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1.
Chem Soc Rev ; 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34783804

RESUMO

Though N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) have emerged as diverse and powerful discrete functional molecules in pharmaceutics, nanotechnology, and catalysis over decades, the heterogenization of NHCs and their precursors for broader applications in porous materials, like metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), porous coordination polymers (PCPs), covalent-organic frameworks (COFs), porous organic polymers (POPs), and porous organometallic cages (POMCs) was not extensively studied until the last ten years. By de novo or post-synthetic modification (PSM) methods, myriads of NHCs and their precursors containing building blocks were designed and integrated into MOFs, PCPs, COFs, POPs and POMCs to form various structures and porosities. Functionalisation with NHCs and their precursors significantly expands the scope of the potential applications of porous materials by tuning the pore surface chemical/physical properties, providing active sites for binding guest molecules and substrates and realizing recyclability. In this review, we summarise and discuss the recent progress on the synthetic methods, structural features, and promising applications of NHCs and their precursors in functionalised porous materials. At the end, a brief perspective on the encouraging future prospects and challenges in this contemporary field is presented. This review will serve as a guide for researchers to design and synthesize more novel porous materials functionalised with NHCs and their precursors.

2.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(36): 14428-14432, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469133

RESUMO

Organic radicals are open-shell species and have been extensively applied to functional materials due to their unique physicochemical properties with unpaired electrons; however, most of them are highly reactive and short-lived. Herein, a series of stable radicals were readily accessed in two steps from a bis(imino)acenaphthene-supported N-heterocyclic carbene (IPr(BIAN)) through enhancing the delocalization of spin density. The IPr(BIAN)-based radicals 3a-c, obtained by reduction of the corresponding iminium salts 2a-c with KC8, have been spectroscopically and crystallographically (3a,c) characterized. DFT calculations indicate that increasing the electron-withdrawing properties of the para substituent on the carbene carbon atom results in the spin density evolving from the acenaphthene ring to the phenyl ring. The IPr(BIAN)-based radicals 3a-c show excellent stability: they have half-lives of 1 week in well-aerated solutions and feature a high thermal decomposition temperature up to 200 °C.

3.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(69): 8584-8587, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34355228

RESUMO

A facile synthetic method to form cage-annulated crown ether with anchored imidazolium units was developed. The present work verified the potential application of the metal-carbene template approach (MCTA) in the preparation of novel flexible polyimidazolium cages by photochemical [2+2] cycloaddition reactions and may provide a new method for the preparation of flexible pure organic cages with incorporation of a variety of functional sites.

4.
Chemistry ; 27(29): 7853-7861, 2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33780062

RESUMO

The incorporation of functional groups into the cavity of discrete supramolecular coordination cages (SCCs) will bring unique functions and applications. Here, three dicarboxylate ligands (H2 L1Cl, H2 L2Cl and H2 L3Cl) containing N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) precursors as linkers were introduced to construct SCCs by combining with two C3 -symmertic (CpZr)3 (µ3 -O)(µ2 -OH)3 clusters as three-connect vertices, resulted in a series of rugby-like V2 E3 (V=vertex, E=edge) type homoleptic cages (SCC-1, SCC-2 and SCC-3). However, V4 E6 -type tetrahedral cages (SCC-4 and SCC-5), incorporating six Au-NHC moieties, were obtained when the corresponding NHC-gold(I) functionalized ligands (H2 L1Au , H2 L2Au ) were applied. For the first time, we present a trackable CpZr-involved cage to cage conversion to generate a heteroleptic V2 E3 cage (SCC-6) from two homoleptic cages (SCC-2 and SCC-5) with different geometries of V2 E3 and V4 E6 . The heteroleptic assembly SCC-6 can also be formed upon a subcomponent displacement strategy. The structural transformation and reassembly processes were detected and monitored by 1 H NMR spectroscopy and electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry. The formation of heteroleptic assembly was further supported by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Moreover, homoleptic cage SCC-2 possesses a trigonal bipyramidal cationic cavity allowing the encapsulation of a series of sulfonate anionic guests.

