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1.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797233

RESUMO

Residential solid fuel combustion (RSFC) is a key cause of air pollution in China. In these serial studies, field measurements of RSFC from 166 rural households in eastern China were conducted to update the database of emission factors (EFs) and chemical profiles of gaseous and particulate organic pollutants, and the present study focuses on the intermediate volatile organic compounds (IVOCs), which are precursors of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). The results show that the averaged EFs of IVOCs (EFIVOC) for crop straw, fuelwood, and coal are 550.7 ± 397.9, 416.1 ± 249.5, and 361.9 ± 308.0 mg/kg, respectively, which are among the EFIVOC of gasoline vehicle, diesel vehicle, non-road machinery, and heavy fuel oil vessel, and are significantly affected by fuel, stove, and combustion efficiency. The percentages of normal alkanes (n-alkanes), branched alkanes (b-alkanes), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and unresolved complex mixture from RSFC are 3.5 ± 1.6, 8.0 ± 3.7, 17.6 ± 6.7, and 70.9 ± 8.1%, respectively, and the compositions are featured by lower b-alkanes and higher PAHs than those of vehicle sources. The proportions of some individual n-alkanes and PAHs (such as n-C12-n-C15, naphthalene, and its alkyl substituents) can be used as indicators to differentiate RSFC from vehicle sources, while methoxyphenols can be used to distinguish biomass burning from coal combustion. Based on China's energy statistics, the total IVOC emissions from RSFC in 2014 were 175.9 Gg. These data will help to update the IVOC emission inventory and improve the estimates of SOA production in China.

2.
Org Lett ; 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826851

RESUMO

A styrylpyrone-fused ergosterol derivative, ergopyrone (1), was isolated and structurally characterized from a mushroom, Gymnopilus orientispectabilis, along with five biosynthetically related metabolites (2-6). Compound 1 features an unprecedented hexacyclic 6/5/6/6/6/5 skeleton that would be formed from ergosterol and styrylpyrone precursors via [3 + 2] cycloaddition. The chemical structure of 1 was elucidated by conventional spectroscopic and spectrometric data analysis coupled with computational methods including DP4+ probability and ECD simulation and an NOE/ROE-based interproton distance measurement technique via peak amplitude normalization for the improved cross-relaxation (PANIC) method. Plausible biosynthetic pathways of 1-6 are proposed, and compound 6 significantly regulated lipid metabolism in adipocytes through the upregulation of the mRNA expression of Adipsin, Fabp4, SREBP1, and ATGL.

3.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(4): 352, 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33824285

RESUMO

Transcription factor AP-2α (TFAP2A) was previously regarded as a critical regulator during embryonic development, and its mediation in carcinogenesis has received intensive attention recently. However, its role in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) has not been fully elucidated. Here, we tried to investigate TFAP2A expression profiling, clinical significance, biological function and molecular underpinnings in LUAD. We proved LUAD possessed universal TFAP2A high expression, indicating a pervasively poorer prognosis in multiple independent datasets. Then we found TFAP2A was not indispensable for LUAD proliferation, and exogenous overexpression even caused repression. However, we found TFAP2A could potently promote LUAD metastasis possibly by triggering epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we demonstrated TFAP2A could transactivate Pregnancy-specific glycoprotein 9 (PSG9) to enhance transforming growth factor ß (TGF-ß)-triggering EMT in LUAD. Meanwhile, we discovered suppressed post-transcriptional silencing of miR-16 family upon TFAP2A partly contributed to TFAP2A upregulation in LUAD. In clinical specimens, we also validated cancer-regulating effect of miR-16 family/TFAP2A/PSG9 axis, especially for lymph node metastasis of LUAD. In conclusion, we demonstrated that TFAP2A could pivotally facilitate LUAD progression, possibly through a novel pro-metastasis signaling pathway (miR-16 family/TFAP2A/PSG9/ TGF-ß).

