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1.
Clin Ther ; 40(8): 1322-1337, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30078466

RESUMO

Purpose: Red ginseng is one of the world's most popular herbal medicines; it exhibits a wide range of pharmacologic activities and is often co-ingested with other herbal and conventional medicines. This open-label, randomized, 3-period study investigated the in vivo herb-drug interaction potential for red ginseng extract with cytochrome P-450 (CYP) enzymes and organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1. METHODS: Fifteen healthy male volunteers (22-28 years; 57.1-80.8 kg) were administered a single dose of cocktail probe substrates (caffeine 100 mg, losartan 50 mg, omeprazole 20 mg, dextromethorphan 30 mg, midazolam 2 mg, and pitavastatin 2 mg) and single or multiple doses of red ginseng extract for 15 days. FINDINGS: The pharmacokinetic profiles of the probe substrates and metabolites after single- or multiple-dose administration of red ginseng extracts were comparable to the corresponding profiles of the control group. The geometric mean ratio of AUC0-t and 90% CIs for the probe substrate drugs between the control and multiple doses of red ginseng for 15 days were within 0.8 to 1.25 (CYP2C9, CYP3A4, and OATP1B1 probe substrates) or slightly higher (CYP1A2, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6 probe substrates). Additional assessments of the in vitro drug interaction potential of red ginseng extracts and the ginsenoside Rb1 on drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters using human liver microsomes, cryopreserved human hepatocytes, and transporter-overexpressed cells were negative. IMPLICATIONS: Red ginseng poses minimal risks for clinically relevant CYP- or OATP-mediated drug interactions and is well tolerated. Clinical Research Information Service registry no.

2.
Pharmaceutics ; 10(3)2018 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29970815

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of red ginseng extract on the pharmacokinetics (PK) and efficacy of metformin in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The diabetes mellitus rat model was established by intraperitoneally administering multiple doses of streptozotocin (30 mg/kg, twice on day 1 and 8), and diabetic rats received metformin 50 mg/kg with or without single or multiple administration of Korean red ginseng extract (RGE, 2 g/kg/day, once or for 1 week). RGE administration did not affect the plasma concentration and renal excretion of metformin. Further, diabetic rats were administered metformin (50 mg/kg) and RGE (2 g/kg) alone or concomitantly for 5 weeks, and both regimens decreased the fasting blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin (Hb-A1c) levels. Furthermore, fasting blood glucose levels were reduced by metformin or RGE administered alone but recovered to the control level following co-administration, suggesting that the effect was additive. However, triglyceride and free fatty acid levels were not different with metformin and RGE treatment alone or in combination. Biochemical parameters such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels were not different among the three treatment groups. In conclusion, RGE and metformin showed an additive effect in glycemic control. However, the co-administration of RGE and metformin did not cause PK interactions or affect biochemical parameters including the free fatty acid, triglyceride, AST, ALT, or cholesterol levels.

3.
J Med Chem ; 59(17): 8042-60, 2016 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27564532

RESUMO

The discovery of a back-up to the hepatitis C virus NS3 protease inhibitor asunaprevir (2) is described. The objective of this work was the identification of a drug with antiviral properties and toxicology parameters similar to 2, but with a preclinical pharmacokinetic (PK) profile that was predictive of once-daily dosing. Critical to this discovery process was the employment of an ex vivo cardiovascular (CV) model which served to identify compounds that, like 2, were free of the CV liabilities that resulted in the discontinuation of BMS-605339 (1) from clinical trials. Structure-activity relationships (SARs) at each of the structural subsites in 2 were explored with substantial improvement in PK through modifications at the P1 site, while potency gains were found with small, but rationally designed structural changes to P4. Additional modifications at P3 were required to optimize the CV profile, and these combined SARs led to the discovery of BMS-890068 (29).


