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1.
Org Lett ; 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33819423

RESUMO

A tetraindeno-fused bis(anthraoxa)quinodimethane RBR with nine consecutively fused six-membered rings in a row was synthesized. Its structure was confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis and NMR measurement. Compared with an unfused analogue ABA, the indeno fusion onto the zigzag edges not only enhanced the photostability but also dramatically tuned the electronic properties. Due to the existence of two rubicene units, RBR can also be readily reduced to form a radical anion and dianion.

2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 644520, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33833762

RESUMO

New York esophageal squamous cell carcinoma 1 (NY-ESO-1) is a promising target for T-cell receptor-engineered T cell (TCR-T) therapy, and targeting the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A2 restricted NY-ESO-1157-165 epitope has yielded remarkable clinical benefits in the treatment of multiple advanced malignancies. Herein, we report the identification of two NY-ESO-1157-165 epitope-specific murine TCRs obtained from HLA-A*0201 transgenic mice. NY-ESO-1157-165 specific TCRs were isolated after vaccinating HLA-A2 transgenic mice with epitope peptides. HZ6 and HZ8 TCRs could specifically bind to NY-ESO-1157-165/HLA-A2 and were capable of cytokine secretion with engineered Jurkat T cells and primary T cells upon recognition with K562 target cells expressing the single-chain trimer (SCT) of NY-ESO-1157-165/HLA-A2. The reactivity profiles of the HZ6 and HZ8 TCRs were found to be distinct from one another when co-cultured with K562 target cells carrying alanine-substituted NY-ESO-1157-165 SCTs. The binding characterization revealed that the recognition pattern of the HZ6 TCR to NY-ESO-1157-165/HLA-A2 was substantially different from the widely used 1G4 TCR. These findings would broaden the understanding of immunogenicity of the NY-ESO-1157-165, and the two identified TCRs may serve as promising candidates for the future development of TCR-T therapy for tumors.

4.
Clin Ther ; 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33814200

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Moxifloxacin and levofloxacin are currently recommended as empirical initial treatment options for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in China according to guidelines. Most studies that evaluated the efficacy and safety of moxifloxacin and levofloxacin in treating CAP as initial empirical treatment were single-centered trials assessing different clinical end points. In addition, there is limited research investigating moxifloxacin's clinical benefits in the context of health care resource utilization and reimbursement from the payer's perspective in China. Hence, this study was aimed at comparing the clinical efficacy of moxifloxacin and levofloxacin by conducting a meta-analysis and assessing their economic value from the China payer's perspective through a cost-utility analysis model. METHODS: For the meta-analysis, 6 bibliographic databases were searched for relevant publications from January 2000 to August 2020, and studies were assessed for eligibility under predetermined criteria. Meta-analysis was performed by using a random effects model when analyses included >2 trials. For the economic evaluation, a decision-tree model was constructed to investigate the cost-utility of moxifloxacin versus levofloxacin as initial regimens in the treatment of CAP inpatients. Parameter values were derived from meta-analysis, published literature, and clinician survey. The outcome was reported in the form of an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. One-way sensitivity analysis and probabilistic sensitivity analysis were undertaken to assess the robustness of the model. FINDINGS: Twenty-seven randomized controlled trials were included in the meta-analysis. Results indicated that the clinical response rate at the test-of-cure visit with initial treatment of moxifloxacin was significantly higher than that of levofloxacin (3441 patients; random effects model; I2 = 49%; odds ratio, 3.35; 95% CI, 2.35-4.77; P < 0.001). In terms of the safety profile, total adverse events were not significantly different between the 2 groups (2770 patients; random effects model; I2 = 40%; odds ratio, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.56-1.06; P = 0.11). Output of the cost-utility model showed that under the willingness-to-pay threshold of one-time China gross domestic product per capita, moxifloxacin is dominant over levofloxacin, being less costly and more efficacious (0.002 quality-adjusted life year gained, CNY 844 [US$131] saved in total cost, negative incremental cost-effectiveness ratio). Sensitivity analyses indicated the robustness of the model as moxifloxacin remained dominant when model parameter values fluctuated. IMPLICATIONS: Moxifloxacin is more efficacious than levofloxacin as the initial empirical treatment for CAP. In addition, treatment of CAP with moxifloxacin instead of levofloxacin is expected to be cost-saving from the perspective of payers in China. However, for the cost-utility analysis, in the absence of a national representative database on costs for hospitalization in China, inputs in the cost-utility model could be underestimated or overestimated due to estimating errors applied to both treatment arms. (Clin Ther. 2021;43:XXX-XXX) © 2021 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc.