5.
Chemistry ; 27(5): 1556-1575, 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32588928

RESUMO

Thanks to the potential of aggregation-induced emission (AIE) phenomena, improved stabilities, and the good selectivity and sensitivity of the chemical responses exhibited by the products, coordination-driven self-assembly with tetraphenylethylene (TPE) units has recently received much attention and has been widely investigated for application in chemical sensors, cell imaging agents, light-harvesting systems, and others. Several reviews have emerged on the topics of AIE chemistry and aggregation-induced emission luminogen (AIEgen)-based supramolecular assembles, however, there is still a distinct lack of full overviews of emission enhancement from the viewpoint of metal-coordination effects. Thus, this minireview offers recent advances that have been made in the design and application of TPE-based metallacycles, metallacages, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and coordination polymers (CPs).

6.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(34): 38357-38364, 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846477

RESUMO

N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) have attracted increasing attention on surface assembly due to their strong metal binding property, but an NHC-modified metal surface as a new growth platform to assemble other functional materials is still a challenge. Here, we report the preparation and chiral sensing properties of homochiral metal-organic framework thin films on carboxyl-containing NHC self-assembled monolayer-modified gold (Au(NHC)) substrates. By using a liquid-phase epitaxial layer-by-layer method, enantiopure [Cu2(cam)2dabco]n thin films with preferred [110] crystal orientation have been successfully grown on Au(NHC) surfaces. The results of electrochemical cyclic voltammetry and quartz crystal microbalance uptakes of (R)- and (S)-1-phenylethanol show that the chiral porous thin film on the robust Au(NHC) surface has good enantiomeric electrochemical recognition and enantioselective adsorption. The present work is a new step to develop metal-NHCs as surface platforms for the preparation of multifunctional thin films for sensing applications.

7.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(31): 13614-13621, 2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645269

RESUMO

Three-dimensional (3D) triply interlocked catenanes are a family of chemical topologies that consist of two identical, mechanically interlocked coordination cage components with intriguingly complex structures. Although only a few successful constructions of 3D interlocked catenanes have been achieved to date via metal-mediated assembly, these complex structures have thus far only been targeted by metal-nitrogen/oxygen coordination techniques. Here, taking advantage of rational ligand design, we report the efficient construction of a series of 3D triply interlocked [2]catenanes of the formula [Ag3L2]2, wherein the metal ions exclusively form bonds to N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) units, and their subsequent transmetalation to the corresponding [Au3L2]2 gold analogues. The formation and transmetalation reactions proceed under mild conditions and are generally applicable. A series of characterization techniques were applied to confirm the formation and structure of the desired 3D triply interlocked architectures: multinuclear NMR spectroscopy, ESI-MS, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The solid-state structure of [Ag3(1a)2]2(PF6)6 unambiguously confirms the existence of a 3D catenane that consists of two identical, mechanically interlocked trinuclear hexacarbene cage components. The interlocking of two 3D cages into a [2]catenane is driven by the efficient π···π stacking of triazine-triazine stacks with cooperative interactions between imidazo[1,5-a]pyridine subunits. Notably, the triply interlocked organometallic cages exhibit good stability toward various organic solvents, concentrations, and temperatures, and no disassembly occurred in the presence of coronene or pyrene. The future construction of mechanically interlocked architectures using metal-carbene bonds rather than metal-nitrogen bonds may provide assemblies with interesting properties for as-yet-unimagined applications in fields such as sensors and molecular electrical conductors.

8.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(38): 16683-16689, 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32533619

RESUMO

Controlling the size and surface functionalization of nanoparticles (NPs) can lead to improved properties and applicability. Herein, we demonstrate the efficiency of the metal-carbene template approach (MCTA) to synthesize highly robust and soluble three-dimensional polyimidazolium cages (PICs) of different sizes, each bearing numerous imidazolium groups, and use these as templates to synthesize and stabilize catalytically active, cavity-hosted, dispersed poly-N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-anchored gold NPs. Owing to the stabilization of the NHC ligands and the effective confinement of the cage cavities, the as-prepared poly-NHC-shell-encapsulated AuNPs displayed promising stability towards heat, pH, and chemical regents. Most notably, all the Au@PCCs (PCC=polycarbene cage) exhibited excellent catalytic activities in various chemical reactions, together with high stability and durability.