4.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 46(2): 87-94, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33788427

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) at "Baihui" (GV20), "Shuigou" (GV26), etc. on the expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), collagen fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), neuronal nucleus antigen(NeuN), ß-catenin and Axin2 protein and mRNA in rats with cerebral ischemia (CI), so as to explore its mechanism underlying improvement of ischemic stroke. METHODS: A total of 108 male SD rats were randomly divided into control, model and EA groups, which were further divided into 7 d, 14 d and 21 d subgroups, with 12 rats in each group. The CI model was established by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. EA (2 Hz/100 Hz, 2-4 V) was applied to GV20, GV26, bilateral "Sanyinjiao" (SP6) and bilateral "Neiguan" (PC6) for 30 min, once daily (except Sundays) for 21 days at most. The neurological deficit score was evaluated according to Longa's methods. The cerebral infarction state was assessed by using a magnetic resonance T2 imaging system. The expression levels of neurovascular markers as VEGF,GFAP and NeuN, and ß-catenin and Axin2 protein and mRNA in the ischemic brain tissue were detected by using immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time PCR, respectively. RESULTS: After modeling, the neurological deficit score and cerebral infarction size were significantly increased (P<0.01), and the expression of NeuN and Axin2 proteins and mRNAs were significantly and gradually decreased with time (day 7, 14 and 21) (P<0.01), whereas the expression levels of VEGF, GFAP, ß-catenin proteins and mRNAs were significantly increased on day 7, 14 and 21 in the model group relevant to the control group (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, the neurological deficit score, cerebral infarction size and the expressions of Axin2 protein and mRNA were significantly decreased on day 7, 14 and 21 (P<0.01), whereas the expression levels of VEGF, GFAP and NeuN and ß-catenin proteins and mRNAs were considerably up-regulated in the EA group on day 7, 14 and 21 (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: EA can protect the neurovascular units from injury, reduce the volume of cerebral infarction and improve the symptoms of neurological deficit in cerebral ischemic rats, which may be related to its effects in up-regulating ß-catenin expression and in down-regulating Axin2 expression to further activate classical Wnt/ ß-catenin signal pathway.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , Eletroacupuntura , Animais , Isquemia Encefálica/genética , Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Infarto Cerebral , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , beta Catenina/genética
5.
Psychiatry Investig ; 18(3): 233-240, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33685036

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate treatment effects of combination therapy of memantine and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AchEIs) compared with AchEIs alone on behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in patients with moderate Alzheimer's dementia (AD). METHODS: This was a 12-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. A total of 148 patients with moderate AD participated in this study. Mini-Mental State Examination, Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), Clinician's Interview-Based Impression of Change plus caregiver input, Gottfries-Bråne-Steen Scale, and Zarit Burden Interview were used as assessment scales. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in age, sex, or education between AChEIs alone and combination groups. The combination group showed significantly more improvement of NPI-disinhibition score (0.76±2.15) than the AChEIs alone group (-0.14±1.71) after 12 weeks. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the combination therapy of memantine and AchEIs might be a beneficial option for reducing disinhibition symptoms of patients with moderate AD compared with AchEIs alone. We believe that clinicians need to consider additional memantine treatment when patients with moderate AD complain disinhibition symptom. A larger clinical trial is needed to further determine the efficacy and advantages of such combination therapy of memantine and AchEIs for treating BPSD of patients with moderate AD.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729834