5.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 21(1): 107, 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We assessed whether a postoperative bilateral, ultrasound-guided, posterior transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block could reduce 24 h rescue tramadol requirement compared with placebo in patients undergoing elective laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery. METHODS: Patients scheduled to undergo elective laparoscopic surgery following the diagnosis of colorectal cancer were included in this study and randomized into Group and Group Control. The patients received a postoperative bilateral, ultrasound-guided, posterior TAP block in either 20 mL of 0.5% ropivacaine (Group TAP) per side or an equivalent volume of normal saline (Group Control). The primary outcome was the cumulative consumption of rescue tramadol within 24 h after the surgery. Secondary endpoints included (1) resting and movement numerical rating scale (NRS) pain scores at 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h; (2) incidences of related side effects; (3) time to the first request for rescue tramadol; (4) patient satisfaction regarding postoperative analgesia; (5) time to restoration of intestinal function; (6) time to mobilization; and (7) the length of hospital stay. RESULTS: In total, 92 patients were randomized, and 82 patients completed the analysis. The total rescue tramadol requirement (median [interquartile range]) within the first 24 h was lower in Group TAP (0 [0, 87.5] mg) than in Group Control (100 [100, 200] mg), P < 0.001. The posterior TAP block reduced resting and movement NRS pain scores at 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 h after surgery (all P < 0.001) but showed similar scores at 48 h or 72 h. A higher level of satisfaction with postoperative analgesia was observed in Group TAP on day 1 (P = 0.002), which was similar on days 2 (P = 0.702) and 3 (P = 0.551), compared with the Group Control. A few incidences of opioid-related side effects (P < 0.001) and a lower percentage of patients requiring rescue tramadol analgesia within 24 h (P < 0.001) were observed in Group TAP. The time to the first request for rescue analgesia was prolonged, and the time to mobilization and flatus was reduced with a shorter hospital stay in Group TAP as compared with Group Control. CONCLUSIONS: A postoperative bilateral, ultrasound-guided, posterior TAP block resulted in better pain management and a faster recovery in patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery, without adverse effects. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered at http://www.chictr.org.cn ( ChiCTR-IPR-17012650 ; Sep 12, 2017).

6.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838193

RESUMO

Gel properties of hydrogel-forming by Ala-Lys dipeptide (AK) and iota-carrageenan (ι-C) were investigated by rheological behavior, fourier transform infrared analysis, cryo-scanning electron microscopy, low field-NMR relaxometry and magnetic resonance imaging. Iota-carrageenan was changed from a liquid to a gel with the addition of AK, and the existence of AK significantly increased the storage modulus (G') of ι-C from 590.4 to 1077.8 Pa. In the ι-C/AK gel, the blue-shift of OH stretching and water deformation were observed, meanwhile, the presence of amide I band at 1682 cm-1 was observed. The network of ι-C/AK gel showed a dense honeycomb structure with flocculating continuous phase and rough entanglement morphology. After adding AK, the water free in the pores of ι-C entered the ι-C/AK gel matrix, and the binding capacity of bound water was enhanced. These scenarios proved that the AK as the cationic dipeptide could control the conversion of negatively charged ι-C from an original random structure to a helical structure due to electrostatic interactions and hydrogen bonds. This study provides a new opportunity for the peptides into carbohydrate-based gel matrices, which could provide insights for the further application of ι-C/AK gels in the fields of food industry, tissue engineering and drug delivery.