Assuntos
Antivirais/química , Hepacivirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Isoquinolinas/uso terapêutico , Oligopeptídeos/química , Sulfonamidas/química , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/farmacocinética , Antivirais/farmacologia , Cães , Esquema de Medicação , Farmacorresistência Viral , Hepacivirus/genética , Macaca fascicularis , Masculino , Modelos Moleculares , Oligopeptídeos/administração & dosagem , Oligopeptídeos/farmacocinética , Oligopeptídeos/farmacologia , Coelhos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Replicon , Estereoisomerismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Sulfonamidas/administração & dosagem , Sulfonamidas/farmacocinética , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico
4.
Cancer Lett ; 377(1): 25-31, 2016 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27105612

RESUMO

Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is widely used for preventing neutropenia during chemotherapy. Polyethylene glycol-conjugated granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (PEG-G-CSF, pegfilgrastim) serves the same purpose but has a longer half-life and greater stability than G-CSF. In this study, we investigated whether 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-3-acetyl-rac-glycerol, acetylated diglyceride (PLAG), augments the therapeutic effect of pegfilgrastim on chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. We compared neutrophil counts in four groups of mice: control mice, gemcitabine-treated mice, gemcitabine/pegfilgrastim-treated mice, and gemcitabine/pegfilgrastim/PLAG-treated mice. PLAG (50 mg/kg) was orally administered every day during the treatment course. CBC analysis showed that the group treated with PLAG experienced a dramatically increased neutrophil counts on the third day following pegfilgrastim treatment. PLAG had no effect on blood cell apoptosis and neutrophil release from bone marrow. Additionally, pegfilgrastim-induced CXCR2 expression in neutrophils was markedly decreased in PLAG-treated animals. These results suggest that PLAG plays a role in inhibiting neutrophil extravasation, giving rise to an increased number of circulating neutrophils when used with pegfilgrastim during gemcitabine treatment. These data support the potential for PLAG to be used with pegfilgrastim to treat or prevent chemotherapy-induced neutropenia by modulating neutrophil transmigration.


Assuntos
Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Diglicerídeos/farmacologia , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/farmacologia , Neutropenia/tratamento farmacológico , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Filgrastim , Contagem de Leucócitos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Neutropenia/sangue , Neutropenia/induzido quimicamente , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Polietilenoglicóis , Receptores de Interleucina-8B/sangue , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Fatores de Tempo
5.
PLoS One ; 11(3): e0151758, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27010397

RESUMO

Increased number of eosinophils in the circulation and sputum is associated with the severity of asthma. The respiratory epithelium produces chemokine (C-C motif) ligands (CCL) which recruits and activates eosinophils. A chemically synthesized monoacetyl-diglyceride, PLAG (1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-3-acetyl-rac-glycerol) is a major constituent in the antlers of Sika deer (Cervus nippon Temminck) which has been used in oriental medicine. This study was aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism of PLAG effect on the alleviation of asthma phenotypes. A549, a human alveolar basal epithelial cell, and HaCaT, a human keratinocyte, were activated by the treatment of interleukin-4 (IL-4), and the expression of chemokines, known to be effective on the induction of eosinophil migration was analyzed by RT-PCR. The expression of IL-4 induced genes was modulated by the co-treatment of PLAG. Especially, CCL26 expression from the stimulated epithelial cells was significantly blocked by PLAG, which was confirmed by ELISA. The transcriptional activity of signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6), activated by IL-4 mediated phosphorylation and nuclear translocation, was down-regulated by PLAG in a concentration-dependent manner. In ovalbumin-induced mouse model, the infiltration of immune cells into the respiratory tract was decreased by PLAG administration. Cytological analysis of the isolated bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cells proved the infiltration of eosinophils was significantly reduced by PLAG. In addition, PLAG inhibited the migration of murine bone marrow-derived eosinophils, and human eosinophil cell line, EoL-1, which was induced by the addition of A549 culture medium.


Assuntos
Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Quimiocinas CC/genética , Quimiotaxia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diglicerídeos/uso terapêutico , Eosinófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Asma/genética , Asma/imunologia , Linhagem Celular , Quimiocina CCL26 , Quimiocinas CC/imunologia , Cervos , Diglicerídeos/farmacologia , Eosinófilos/citologia , Eosinófilos/imunologia , Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-4/imunologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
6.
Drug Metab Dispos ; 44(3): 320-8, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26714763