RESUMO

Background Intestinal failure-associated liver disease is a major morbidity associated with short bowel syndrome. We sought to determine if the obesity-resistant mouse strain (129S1/SvImJ) conferred protection from liver injury after small bowel resection (SBR). Methods Using a parenteral nutrition-independent model of resection-associated liver injury, C57BL/6J and 129S1/SvImJ mice underwent a 50% proximal SBR or sham operation. At post-operative week 10, hepatic steatosis, fibrosis, and cholestasis were assessed. Hepatic and systemic inflammatory pathways were evaluated using oxidative markers and abundance of tissue macrophages. Potential mechanisms of endotoxin-resistance were also explored. Results Serum lipid levels were elevated in all mouse lines. Hepatic triglyceride levels were no different between mouse strains, but there was an increased accumulation of free fatty acids in the C57BL/6J mice. Histologic and serum markers of hepatic fibrosis, steatosis, and cholestasis were significantly elevated in C57BL/6J SBR mice as well as oxidative stress markers and macrophage recruitment in both the liver and visceral white fat in C57BL/6J resected mice compared to sham controls and the 129S1/SvImJ mouse line. Serum endotoxin levels were significantly elevated in C57BL/6J mice with significant elevation of hepatic TLR4 and reduction in PPARa expression levels. Conclusions Despite high levels of serum lipids, 129S1/SvImJ mice do not develop liver inflammation, fibrosis, or cholestasis after SBR, unlike C57BL/6J mice. These data suggest that the accumulation of hepatic free fatty acids as well as increased endotoxin-driven inflammatory pathways through PPARa and TLR4 contribute to the liver injury seen in C57BL/6J mice with short bowel syndrome.

7.
Microorganisms ; 9(2)2021 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668442

RESUMO

The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed a global roadmap to defeat meningitis by 2030. To advocate for and track progress of the roadmap, the burden of meningitis as a syndrome and by pathogen must be accurately defined. Three major global health models estimating meningitis mortality as a syndrome and/or by causative pathogen were identified and compared for the baseline year 2015. Two models, (1) the WHO and the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health's Maternal and Child Epidemiology Estimation (MCEE) group's Child Mortality Estimation (WHO-MCEE) and (2) the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD 2017), identified meningitis, encephalitis and neonatal sepsis, collectively, to be the second and third largest infectious killers of children under five years, respectively. Global meningitis/encephalitis and neonatal sepsis mortality estimates differed more substantially between models than mortality estimates for selected infectious causes of death and all causes of death combined. Estimates at national level and by pathogen also differed markedly between models. Aligning modelled estimates with additional data sources, such as national or sentinel surveillance, could more accurately define the global burden of meningitis and help track progress against the WHO roadmap.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33784450

RESUMO

For the commercialization of organic solar cells (OSCs), the fabrication of large-area modules via a solution process is important. The fabrication of OSCs via a solution process using a nonfullerene acceptor (NFA)-based photoactive layer is limited by the energetic mismatch and carrier recombination, reducing built-in potential and effective carriers. Herein, for the fabrication of high-performance NFA-based large-area OSCs and modules via a solution process, hybrid hole transport layers (h-HTLs) incorporating WO3 and MoO3 are developed. The high bond energies and electronegativities of W and Mo atoms afford changes in the electronic properties of the h-HTLs, which can allow easy control of the energy levels. The h-HTLs show matching energy levels that are suitable for both deep and low-lying highest occupied molecular orbital energy level systems with a stoichiometrically small amount of oxygen vacancies (forming W6+ and Mo6+ from the W5+ and Mo5+), affording high conductivity and good film forming properties. With the NFA-based photoactive layer, a large-area module fabricated via the all-printing process with an active area over 30 cm2 and a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 8.1% is obtained. Furthermore, with the h-HTL, the fabricated semitransparent module exhibits 7.2% of PCE and 22.3% of average visible transmittance with high transparency, indicating applicable various industrial potentials.

9.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33767348

RESUMO

The high comorbidity between obesity and mental disorders, such as depression and anxiety, often exacerbates metabolic and neurological symptoms significantly. However, neural mechanisms that underlie reciprocal control of feeding and mental states are largely elusive. Here we report that melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) neurons located in the dorsal bed nucleus of the stria terminus (dBNST) engage in the regulation of mentally associated weight gain by receiving GABAergic projections from hypothalamic AgRP neurons onto α5-containing GABAA receptors and serotonergic afferents onto 5-HT3 receptors. Chronic treatment with a high-fat diet (HFD) significantly blunts the hyperexcitability of AgRP neurons in response to not only hunger but also anxiety and depression-like stimuli. Such HFD-mediated desensitization reduces GABAergic outputs from AgRP neurons to downstream MC4RdBNST neurons, resulting in severe mental dysregulation. Genetic enhancement of the GABAAR-α5 or suppression of the 5-HT3R within the MC4RdBNST neurons not only abolishes HFD-induced anxiety and depression but also robustly reduces body weight by suppression of food intake. To gain further translational insights, we revealed that combined treatment of zonisamide (enhancing the GABAAR-α5 signaling) and granisetron (a selective 5-HT3R antagonist) alleviates mental dysfunction and yields a robust reversal of diet-induced obesity by reducing total calorie intake and altering food preference towards a healthy low-fat diet. Our results unveil a neural mechanism for reciprocal control of appetite and mental states, which culminates in a novel zonisamide-granisetron cocktail therapy for potential tackling the psychosis-obesity comorbidity.