7.
mSphere ; 6(2)2021 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789940

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) carrying the D614G mutation on the spike protein is the predominant circulating variant and is associated with enhanced infectivity. However, whether this dominant variant can potentially spread through the cold chain and whether the spike protein affects virus stability after cold storage remain unclear. To compare the infectivity of two SARS-CoV-2 variants, namely, SARS-CoV-2 variants with spike protein with the D614 mutation (S-D614) and G614 mutation (S-G614), after different periods of refrigeration (4°C) and freezing (-20°C). We also determined the integrity of the viral RNA and the ability of the spike protein to bind angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) after storage at these conditions. The results showed that SARS-CoV-2 was more stable and infectious after storage at -20°C than at 4°C. Particularly, the S-G614 variant was found to be more stable than the S-D614 variant. The spike protein of the S-G614 variant had better binding ability with the ACE2 receptor than that of the S-D614 variant after storage at -20°C for up to 30 days. Our findings revealed that SARS-CoV-2 remains stable and infectious after refrigeration or freezing, and their stability and infectivity up to 30 days depends on the spike variant. Stability and infectivity are related to each other, and the higher stability of S-G614 compared to that of S-D614 may contribute to rapid viral spread of the S-G614 variant.IMPORTANCE It has been observed that variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are more stable and infectious after storage at -20°C than at 4°C. A SARS-CoV-2 S-D614G variant is currently the most dominant variant in circulation and is associated with enhanced infectivity. We compared the stability of two SARS-CoV-2 variants: the early S-D614 variant carrying the D614 spike protein and the new S-G614 variant carrying the G614 spike protein, stored at both 4°C and -20°C for different periods. We observed that SARS-CoV-2 remains stable and infectious after refrigeration or freezing, which further depends on the spike variant, that is, the ability of the spike protein to bind with the ACE2 receptor with higher efficiency. The high stability of the S-G614 variant also explains its rapid spread and infectivity. Therefore, precautions should be taken during and after handling food preserved under cold conditions.


Assuntos
/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Temperatura Baixa , Aptidão Genética/genética , Humanos , Mutação , Estabilidade Proteica
8.
J Lipid Res ; 62: 100061, 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667465

RESUMO

Individuals with features of metabolic syndrome are particularly susceptible to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel coronavirus associated with the severe respiratory disease, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Despite considerable attention dedicated to COVID-19, the link between metabolic syndrome and SARS-CoV-2 infection remains unclear. Using data from the UK Biobank, we investigated the relationship between severity of COVID-19 and metabolic syndrome-related serum biomarkers measured prior to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Logistic regression analyses were used to test biomarker levels and biomarker-associated genetic variants with SARS-CoV-2-related outcomes. Among SARS-CoV-2-positive cases and negative controls, a 10 mg/dl increase in serum HDL-cholesterol or apolipoprotein A1 levels was associated with ∼10% reduced risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, after adjustment for age, sex, obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and coronary artery disease. Evaluation of known genetic variants for HDL-cholesterol revealed that individuals homozygous for apolipoprotein E4 alleles had ∼2- to 3-fold higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection or mortality from COVID-19 compared with apolipoprotein E3 homozygotes, even after adjustment for HDL-cholesterol levels. However, cumulative effects of all evaluated HDL-cholesterol-raising alleles and Mendelian randomization analyses did not reveal association of genetically higher HDL-cholesterol levels with decreased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. These results implicate serum HDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein A1 levels measured prior to SAR-CoV-2 exposure as clinical risk factors for severe COVID-19 infection but do not provide evidence that genetically elevated HDL-cholesterol levels are associated with SAR-CoV-2 infection.