RESUMO

Although the metabolism and disposition of diclofenac (DF) has been studied extensively, information regarding the plasma levels of its acyl-ß-d-glucuronide (DF-AG), a major metabolite, in human subjects is limited. Therefore, DF-AG concentrations were determined in plasma (acidified blood derived) of six healthy volunteers following a single oral DF dose (50 mg). Levels of DF-AG in plasma were high, as reflected by a DF-AG/DF ratio of 0.62 ± 0.21 (Cmax mean ± S.D.) and 0.84 ± 0.21 (area under the concentration-time curve mean ± S.D.). Both DF and DF-AG were also studied as substrates of different human drug transporters in vitro. DF was identified as a substrate of organic anion transporter (OAT) 2 only (Km = 46.8 µM). In contrast, DF-AG was identified as a substrate of numerous OATs (Km = 8.6, 60.2, 103.9, and 112 µM for OAT2, OAT1, OAT4, and OAT3, respectively), two organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATP1B1, Km = 34 µM; OATP2B1, Km = 105 µM), breast cancer resistance protein (Km = 152 µM), and two multidrug resistance proteins (MRP2, Km = 145 µM; MRP3, Km = 196 µM). It is concluded that the disposition of DF-AG, once formed, can be mediated by various candidate transporters known to be expressed in the kidney (basolateral, OAT1, OAT2, and OAT3; apical, MRP2, BCRP, and OAT4) and liver (canalicular, MRP2 and BCRP; basolateral, OATP1B1, OATP2B1, OAT2, and MRP3). DF-AG is unstable in plasma and undergoes conversion to parent DF. Therefore, caution is warranted when assessing renal and hepatic transporter-mediated drug-drug interactions with DF and DF-AG.


Assuntos
Transporte Biológico/fisiologia , Diclofenaco/metabolismo , Glucuronídeos/metabolismo , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/metabolismo , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Membro 2 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Adulto , Interações de Medicamentos/fisiologia , Humanos , Rim/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos Sódio-Independentes/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
7.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 30: 62-68, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26655742

RESUMO

The antler of Sika deer (Cervus nippon Temminck) has been used a natural medicine in Korea, China and Japan, and a monoacetyldiaglyceride (1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-3-acetylglycerol, PLAG) was found in the antler of Sika deer as a constituent for immunomodulation. In this study, we investigated protective effects of EC-18 (a synthetic copy of PLAG) on inflammatory responses using a cigarette smoke with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced airway inflammation model. Mice were exposed to cigarette smoke for 1h per day for 3days. Ten micrograms of LPS dissolved in 50µL of PBS was administered intra nasally 1h after the final cigarette smoke exposure. EC-18 was administered by oral gavage at doses of 30 and 60mg/kg for 3days. EC-18 significantly reduced the number of neutrophils, reactive oxygen species production, cytokines and elastase activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) compared with the cigarette smoke and LPS induced mice. Histologically, EC-18 attenuated airway inflammation with a reduction in myeloperoxidase expression in lung tissue. Additionally, EC-18 inhibited the phosphorylation of NF-κB and IκB induced by cigarette smoke and LPS exposure. Our results show that EC-18 effectively suppresses neutrophilic inflammation induced by cigarette smoke and LPS exposure. In conclusion, this study suggests that EC-18 has therapeutic potential for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Diglicerídeos/administração & dosagem , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Chifres de Veado/metabolismo , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Cervos/imunologia , Diglicerídeos/síntese química , Diglicerídeos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Pneumonia/imunologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/imunologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fumar/efeitos adversos
8.
Immune Netw ; 15(3): 150-60, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26140047

RESUMO

We previously reported that 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-3-acetyl-rac-glycerol (PLAG) accelerates hematopoiesis and has an improving effect on animal disease models such as sepsis and asthma. The effects of PLAG supplementation on immune modulation were assessed in healthy men and women. The objective was to evaluate the effects of PLAG supplementation on immune regulatory functions such as activities of immune cells and cytokine production. A randomized double blind placebo-controlled trial was conducted. Seventy-five participants were assigned to one of two groups; all participants had an appropriate number of white blood cells on the testing day. The PLAG group (n=27) received oral PLAG supplements and the control group (n=22) received oral soybean oil supplements. IL-4 and IL-6 production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were lower (p<0.001 and p<0.001, respectively) with PLAG than with soybean oil. However, the production of IL-2 and IFN-γ by PBMC was unaltered with PLAG supplementation. The B cell proliferation decreased significantly in the PLAG group compared to the soybean oil control (p<0.05). The intake of PLAG in healthy adults for 4 weeks was deemed safe. These data suggest that PLAG has an immunomodulatory function that inhibits the excessive immune activity of immunological disorders such as atopic and autoimmune diseases. PLAG could improve the condition of these diseases safely as a health food supplement.