9.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(32): 13516-13520, 2020 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32329204

RESUMO

The efficient backbone-directed self-assembly of cyclic metalla[3]catenanes by the combination of tetrachloroperylenediimide (TCPDI)-based dinuclear rhodium(III) clips and 4,4'-diazopyridine or 4,4'-dipyridylethylene ligands is realized in a single-step strategy. The topology and coordination geometry of the cyclic metalla[3]catenanes are characterized by NMR spectroscopy, ESI-TOF-MS spectrometry, UV/Vis-NIR spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction studies. The most remarkable feature of the formed cyclic metalla[3]catenane is that it contains π-aggregates (ca. 2.6 nm) incorporating six TCPDIs. Further studies revealed that cyclic metalla[3]catenanes can be converted reversibly to their corresponding sodium adducts and precursor building blocks, respectively. This strategy opens the possibility of generating unique supramolecular structures from discrete functional π-aggregates with precise arrangements.

10.
Chemistry ; 26(32): 7190-7193, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141658

RESUMO

Polyimidazolium-based cages are considered promising materials based on their fascinating properties and potential applications. These three-dimensional functional structures are highly desirable for the recognition of particular guest molecules, however, their synthesis remains challenging. In this work, we have designed and synthesizes a pure [n]-imidazolium (n=16) cage, the hexadecakisimidazolium salt H16 -2(PF6 )16 , from tetragonal octakisimidazolium salt H8 -1(PF6 )8 . The synthetic method involves formation of metal-carbene templates, a quadruple photochemical [2+2] cycloaddition reaction and subsequent removal of metal ions. Specifically, the synthesized cage, featuring sixteen imidazolium moieties, demonstrated high efficiency for the selective fluorescent recognition of 8-hydroxy-1,3,6-pyrene trisulfonate (HPTS). The present work not only further develops the metal-carbene template strategy by exploiting a new type of polyimidazolium cage, but also provides encouraging prospects for the design of versatile imidazolium-based functional acceptors.

11.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(5): 2524-2531, 2020 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940194

RESUMO

The properties of supramolecular structures are highly dependent on their metal-centered building blocks and organic linkers, thus the search for novel systems will lead to new functions and applications for these unique assemblies. Here, two discrete triangular trimetallic sandwich building blocks were developed to construct supramolecular assemblies through coordination-driven self-assembly with organosulfur ligands. A series of tubelike (Tr2Pd3)4L6 assemblies (Tr = cycloheptatrienyl ring) were obtained from a discrete triangular tripalladium sandwich complex with bifunctional organosulfur ligands. By replacing the metal centers of the platinum analogue, the self-assembly process resulted in the clean formation of (Tr2Pt3)2L3 triple helicates instead of tubelike species. The trimetallic sandwich building blocks were also shown to form face-capped (Tr2M3)4L4 (M = Pd or Pt) tetrahedral cages when trifunctional organosulfur ligands were used. The supramolecular assemblies were comprehensively analyzed by X-ray crystallography. A metal-cluster-induced structural transformation between (Tr2Pd3)4L4 tubes and (Tr2Pt3)2L3 triple helicates was observed. Furthermore, the face-capped (Tr2Pd3)4L4 cage possesses a tetrahedral cavity allowing the encapsulation of a series of guests.

12.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(25): 10073-10080, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589799

RESUMO

A series of supramolecular assemblies of types [Ag8 (L)4 ](PF6 )8 and [Ag4 (L)2 ](PF6 )4 , obtained from the tetraphenylethylene (TPE) bridged tetrakis(1,2,4-triazolium) salts H4 -L(PF6 )4 and AgI ions, is described. The assembly type obtained dependends on the N-wingtip substituents of H4 -L(PF6 )4 . Changes in the lengths of the N4-wingtip substituents enables controlled formation of assemblies with either [Ag4 (L)2 ](PF6 )4 or [Ag8 (L)4 ](PF6 )8 stoichiometry. The molecular structures of selected [Ag8 (L)4 ](PF6 )8 and [Ag4 (L)2 ](PF6 )4 assemblies were determined by X-ray diffraction analyses. While H4 -L(PF6 )4 does not exhibit fluorescence in solution, their tetra-NHC (NHC=N-heterocyclic carbene) assemblies do upon NHC-metal coordination. Upon irradiation, all assemblies undergo a light-induced, supramolecule-to-supramolecule structural transformation by an oxidative photocyclization involving phenyl groups of the TPE core, resulting in a significant change of the luminescence properties.