9.
Environ Res ; 196: 110938, 2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647304

RESUMO

In this study, semi-starvation fluctuation driving PD granules cultivation in situ by microorganism exudate metabolites feedbacks was firstly investigated. The PD granules of high nitrite production were cultivated with an excellent mean nitrate-to-nitrite transformation rate (NTR) of 56.39% in just 30 days. The granules size was improved from the initial size of 0.09 ± 0.01 mm in diameter to a size above 2 mm when the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) content increased from 80.21 ± 10.20 mg/g MLVSS to 777.00 ± 22.13 mg/g MLVSS. Acyl-homoserine lactone signals (AHLs) ultimately increased ten-fold more than the initially through 30 days of cultivation. Meanwhile, Thauera had been identified as the main function bacteria of PD, which enriched from 0.47% to 10.67%. Results demonstrated that AHLs, EPS, PD bacteria and the PD granules cultivation were closely associated. Semi-starvation fluctuation produced oligotrophic stress on bacterial community, a part of bacteria would be eliminated on starvation for oligotrophic stress and AHLs of bacteria regarded as distress signals resulted in the rapid formation of PD granules. A mechanism for PD granular cultivation with semi-starvation fluctuation was proposed from the aspect of oligotrophic stress. A better strategy for rapid PD granules cultivation was obtained and it could be useful for the mainstream granule-based PD combined with the anammox process application in the future.

11.
J Cell Mol Med ; 25(7): 3226-3238, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33675150

RESUMO

Dysregulation of circular RNAs (circRNAs) executes important regulatory roles in carcinogenesis. Nonetheless, few studies focused on the mechanisms of circRNAs in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). qRT-PCR was applied to verify the dysregulated circRNAs in CCA. Fisher's exact test, Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression model were utilized to investigate the clinical implications of circ-LAMP1 in the patients with CCA. The viability, apoptosis, migration and invasion of CCA cells were detected after silencing/overexpression of circ-LAMP1. Xenograft and lung metastasis assays were performed to verify the in vitro results. The regulatory networks of circ-LAMP1 were unveiled by bioinformatic analysis, RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP), RNA pulldown and luciferase reporter assays. Up-regulation of circ-LAMP1 was found in CCA tissue samples and cell lines. Enhanced level of circ-LAMP1 was linked to clinical severity, high post-operative recurrence and poor prognosis for the patients with CCA. Gain/loss-of-function assays confirmed the oncogenic role of circ-LAMP1 in mediating cell growth, apoptosis, migration and invasion. Nevertheless, the level of circ-LAMP1 had no effect on normal biliary epithelium proliferation and apoptosis. Animal study further verified the in vitro data. Mechanistically, circ-LAMP1 directly sponged miR-556-5p and miR-567, thereby releasing their suppression on YY1 at post-transcriptional level. Rescue assay indicated that the oncogenic role of circ-LAMP1 is partially dependent on its modulation of YY1 in CCA. In summary, this study suggested that circ-LAMP1 might be used as a promising biomarker/therapeutic target for CCA.

12.
Neuroimage Clin ; 30: 102597, 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684729

RESUMO

Aphasia, one of the most common cognitive impairments after stroke, is commonly considered to be a cortical deficit. However, many studies have reported cases of post subcortical stroke aphasia (PSSA). The pathology and recovery mechanism of PSSA remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate PSSA mechanism through a multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approach and a two-session study design (baseline and one month after treatment). Thirty-six PSSA patients and twenty-four matched healthy controls (HC) were included. All patients had subcortical infarctions involving left subcortical white matter for 1 to 6 months. The patients underwent MRI scan and Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) examination before and after one month's comprehensive treatment. Region-wise lesion-symptom mapping (RLSM), tractography, fractional anisotropy (FA), and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) analysis were conducted. After MRI preprocessing and exclusion, FA analysis included 35 patients pre-treatment and 16 patients post-treatment. ALFF analysis included 30 patients pre-treatment and 14 patients post-treatment. We found: 1) the amount of damage in the left uncinate fasciculus (UF) was associated with WAB aphasia quotient (AQ); 2) the left UF FA and left temporal pole (TP) ALFF were decreased and positively correlated with WAB-AQ, spontaneous speech, and naming in PSSA patients; and 3) PSSA patients showed increased left TP ALFF when their language ability recovered after treatment. The left TP ALFF change was positively correlated with AQ change. Our results demonstrate the importance of left UF and left TP (one of the cortical terminals of the left UF) in PSSA pathology and recovery. These results may further provide support for the disconnection theory in the mechanism of PSSA.