10.
J Infect Chemother ; 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676844

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) swept rapidly throughout the world. So far, no therapeutics have yet proven to be effective. Ribavirin was recommended for the treatment of COVID-19 in China because of its in vitro activity. However, evidence supporting its clinical use with good efficacy is still lacking. METHODS: A total of 208 confirmed severe COVID-19 patients who were hospitalized in Wuhan Union West Campus between 1 February 2020 and 10 March 2020 were enrolled in the retrospective study. Patients were divided into two groups based on the use of ribavirin. The primary endpoint was the time to clinical improvement. The secondary endpoints included mortality, survival time, time to throat swab SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid negative conversion, and the length of hospital stay. RESULTS: 68 patients were treated with ribavirin while 140 not. There were no significant between-group differences in demographic characteristics, baseline laboratory test results, treatment, and distribution of ordinal scale scores at enrollment, except for coexisting diseases especially cancer (ribavirin group vs no ribavirin group, P = 0.01). Treatment with ribavirin was not associated with a difference in the time to clinical improvement (P = 0.48, HR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.63-1.25). There were also no significant differences between-group in SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid negative conversion, mortality, survival time, and the length of hospital stay. CONCLUSIONS: In hospitalized adult patients with severe COVID-19, no significant benefit was observed with ribavirin treatment.

11.
Nat Chem Biol ; 17(4): 421-427, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33542534

RESUMO

Coupled transcription and translation processes in bacteria cause indiscriminate translation of intact and truncated messenger RNAs, inevitably generating nonfunctional polypeptides. Here, we devised a synthetic protein quality control (ProQC) system that enables translation only when both ends of mRNAs are present and followed by circularization based on sequence-specific RNA-RNA hybridization. We demonstrate that the ProQC system dramatically improved the fraction of full-length proteins among all synthesized polypeptides by selectively translating intact mRNA and reducing abortive translation. As a result, full-length protein synthesis increased up to 2.5-fold without changing the transcription or translation efficiency. Furthermore, we applied the ProQC system for 3-hydroxypropionic acid, violacein and lycopene production by ensuring full-length expression of enzymes in biosynthetic pathways, resulting in 1.6- to 2.3-fold greater biochemical production. We believe that our ProQC system can be universally applied to improve not only the quality of recombinant protein production but also efficiencies of metabolic pathways.

12.
Eur J Radiol ; 137: 109602, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618207

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Differentiating COVID-19 from other acute infectious pneumonias rapidly is challenging at present. This study aims to improve the diagnosis of COVID-19 using computed tomography (CT). METHOD: COVID-19 was confirmed mainly by virus nucleic acid testing and epidemiological history according to WHO interim guidance, while other infectious pneumonias were diagnosed by antigen testing. The texture features were extracted from CT images by two radiologists with 5 years of work experience using modified wavelet transform and matrix computation analyses. The random forest (RF) classifier was applied to identify COVID-19 patients and images. RESULTS: We retrospectively analysed the data of 95 individuals (291 images) with COVID-19 and 96 individuals (279 images) with other acute infectious pneumonias, including 50 individuals (160 images) with influenza A/B. In total, 6 texture features showed a positive association with COVID-19, while 4 features were negatively associated. The mean AUROC, accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity values of the 5-fold test sets were 0.800, 0.722, 0.770, and 0.680 for image classification and 0.858, 0.826, 0.809, and 0.842 for individual classification, respectively. The feature 'Correlation' contributed most both at the image level and individual level, even compared with the clinical factors. In addition, the texture features could discriminate COVID-19 from influenza A/B, with an AUROC of 0.883 for images and 0.957 for individuals. CONCLUSIONS: The developed texture feature-based RF classifier could assist in the diagnosis of COVID-19, which could be a rapid screening tool in the era of pandemic.