9.
Immune Netw ; 15(2): 100-9, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25922599

RESUMO

Controlling balance between T-helper type 1 (Th1) and T-helper type 2 (Th2) plays a pivotal role in maintaining the biological rhythm of Th1/Th2 and circumventing diseases caused by Th1/Th2 imbalance. Interleukin 4 (IL-4) is a Th2-type cytokine and often associated with hypersensitivity-related diseases such as atopic dermatitis and allergies when overexpressed. In this study, we have tried to elucidate the function of 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-3-acetyl-rac-glycerol (EC-18) as an essential modulator of Th1/Th2 balance. EC-18 has showed an inhibitory effect on the production of IL-4 in a dose-dependent manner. RT-PCR analysis has proved EC-18 affect the transcription of IL-4. By analyzing the phosphorylation status of Signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6), which is a transcriptional activator of IL-4 expression, we discovered that EC-18 induced the decrease of STAT6 activity in several stimulated cell lines, which was also showed in STAT6 reporter analysis. Co-treatment of EC-18 significantly weakened atopy-like phenotypes in mice treated with an allergen. Collectively, our results suggest that EC-18 is a potent Th2 modulating factor by regulating the transcription of IL-4 via STAT6 modulation, and could be developed for immune-modulatory therapeutics.

10.
J Med Chem ; 57(5): 1708-29, 2014 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24555570

RESUMO

The discovery of BMS-605339 (35), a tripeptidic inhibitor of the NS3/4A enzyme, is described. This compound incorporates a cyclopropylacylsulfonamide moiety that was designed to improve the potency of carboxylic acid prototypes through the introduction of favorable nonbonding interactions within the S1' site of the protease. The identification of 35 was enabled through the optimization and balance of critical properties including potency and pharmacokinetics (PK). This was achieved through modulation of the P2* subsite of the inhibitor which identified the isoquinoline ring system as a key template for improving PK properties with further optimization achieved through functionalization. A methoxy moiety at the C6 position of this isoquinoline ring system proved to be optimal with respect to potency and PK, thus providing the clinical compound 35 which demonstrated antiviral activity in HCV-infected patients.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Descoberta de Drogas , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Isoquinolinas/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteases/uso terapêutico , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Cristalografia por Raios X , Cães , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Humanos , Isoquinolinas/química , Modelos Moleculares , Inibidores de Proteases/química , Sulfonamidas/química
11.
J Med Chem ; 57(5): 1730-52, 2014 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24564672

RESUMO

The discovery of asunaprevir (BMS-650032, 24) is described. This tripeptidic acylsulfonamide inhibitor of the NS3/4A enzyme is currently in phase III clinical trials for the treatment of hepatitis C virus infection. The discovery of 24 was enabled by employing an isolated rabbit heart model to screen for the cardiovascular (CV) liabilities (changes to HR and SNRT) that were responsible for the discontinuation of an earlier lead from this chemical series, BMS-605339 (1), from clinical trials. The structure-activity relationships (SARs) developed with respect to CV effects established that small structural changes to the P2* subsite of the molecule had a significant impact on the CV profile of a given compound. The antiviral activity, preclincial PK profile, and toxicology studies in rat and dog supported clinical development of BMS-650032 (24).


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Isoquinolinas/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteases/uso terapêutico , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Antivirais/sangue , Antivirais/química , Cães , Humanos , Isoquinolinas/sangue , Isoquinolinas/química , Modelos Moleculares , Inibidores de Proteases/sangue , Inibidores de Proteases/química , Coelhos , Ratos , Sulfonamidas/sangue , Sulfonamidas/química
12.
J Biomol Screen ; 18(9): 1072-83, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24062352