13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(13): e25209, 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787603

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular disease (CAD) is a devastating illness, but to date there are limited means of predicting a person's coronary stenosis severity and their prognosis. The study was performed to investigate the relationship between dipeptidyl peptidase 4(DPP4) gene polymorphisms and serum lipid profiles, as well as the severity of coronary artery stenosis in patients with CAD and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) for the first time.Herein, 201 patients with CAD and T2DM were enrolled in the Department of Cardiology, Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital. DPP4 rs3788979 and rs7608798 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped. The general information of all patients was collected, and the associations between DPP4 SNPs and lipid profiles were detected. At the same time, association between SNP polymorphisms and the degree of coronary artery stenosis were analyzed.There was a significant difference in apolipoprotein B (ApoB) levels (P = .011) for the rs3788979 polymorphism, while no difference was identified in other blood lipids or with other mutations. SNP mutation of A to G in rs3788979 was associated with a reduced percentage of severe coronary artery stenosis in female patients (P = .023) as well as those with nosmoking (P = .030), nodrinking (P = 0.007), and nocardiovascular family history (P = 0.015).G allele of rs3788979 is associated with a reduced ApoB level. Besides, we suggest that G allele in rs3788979 may have a cardioprotective effect and prove to be a useful and specific measure when predicting a patient's coronary stenosis severity if diagnosed with CAD and T2DM.

14.
Scand J Gastroenterol ; : 1-4, 2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33715585

RESUMO

Gastroesophageal variceal bleeding is a severe complication of cirrhotic portal hypertension. Endoscopic treatment is recommended as the first-line therapy for gastroesophageal variceal bleeding, and its therapeutic effect is closely related to the visualization of endoscopy. We reported 2 cases of gastric variceal bleeding in which clear endoscopic visualization was obtained with two simple approaches assisted by suction tube and stone retrieval basket, respectively. Endoscopic treatments were successfully conducted after the removal of giant blood clots. Serious complications were not found.

15.
BMC Oral Health ; 21(1): 150, 2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33757499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This randomized clinical trial aimed to compare the preparation time and severity of postoperative pain between HyFlex Electric Discharge Machine (EDM) glide path file (GPF) and PathFile. METHODS: Eighty patients whose molar teeth had at least one severely curved canal were treated by the same specialist. After access cavity preparation, the patients were randomly assigned to receive glide path enlargement with either HyFlex EDM GPF or PathFile. ProTaper Next X1 and X2 files were used to prepare the canals. The time of preparation was assessed and the severity of postoperative pain over the next 7 days was recorded. The preparation time and the postoperative pain scores were compared using the Linear Mixed Models (P ≤ 0.05). RESULTS: Glide path enlargement time was significantly shorter with HyFlex EDM GPF (27.828 ± 2.345 s) than with PathFile (48.942 ± 2.864 s) (P < 0.001). The highest postoperative pain score was recorded on the first day and the pain decreased over time in both groups. HyFlex EDM GPF group patients reported significantly less postoperative pain than PathFile group patients overall (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative pain and glide path preparation time could be reduced by using HyFlex EDM GPF system. Trial registration PKUSSNCT, PKUSSNCT-17B12, Registered 24 October 2017.