13.
Sci Total Environ ; 772: 144766, 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578162

RESUMO

Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a prominent atmospheric pollutant that poses serious adverse effects on air quality and human health. PM2.5 source apportionment based on receptor model suggests that Beijing is polluted by mixed emission sources, but the model is limited by a lack of organic tracers and an inability to distinguish between contributions from local and regional transport. In this study, positive matrix factorization (PMF) model with organic tracers was employed to analyze refined PM2.5 pollution sources at 1-h time resolution, and the contribution of regional transport was quantified using Particulate source apportionment technology (PSAT) in the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions (CAMx). The results identified nine source types using PMF model based on offline data for PM2.5 concentrations, organic carbon, elemental carbon, water-soluble ions, trace elements and organic species. Gasoline and diesel exhausts were distinguished by adding polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), C19-C24 n-alkanes as key organic tracers. In addition, levoglucosan and hexadecanoic acid are important additions for identifying biomass burning and cooking, respectively. Furthermore, the contribution of specific sources and source regions, from the formation to dissipation of two typical haze episodes (EP1 and EP2) in Beijing, was quantitatively analyzed. EP1 was primarily caused by local emissions with an average contribution rate of 67.5%, characterized by secondary source, gasoline and diesel exhausts, as well as industrial source. EP2 was dominated by secondary source from regional transport contributing approximately 50%. Short-range transport from Baoding (9.1%) and Langfang (5.8%) in Hebei Province was the largest external contributor, and long-range transport contributed 20% of the PM2.5 concentration. This study suggests that combining receptor model-based source apportionment with air quality model has practical significance for understanding the causes of haze episodes, setting city-specific emission reduction measures and improving air quality in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region.

14.
Biomed Eng Online ; 20(1): 19, 2021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33563284

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cone-shaped vena cava filters (VCFs) are widely used to treat venous thromboembolism. However, in the long term, the problem of occlusion persists even after the filter is deployed. A previous study hypothesized that the reverse deployment of a cone-shaped VCFs may prevent filter blockage. METHODS: To explore this hypothesis, a comparative study of the traditional and reverse deployments of VCFs was conducted using a computational fluid dynamics approach. The distribution of wall shear stress (WSS) and shear stress-related parameters were calculated to evaluate the differences in hemodynamic effects between both conditions. In the animal experiment, we reversely deployed a filter in the vena cava of a goat and analyzed the blood clot distribution in the filter. RESULTS: The numerical simulation showed that the reverse deployment of a VCF resulted in a slightly higher shear rate on the thrombus, and no reductions in the oscillating shear index (OSI) and relative residence time (RRT) on the vessel wall. Comparing the traditional method with the reversely deployed cases, the shear rate values is 16.49 and 16.48 1/s, respectively; the minimal OSI values are 0.01 and 0.04, respectively; in the vicinity of the VCF, the RRT values are both approximately 5 1/Pa; and the WSS is approximately 0.3 Pa for both cases. Therefore, the reverse deployment of cone-shaped filters is not advantageous when compared with the traditional method in terms of local hemodynamics. However, it is effective in capturing thrombi in the short term, as demonstrated via animal experiments. The reversely deployed cone-shaped filter captured the thrombi at its center in the experiments. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, the reverse deployment of cone-shaped filters is not advantageous when compared with the traditional method in terms of local hemodynamics. Therefore, we would not suggest the reverse deployment of the cone-shaped filter in the vena cava to prevent a potentially fatal pulmonary embolism.