RESUMO

Transporter proteins are known to play a critical role in affecting the overall absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion characteristics of drug candidates. In addition to efflux transporters (P-gp, BCRP, MRP2, etc.) that limit absorption, there has been a renewed interest in influx transporters at the renal (OATs, OCTs) and hepatic (OATPs, BSEP, NTCP, etc.) organ level that can cause significant clinical drug-drug interactions (DDIs). Several of these transporters are also critical for hepatobiliary disposition of bilirubin and bile acid/salts, and their inhibition is directly implicated in hepatic toxicities. Regulatory agencies took action to address transporter-mediated DDI with the goal of ensuring drug safety in the clinic and on the market. To meet regulatory requirements, advanced bioassay technology and automation solutions were implemented for high-throughput transporter screening to provide structure-activity relationship within lead optimization. To enhance capacity, several functional assay formats were miniaturized to 384-well throughput including novel fluorescence-based uptake and efflux inhibition assays using high-content image analysis as well as cell-based radioactive uptake and vesicle-based efflux inhibition assays. This high-throughput capability enabled a paradigm shift from studying transporter-related issues in the development space to identifying and dialing out these concerns early on in discovery for enhanced mechanism-based efficacy while circumventing DDIs and transporter toxicities.


Assuntos
Descoberta de Drogas , Drogas em Investigação/farmacologia , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Aprovação de Drogas , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Interações de Medicamentos , Drogas em Investigação/química , Drogas em Investigação/metabolismo , Corantes Fluorescentes , Humanos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
13.
Drug Metab Dispos ; 41(4): 827-35, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23382458

RESUMO

The studies reported here were conducted to investigate the transport characteristics of apixaban (1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-7-oxo-6-(4-(2-oxopiperidin-1-yl)phenyl)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-c]pyridine-3-carboxamide) and to understand the impact of transporters on apixaban distribution and disposition. In human permeability glycoprotein (P-gp)- and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP)-cDNA-transfected cell monolayers as well as Caco-2 cell monolayers, the apparent efflux ratio of basolateral-to-apical (PcB-A) versus apical-to-basolateral permeability (PcA-B) of apixaban was >10. The P-gp- and BCRP-facilitated transport of apixaban was concentration- and time-dependent and did not show saturation over a wide range of concentrations (1-100 µM). The efflux transport of apixaban was also demonstrated by the lower mucosal-to-serosal permeability than that of the serosal-to-mucosal direction in isolated rat jejunum segments. Apixaban did not inhibit digoxin transport in Caco-2 cells. Ketoconazole decreased the P-gp-mediated apixaban efflux in Caco-2 and the P-gp-cDNA-transfected cell monolayers, but did not affect the apixaban efflux to a meaningful extent in the BCRP-cDNA-transfected cell monolayers. Coincubation of a P-gp inhibitor (ketoconazole or cyclosporin A) and a BCRP inhibitor (Ko134) provided more complete inhibition of apixaban efflux in Caco-2 cells than separate inhibition by individual inhibitors. Naproxen inhibited apixaban efflux in Caco-2 cells but showed only a minimal effect on apixaban transport in the BCRP-transfected cells. Naproxen was the first nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug that was demonstrated as a weak P-gp inhibitor. These results demonstrate that apixaban is a substrate for efflux transporters P-gp and BCRP, which can help explain its low brain penetration, and low fetal exposures and high milk excretion in rats.


Assuntos
Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Fibrinolíticos/farmacocinética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Pirazóis/farmacocinética , Piridonas/farmacocinética , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/antagonistas & inibidores , Membro 2 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/antagonistas & inibidores , Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Adenosina/farmacologia , Animais , Transporte Biológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Células CACO-2/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Transformada , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclosporina/farmacologia , Digoxina/farmacocinética , Dicetopiperazinas , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Interações de Medicamentos , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis , Humanos , Cetoconazol/farmacologia , Masculino , Naproxeno/farmacologia , Proteínas de Neoplasias/antagonistas & inibidores , Ratos
14.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther ; 344(3): 673-85, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23297161