16.
Front Immunol ; 12: 584299, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33746943

RESUMO

Parenteral administration of killed/inactivated swine influenza A virus (SwIAV) vaccine in weaned piglets provides variable levels of immunity due to the presence of preexisting virus specific maternal derived antibodies (MDA). To overcome the effect of MDA on SwIAV vaccine in piglets, we developed an intranasal deliverable killed SwIAV antigen (KAg) encapsulated chitosan nanoparticles called chitosan-based NPs encapsulating KAg (CS NPs-KAg) vaccine. Further, to target the candidate vaccine to dendritic cells and macrophages which express mannose receptor, we conjugated mannose to chitosan (mCS) and formulated KAg encapsulated mCS nanoparticles called mannosylated chitosan-based NPs encapsulating KAg (mCS NPs-KAg) vaccine. In MDA-positive piglets, prime-boost intranasal inoculation of mCS NPs-KAg vaccine elicited enhanced homologous (H1N2-OH10), heterologous (H1N1-OH7), and heterosubtypic (H3N2-OH4) influenza virus-specific secretory IgA (sIgA) antibody response in nasal passage compared to CS NPs-KAg vaccinates. In vaccinated upon challenged with a heterologous SwIAV H1N1, both mCS NPs-KAg and CS NPs-KAg vaccinates augmented H1N2-OH10, H1N1-OH7, and H3N2-OH4 virus-specific sIgA antibody responses in nasal swab, lung lysate, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid; and IgG antibody levels in lung lysate and BAL fluid samples. Whereas, the multivalent commercial inactivated SwIAV vaccine delivered intramuscularly increased serum IgG antibody response. In mCS NPs-KAg and CS NPs-KAg vaccinates increased H1N2-OH10 but not H1N1-OH7 and H3N2-OH4-specific serum hemagglutination inhibition titers were observed. Additionally, mCS NPs-KAg vaccine increased specific recall lymphocyte proliferation and cytokines IL-4, IL-10, and IFNγ gene expression compared to CS NPs-KAg and commercial SwIAV vaccinates in tracheobronchial lymph nodes. Consistent with the immune response both mCS NPs-KAg and CS NPs-KAg vaccinates cleared the challenge H1N1-OH7 virus load in upper and lower respiratory tract more efficiently when compared to commercial vaccine. The virus clearance was associated with reduced gross lung lesions. Overall, mCS NP-KAg vaccine intranasal immunization in MDA-positive pigs induced a robust cross-reactive immunity and offered protection against influenza virus.

17.
J Food Biochem ; : e13665, 2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33755227

RESUMO

The current study aims to explore the anti-inflammatory activity of Chlorella pyrenoidosa on RAW 267.4 cells and followed by a cross-over clinical trial in healthy subjects to check the antioxidant and anti-aging properties of Chlorella water extract (CWE). For the clinical trial, 44 healthy subjects were requested to consume 27 ml of either placebo or CWE for 90 days (phase I) and vice-versa manner for 90 days (phase II) with 4 weeks of washout period. The RAW 264.7 macrophages treated with Chlorella display potent anti-inflammatory activity by significantly downregulating (p < .05) the protein expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Whereas, the subjects supplemented with CWE showed improved (p < .05) antioxidant status (TEAC, SOD, CAT, and DHEAs) and lower (p < .05) oxidative stress/aging markers (TBARS and 8-OHdG) as well as considerably (p < .05) protected liver (by lowering GOT and GPT). Thus, consumption of chlorella could significantly improve the overall health status by suppressing various oxidative stress markers and aging stress markers. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Chlorella is considered as a popular functional food owing to its rich nutrient value and its array of biological activities. Numerous studies indicated that treatment with Chlorella spp. would considerably lower oxidative stress, inflammation, and regulate immune response which might contribute to anti-aging property in various cell and animal models. Based on the above information, we expected that Chlorella would be a better contender for the development of a novel anti-aging agent. Hence, we designed this clinical trial to assess the beneficial effects of Chlorella pyrenoidosa especially anti-aging. In agreement with our hypothesis, our results also showed that subjected supplemented with Chlorella water extract could significantly improve overall health status by suppressing various oxidative stress markers and aging stress markers. Hence, Chlorella could be developed into a novel anti-aging agent. In the future, it can be prescribed with standard anti-aging agents to improve the overall health status of the elderly population. However, large-scale clinical studies are needed to confirm our statements.

