antitumor efficacy study further confirmed that the PTX-loaded micelles could improve the therapeutic efficacy of PTX and reduce the side effects. All these results suggested that the mPEG-CS-Hz-CH micelles might be promising pH-sensitive nanocarriers for PTX delivery.


Assuntos
Quitosana/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Micelas , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Paclitaxel/uso terapêutico , Tamanho da Partícula , Polímeros
18.
BMC Immunol ; 22(1): 36, 2021 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some long-term non-progressors (LTNPs) have decreasing CD4+ T cell counts and progress to AIDS. Exploring which subsets of CD4+ T cell decreasing and the determinants associated with the decay in these patients will improve disease progression surveillance and provide further understanding of HIV pathogenesis. METHODS: Twenty-five LTNPs infected with HIV by blood products were classified as decreased (DG) if their CD4+ cell count dropped to < 400 cells/µL during follow-up or as non-decreased (non-DG) if their CD4+ cell count was ≥400 cells/µL. Laboratory and clinical assessments were conducted at 6 consecutive visits to identify DG characteristics. RESULTS: The LTNPs were infected with HIV for 12 (IQR: 11.5-14) years, and 23 were classified as the B' subtype. Six individuals lost LTNP status 14.5 (IQR: 12.5-17.5) years after infection (DG), and the CD4+ T cell count decreased to 237 (IQR: 213-320) cells/µL at the latest visit. The naïve CD4+ T cell count decrease was greater than that of memory CD4+ T cells [- 128 (IQR: - 196, - 107) vs - 64 (IQR: - 182, - 25) cells/µL)]. Nineteen individuals retained LTNP status (non-DG). At enrolment, the viral load (VL) level (p = 0.03) and CD8+CD38+ percentage (p = 0.03) were higher in DG than non-DG individuals. During follow-up, viral load and CD8+CD38+ percentage were significantly increased and negatively associated with CD4+ cell count [(r = - 0.529, p = 0.008), (r = - 0.476, p = 0.019), respectively]. However, the CD8+CD28+ percentage and B cell count dropped in DG and were positively correlated with CD4+ T cell count [(r = 0.448, p = 0.028), (r = 0.785, p < 0.001)]. CONCLUSION: Immunological progression was mainly characterized by the decrease of naïve CD4+ T cell in LTNPs infected with HIV by blood products and it may be associated with high HIV RNA levels.

19.
Chemosphere ; 283: 131252, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34153921

RESUMO

In this work, the pyrolysis of natural rubber (NR) under N2 and H2S atmosphere was performed to illustrate the possible effect of H2S on NR decomposition with and without catalysts. A molecular dynamics simulation based on reactive force field (ReaxFF) was also conducted to understand the interaction mechanism between H2S and intermediates from NR decomposition. Furthermore, the catalytic decomposition of NR under H2S atmosphere and the adsorption characteristics of H2S by zeolites alone were also carried out to investigate the effect of catalysts on sulfur behavior and the reversed effect of H2S on catalyst activity. This work revealed that the introduction of H2S can influence the yields of pyrolytic oil and gas, as well as composition of the oil. Combining experimental and simulation studies, H2S can interact with intermediates from NR decomposition forming sulfur-containing substances in pyrolytic oil. The H2S adsorption experiments by various catalysts revealed that catalysts can chemically adsorb H2S. The introduction of Zn can promote the adsorption ability by reacting with sulfur-containing substances to generate ZnS, with the desulfurization effect following the order of 3Zn/ZSM5 > ZSM5 > 3ZnO/ZSM5.


Assuntos
Borracha , Zeolitas , Catálise , Pirólise , Enxofre
20.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(7): 640, 2021 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162828

RESUMO

Polo-like kinase 4 (PLK4), a key regulator of centriole biogenesis, has recently been shown to play key roles in tumorigenesis. Blocking PLK4 expression by interference or targeted drugs exhibits attractive potential in improving the efficacy of chemotherapy. Nevertheless, the role of PLK4 in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is still undefined. In this study, we discover that PLK4 is a potential target for the treatment of DLBCL, and demonstrate the efficacy of a PLK4 inhibitor when used in combination with doxorubicin. Pharmaceutical inhibition of PLK4 with CFI-400945 inhibited DLBCL cell proliferation and induced apoptotic cell death. The anti-tumor effects were accompanied by mitotic defects, including polyploidy and cytokinesis failure. Activation of p53 and Hippo/YAP tumor suppressor signaling pathway was identified as the potential mechanisms driving CFI-400945 activity. Moreover, CFI-400945 treatment resulted in activation of DNA damage response. Combining CFI-400945 with doxorubicin markedly delayed tumor progression in DLBCL xenografts. Finally, PLK4 was increased in primary DLBCL tissues and cell lines. High levels of PLK4 expression were associated with poor survival in the patients receiving CHOP-based treatment, implicating PLK4 as a predictive biomarker of DLBCL chemosensitivity. These results provide the therapeutic potential of CFI-400945 both as monotherapy or in combination with doxorubicin for the treatment of DLBCL.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Dano ao DNA , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Indazóis/farmacologia , Indóis/farmacologia , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Mitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/enzimologia , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/genética , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/patologia , Camundongos SCID , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
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