13.
Chem Sci ; 12(6): 2165-2171, 2020 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34163981

RESUMO

Thanks to the impressive control that microenvironments within enzymes can have over substrates, many biological reactions occur with high regio- and stereoselectivity. However, comparable regio- and stereoselectivity is extremely difficult to achieve for many types of reactions, particularly photochemical cycloaddition reactions in homogeneous solutions. Here, we describe a supramolecular templating strategy that enables photochemical [4 + 4] cycloaddition of 2,6-difunctionalized anthracenes with unique regio- and stereoselectivity and reactivity using a concept known as the supramolecular approach. The reaction of 2,6-azolium substituted anthracenes H4-L(PF6)2 (L = 1a-1c) with Ag2O yielded complexes anti-[Ag2 L 2](PF6)4 featuring an antiparallel orientation of the anthracene groups. Irradiation of complexes anti-[Ag2 L 2](PF6)4 proceeded under [4 + 4] cycloaddition linking the two anthracene moieties to give cyclodimers anti-[Ag2(2)](PF6)2. Reaction of 2,6-azole substituted anthracenes with a dinuclear complex [Cl-Au-NHC-NHC-Au-Cl] yields tetranuclear assemblies with the anthracene moieties oriented in syn-fashion. Irradiation and demetallation gives a [4 + 4] syn-photodimer of two anthracenes. The stereoselectivity of the [4 + 4] cycloaddition between two anthracene moieties is determined by their orientation in the metallosupramolecular assemblies.

14.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(91): 13689-13692, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657391

RESUMO

In this work, we demonstrate the design and fabrication of a series of cylinder-like, hexazido-terminated MI-CNHC (M = Ag, Au) complexes. Moreover, we present for the first time a process-tracing and aggregation-induced emission (AIE) study of a covalent postassembly modification (PAM) process of the AuI-CNHC cylinders, highlighting the excellent versatility and complexity of functionalised poly-NHC compounds as a new type of molecular platform for novel applications.

15.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(38): 13360-13364, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353768

RESUMO

Metallosupramolecular poly-NHC-metal assemblies were prepared from trigonal hexakis (H6 -1 a(PF6 )6 and H6 -1 b(PF6 )6 ) or nonakis (H9 -3(BF4 )9 ) imidazolium salts and Ag2 O. Complexes [Ag6 (1 a)2 ](PF6 )6 and [Ag6 (1 b)2 ](PF6 )6 are built from six Ag+ ions sandwiched between two trigonal hexacarbene ligands with an inner and an outer NHC donor in each of the three ligand arms. The metal atoms are arranged in two triangles. The hexakis-NHC ligands bear cinnamic ester groups at the outlying NHC donors, used in postsynthetic [2+2] cycloaddition reactions linking two hexakis-NHC ligands by three cyclobutane units to give complexes [Ag6 (2 a)](PF6 )6 and [Ag6 (2 b)](PF6 )6 bearing a dodecacarbene ligand. From the related nonakisimidazolium salt H9 -3(BF4 )9 , complex [Ag9 (4)](BF4 )9 bearing an octadecacarbene ligand was obtained. Removal of the template metals yielded very large, stable, polyimidazolium cations with 12 or 18 internal imidazolium groups.

16.
Chemistry ; 25(41): 9764-9770, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31087691

RESUMO

The development of highly emissive dinuclear AgI or AuI complexes [M2 L](PF6 )2 (L=2 a, 2 b; M=Ag, Au) derived from tetraphenylethylene (TPE)-based tetrabenzimidazolin-2-ylidene ligands is reported. The new complexes exhibit a remarkable fluorescence enhancement compared to their parent benzimidazolium salts. The quantum yield (ΦF ) value for salt H4 -2 a(PF6 )4 in dilute solution (c=10-5 m) was found to be less than 1 %, whereas its metal complexes show ΦF values up to 55 % at similar solution concentration. This observation can be attributed to the rigidification of the TPE skeleton upon metalation resulting in a restriction of the intramolecular rotation of the phenyl groups. Functionalization of the complexes [M2 2 b](PF6 )2 (M=Ag, Au) with terminal coumarin groups and subsequent photoirradiation yielded the complexes [M2 3 b](PF6 )2 (M=Ag, Au) bearing a new type of ligand with an unaffected TPE moiety.