15.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(4): 2532-2540, 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33529529

RESUMO

Significant elemental carbon (EC) emissions from low-temperature solid fuel combustion cannot be explained by classical mechanisms ascribing EC to higher-temperature condensation (> 850 °C). The importance of fuel composition in promoting EC nucleation was investigated by studying EC and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) formation at multiple-ignition temperatures (300-900 °C) using fuels with different aromatic contents (i.e., straw, wood, and coal). Biomass and coal combustion at 300 °C can produce substantial EC containing a large amount of soot-EC, a known high-temperature condensation product, possibly because aromatics reduce EC nucleation barriers, corresponding to the increasing ratios of soot-EC to char-EC from straw to coal (1.22 to 3.61). High- to low-molecular-weight PAH ratios in biomass combustion were four times lower than those in coal combustion, resulting in different EC formation atmospheres. Specifically, 31.4% of PAHs from biomass combustion were indene, compared to only 0.24% for coal, indicating that resonance-stabilized hydrocarbon-radical chain reactions dominated EC nucleation in biomass combustion. Five- to six-membered PAH ratios were always higher than one in biomass combustion but increased significantly from 0.5 to 2 with increasing temperature in coal combustion, indicating that PAHs generated through aromatic decomposition in coal could form EC through van-der-Waals forces and phenyl addition/cyclization-based covalent bonding at low and high temperatures, respectively.

16.
Childs Nerv Syst ; 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33559054

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to conduct a retrospective review of data obtained in all consecutive patients who had undergone cerebral decompression using the 3-pillar expansive craniotomy (3PEC) in our hospital between 2016 and 2020. METHODS AND RESULTS: We developed a novel craniotomy technique using expansion cranioplasty in patients with traumatic brain injury or stroke, which could relieve intracranial hypertension, maintain cerebral protection, and avoid subsequent cranial repair. Sixteen patients aged 2-18 years old underwent the 3PEC. Two patients, who presented very severe neurological conditions at the admission, died. All surviving patients showed good neurological outcome. None of the survived patients presented with bone flap resorption or sinking flap syndrome. CONCLUSION: The role of decompressive craniectomy has been recently questioned in the pediatric population by the use of decompressive craniotomy. In this limited study of children patients experiencing stroke or traumatic brain injury, 3PEC was proved useful in reducing intracranial pressure (ICP), thus, questioning the role of decompressive craniectomy in children. The technique effectively reduces postoperative complications and eliminates subsequent cranioplasty procedures otherwise introduced by traditional decompressive craniectomy.

17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(14): 18246-18259, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33409996

RESUMO

Controlled release fertilizer (CRF) has been shown to increase crop yield and N use efficiency (NUE) compared with traditional chemical fertilizer (TF). However, few studies examined the effects of CRF on CH4, N2O, and NO emissions simultaneously in alkaline paddy fields under rice-wheat rotation. In the present study, we conducted a 2-year field experiment to compare the effects of different CRF application strategies on these gas emissions with those of TF and explored the effects of CRF on global warming potential (GWP), crop yields, and greenhouse gas emission intensity (GHGI). Results showed that CRF can reduce 0.98-14.3%, 13.3-21.1%, and 8.22-16.3% of CH4, N2O, and NO emissions, respectively, in the studied alkaline paddy field. CRF reduce CH4 emission probably by regulating soil NH4+ concentration. CRF reduce N2O and NO emissions probably by regulating inorganic N content in the studied alkaline paddy soil. CRF had the same effect on annual crop yield as TF, especially when CRF was applied twice in each season and had the same N application rate as TF. Annual crop yields and the agronomic efficiency of N (AEN) increased by 8.24% and 21.6%, respectively. On the average of the two rice-wheat rotation cycles, GHGI significantly decreased by up to 14.1% after the application of CRF as relative to that after the application of TF (P < 0.05). These results suggest that CRF is an environment-friendly N fertilization strategy for mitigating GWP and ensuring high crop yield in an alkaline paddy field under rice-wheat rotation.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Oryza , Agricultura , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Fertilizantes/análise , Aquecimento Global , Metano , Óxido Nitroso/análise , Rotação , Solo , Triticum
18.
Eye (Lond) ; 2021 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33423044