18.
Eur Heart J ; 42(9): 919-933, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33532862

RESUMO

AIMS: While most patients with myocardial infarction (MI) have underlying coronary atherosclerosis, not all patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) develop MI. We sought to address the hypothesis that some of the genetic factors which establish atherosclerosis may be distinct from those that predispose to vulnerable plaques and thrombus formation. METHODS AND RESULTS: We carried out a genome-wide association study for MI in the UK Biobank (n∼472 000), followed by a meta-analysis with summary statistics from the CARDIoGRAMplusC4D Consortium (n∼167 000). Multiple independent replication analyses and functional approaches were used to prioritize loci and evaluate positional candidate genes. Eight novel regions were identified for MI at the genome wide significance level, of which effect sizes at six loci were more robust for MI than for CAD without the presence of MI. Confirmatory evidence for association of a locus on chromosome 1p21.3 harbouring choline-like transporter 3 (SLC44A3) with MI in the context of CAD, but not with coronary atherosclerosis itself, was obtained in Biobank Japan (n∼165 000) and 16 independent angiography-based cohorts (n∼27 000). Follow-up analyses did not reveal association of the SLC44A3 locus with CAD risk factors, biomarkers of coagulation, other thrombotic diseases, or plasma levels of a broad array of metabolites, including choline, trimethylamine N-oxide, and betaine. However, aortic expression of SLC44A3 was increased in carriers of the MI risk allele at chromosome 1p21.3, increased in ischaemic (vs. non-diseased) coronary arteries, up-regulated in human aortic endothelial cells treated with interleukin-1ß (vs. vehicle), and associated with smooth muscle cell migration in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: A large-scale analysis comprising ∼831 000 subjects revealed novel genetic determinants of MI and implicated SLC44A3 in the pathophysiology of vulnerable plaques.

19.
BMC Emerg Med ; 21(1): 24, 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622247

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR) has been reported as better indicator of bacteremia than procalcitonin (PCT), and more precise predictor of mortality than C-reactive protein (CRP) under various medical conditions. However, large controversy remains upon this topic. To address the discrepancy, our group has compared the efficiency of NLCR with conventional inflammatory markers in predicting the prognosis of critical illness. METHODS: We performed a multi-center retrospective cohort study involving 536 ICU patients with outcomes of survival, 28- and 7-day mortality. NLCR was compared with conventional inflammatory markers such as PCT, CRP, serum lactate (LAC), white blood cell, neutrophil and severity score APACHE II (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II) to evaluate the potential outcomes of critical illness. Then, receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves were constructed to assess and compare each marker's sensitivity and specificity respectively. RESULTS: NLCR values were not different between survival and mortality groups. Meanwhile, remarkable differences were observed upon APACHE II score, CRP, PCT and LAC levels between survival and death groups. ROC analysis revealed that NLCR was not competent to predict prognosis of critical illness. The AUROCs of conventional markers such as CRP, PCT, LAC and APACHE II score were more effective in predicting 28- and 7-day mortality. CONCLUSIONS: NLCR is less reliable than conventional markers CRP, PCT, LAC and APACHE II score in assessing severity and in predicting outcomes of critical illness.

20.
Integr Zool ; 2021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33559924

RESUMO

Citizen science is a popular method for the long-term monitoring of the distribution of wild animals. The application of these methods in different species and environments still poses challenges, especially for aquatic animals. In this study, we investigated the distribution of the Bryde's whale (Balaenoptera edeni) in the Beibu Gulf of China by using scientific boat-based surveys and citizen science approaches using 2 different methods of data collection. First, we built our mobile app (Whale Guard) and installed it on fishermen's phones. Second, we used a popular instant messaging app (WeChat) to create an online fisherman community. We found that the mobile phone app collected far fewer reports (5 reports) than the online community group (42 reports, P < 0.01). By using a variety of incentives, we maintained the fisherman's community's activity without significant user loss (P < 0.01). We also found that the locations collected by social media applications in this study were consistent with observations from scientific boat-based transect surveys. The sightings distribution of Bryde's whales differed from those in previous surveys in that they were present across larger areas. Social media apps reported that 69% of reports was confirmed by more than one person, whereas Whale Guard reports were much lower (0, P <0.001). Community-based citizen science can greatly contribute to the long-term monitoring of Bryde's whales, and it has successfully overcome the challenges of data accessibility, accuracy, and fragmentation. Our study shows how to appropriately use citizen science in different community groups and community-based approaches make them useful for large baleen whale surveys.

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