17.
Dalton Trans ; 48(21): 7236-7241, 2019 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30706912

RESUMO

A dynamic guest-binding study of BODIPY-derivative 3 (3 = 1,3,5,7,8-pentamethyl-4,4-difluoro-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene) with two Cp*RhIII-based organometallic cages [Cp*6Rh6(µ-CA)3(tpt)2](OTf)61 (H2CA = chloranilic acid, tpt = 2,4,6-tripyridyl-1,3,5-triazine) and [Cp*6Rh6(µ-DHNA)3(tpt)2](OTf)62 (H2DHNA = 6,11-dihydroxynaphthacene-5,12-dione) have been demonstrated. While guest 3 displays a strong green fluorescence emission, the host-guest complexes 3⊂1 and 3⊂2 exhibit almost no emission. However, fluorescence emission can be again 'turned on' by adding coronene (4) or pyrene (5) into the solution of 3⊂1 and 3⊂2. Guests 4 and 5 show stronger binding affinities toward the organometallic cages 1 and 2 due to the strong electrostatic interactions between the electron-rich guest and electron-deficient tpt resulting in the displacement of 3 by 4 or 5, which eventually helps the fluorescence enhancement. Further guest-binding studies using a Job's plot experiment illustrate the formation of discrete 1 : 1 host-guest complexes which are also supported by 1H NMR spectroscopy and ESI mass spectrometry. The anion-exchange study with sodium chloride reveals that the chloride ion can effectively disassemble the host frameworks of 1 and 2 releasing the fluorescent guest 3 which can be again encapsulated into the cavity of reassembled cages promoted by the addition of silver triflate.

18.
Chemistry ; 25(21): 5472-5479, 2019 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30693990

RESUMO

The metal-controlled self-assembly of organometallic molecular cylinders from a series of imidazo[1,5-a]pyridine-based tris-NHC ligands is described in this report. The imidazo[1,5-a]pyridinium salts H3 -L(PF6 )3 (L=4 a-4 c) were treated with 1.5 equivalents of Ag2 O to yield the trinuclear AgI hexacarbene cages [Ag3 (L)2 ](PF6 )3 (L=4 a-4 c), in which three AgI are sandwiched between the two tricarbene ligands. The silver(I) complexes [Ag3 (L)2 ](PF6 )3 underwent a facile transmetalation reaction in the presence of 3 equivalents of [AuCl(tht)] (tht=tetrahydrothiophene) to furnish the trinuclear AuI cylinder-like cages [Au3 (L)2 ](PF6 )3 (L=4 a-4 c) without destruction of the metallosupramolecular structure. The new hexacarbene assemblies feature a large cavity that can easily accommodate a molecule of dimethyl sulfoxide as molecular guest. This is the first study of a unique "host-guest" system containing an organometallic cylinder-like cage derived exclusively from poly-NHC ligands.

19.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(12): 3986-3991, 2019 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30650221

RESUMO

A new class of supramolecular metallacycles capable of undergoing photochemical reactions and in situ release of cyclobutanes in solution is described. The molecular metallacycles were generated through coordination-driven self-assembly of dinuclear metal-carbene complexes as organometallic clips with olefin-functionalized bridging ligands. Photolysis of these molecular metallacycles in situ led to structural interconversion and release of the formed cyclobutane products with quantitative conversion. Further modifications of the obtained cyclobutanes provided a series of new species containing the cyclobutane skeleton.

20.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 57(48): 15767-15771, 2018 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30306679

RESUMO

Homoleptic and heteroleptic cylinder-shaped poly-NHC metallosupramolecular assemblies [Ag3 (L)2 ](BF4 )3 have been prepared by control of the shape, size, and electronic properties of disk-shaped trisimidazolium salts of type H3 -L(BF4 )3 . Both imidazolium salts with an electron-deficient triazine backbone H3 -A(BF4 )3 or an electron-rich benzene backbone H3 -D(BF4 )3 have been employed. Reaction of H3 -A(BF4 )3 or H3 -D(BF4 )3 with Ag2 O yield trinuclear homoligand complexes [Ag3 (L)2 ](BF4 )3 (L=A, D). However, equimolar mixtures of H3 -A(BF4 )3 and H3 -D(BF4 )3 react with Ag2 O under social self-sorting to give the heteroligand assembly [Ag3 (A)(D)](BF4 )3 . The same heteroligand assembly was obtained by transmetallation from mixtures of complexes [Ag3 (A)2 ](BF4 )3 and [Ag3 (D)2 ](BF4 )3 . The transmetallation from [Ag3 (A)(D)](BF4 )3 to [Au3 (A)(D)](BF4 )3 is also demonstrated. The study expands to concepts of narcissistic and social self-sorting from classical Werner-type ligands to organometallic NHC chemistry thereby opening new routes for the construction of poly-NHC metal assemblies with increasing complexity.

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