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare visual improvements between initial intravitreal t-PA with gas injection before anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and anti-VEGF injection monotherapy for submacular haemorrhage (SMH) associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of naive patients treated with intravitreal t-PA with gas injection before anti-VEGF (Group 1) or only with intravitreal anti-VEGF injection (Group 2) for SMH [disc area (DA) ≥ 2] associated with AMD from two institutions. Both groups received 3 monthly loads of anti-VEGF injections followed by injections as needed for AMD treatment. Changes in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA, logMAR) between the initial visit and after 6 months of treatment were compared between two groups. RESULTS: A total of 82 patients were enroled. Of these, 32 patients and 50 patients were grouped in Groups 1 and 2, respectively. The mean change in BCVA over 6 months for Group 1 was -0.52 ± 0.88, which was significantly larger (p = 0.044) than the mean change for Group 2 (-0.15 ± 0.58). We compared visual improvements between the two groups based on the following SMH size categories: ≤5, >5, and ≤15, and >15 DA. When the SMH size was ≤5, or >5 and ≤15 DA, the mean change in BCVA was larger for Group 1 than for Group 2, but this difference was not significant. When SMH size was >15 DA, Group 1 patients exhibited a mean visual improvement of -0.79 ± 0.80, which was significantly greater (p = 0.029) than that of Group 2 (-0.06 ± 0.67). CONCLUSIONS: Patients that were primarily treated for SMH associated with AMD using t-PA and gas injection (followed by anti-VEGF injection) exhibited better visual improvement than those treated with anti-VEGF monotherapy, especially in patients exhibiting larger SMH sizes (>15 DA) at the initial visit.

19.
Microb Biotechnol ; 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33470538

RESUMO

Systemic fungicides and antifungals are used as frontline treatments for fungal diseases in plants and humans. It is generally accepted that fungicides will bring significant negative side-effects to the environment and result in fungicide resistance in the pathogenic fungi. Although previous research has focused on fungicide application rates and fungal resistance for a long time, little attention has been paid to fungicide residues after treatment, especially their potential role in fungal growth and sporulation. Here we investigated the effect of fungicides at sublethal concentrations on fungal sporulation. The results showed that two kinds of 14α-demethylase inhibitors (DMIs) fungicides increased the number of isolates of Colletotrichum spp. to sporulate on PDA. Both on PDA medium and plant tissue, low concentration of DMI fungicides could promote spore production of Colletotrichum spp., whereas pyraclostrobin, a quinone outside inhibitor (QoIs), had no significant effects on sporulation of Colletotrichum spp. Transcriptomic analysis suggested that the DMIs fungicide stress signal may be transmitted to the central regulatory pathway through the FluG-mediated signalling pathway, and further confirmed the morphological effect of DMI fungicide on promoting sporulation of Colletotrichum. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide insights into the reproductive response of fungi in response to fungicide stress. Our findings indicate that fungicides have two-way effects on the growth and reproduction of pathogenic fungi and provide a new basis for the scientific and rational use of fungicides.

20.
J Mol Model ; 27(2): 51, 2021 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33502608

RESUMO

The dependence of sensitivity of an explosive on its molecular structure may be mainly attributed to the molecular deformability, which can be expressed by some characteristic parameters, resonance energy for aromatic an explosive, strain energy for a strained-ring or strained-cage explosive, large π-π separation energy for a large π-π linked-explosive, bond rotational energy barriers of C-NO2, N-NO2, O-NO2 for C-NO2, N-NO2, O-NO2 bond-based explosives, and so on. Molecular polarizability of an explosive is also an important molecular deformability index, which can be effectively used to compare impact sensitivities of explosive's isomers, isoelectronic species, and similar structures. Interestingly, comparing the molecular polarizabilities under external electric fields with different energy levels of isomeric N20(Ih) and N20(D3d) clusters and the Mo2N20 and Re2N20 complex compounds, it is found that there are different energy thresholds of significant molecular expansion.

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