RESUMO

Organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATP) 1B1, 1B3, and 2B1 can serve as the loci of drug-drug interactions (DDIs). In the present work, the cynomolgus monkey was evaluated as a potential model for studying OATP-mediated DDIs. Three cynomolgus monkey OATPs (cOATPs), with a high degree of amino acid sequence identity (91.9, 93.5, and 96.6% for OATP1B1, 1B3, and 2B1, respectively) to their human counterparts, were cloned, expressed, and characterized. The cOATPs were stably transfected in human embryonic kidney cells and were functionally similar to the corresponding human OATPs (hOATPs), as evident from the similar uptake rate of typical substrates (estradiol-17ß-d-glucuronide, cholecystokinin octapeptide, and estrone-3-sulfate). Moreover, six known hOATP inhibitors exhibited similar IC(50) values against cOATPs. To further evaluate the appropriateness of the cynomolgus monkey as a model, a known hOATP substrate [rosuvastatin (RSV)]-inhibitor [rifampicin (RIF)] pair was examined in vitro; the monkey-derived parameters (RSV K(m) and RIF IC(50)) were similar (within 3.5-fold) to those obtained with hOATPs and human primary hepatocytes. In vivo, the area under the plasma concentration-time curve of RSV (3 mg/kg, oral) given 1 hour after a single RIF dose (15 mg/kg, oral) was increased 2.9-fold in cynomolgus monkeys, consistent with the value (3.0-fold) reported in humans. A number of in vitro-in vivo extrapolation approaches, considering the fraction of the pathways affected and free versus total inhibitor concentrations, were also explored. It is concluded that the cynomolgus monkey has the potential to serve as a useful model for the assessment of OATP-mediated DDIs in a nonclinical setting.


Assuntos
Fígado/metabolismo , Macaca fascicularis/metabolismo , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/metabolismo , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Linhagem Celular , Clonagem Molecular/métodos , Interações de Medicamentos , Fluorbenzenos/farmacologia , Células HEK293 , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/genética , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Rifampina/farmacologia , Rosuvastatina Cálcica , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia
15.
Toxicol Sci ; 122(2): 587-97, 2011 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21561886

RESUMO

Organic anion-transporting polypeptides (Oatp) 1a1 and 1a4 were deleted by homologous recombination, and mice were characterized for Oatp expression in liver and kidney, transport in isolated hepatocytes, in vivo disposition of substrates, and urinary metabolomic profiles. Oatp1a1 and Oatp1a4 proteins were undetected in liver, and both lines were viable and fertile. Hepatic constitutive messenger RNAs (mRNAs) for Oatp1a4, 1b2, or 2b1 were unchanged in Oatp1a1⁻/⁻ mice, whereas renal Oatp1a4 mRNA decreased approximately 50% (both sexes). In Oatp1a4⁻/⁻ mice, no changes in constitutive mRNAs for other Oatps were observed. Uptake of estradiol-17ß-D-glucuronide and estrone-3-sulfate in primary hepatocytes decreased 95 and 75%, respectively, in Oatp1a1⁻/⁻ mice and by 60 and 30%, respectively, in Oatp1a4⁻/⁻ mice. Taurocholate uptake decreased by 20 and 50% in Oatp1a1⁻/⁻ and Oatp1a4⁻/⁻ mice, respectively, whereas digoxin was unaffected. Plasma area under the curve (AUC) for estradiol-17ß-D-glucuronide increased 35 and 55% in male and female Oatp1a1⁻/⁻ mice, respectively, with a concurrent 50% reduction in liver-to-plasma ratios. In contrast, plasma AUC or tissue concentrations of estradiol-17ß-D-glucuronide were unchanged in Oatp1a4⁻/⁻ mice. Plasma AUCs for dibromosulfophthalein increased nearly threefold in male Oatp1a1⁻/⁻ and Oatp1a4⁻/⁻ mice, increased by 40% in female Oatp1a4⁻/⁻ mice, and were unchanged in female Oatp1a1⁻/⁻ mice. In both lines, no changes in serum ALT, bilirubin, and cholesterol were noted. NMR analyses showed no generalized increase in urinary excretion of organic anions. However, urinary excretion of taurine decreased by 30-40% and was accompanied by increased excretion of isethionic acid, a taurine metabolite generated by intestinal bacteria, suggesting some perturbations in intestinal bacteria distribution.


Assuntos
Deleção de Genes , Recombinação Homóloga , Metabolômica , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/metabolismo , Animais , Área Sob a Curva , Transporte Biológico/genética , Western Blotting , Estradiol/análogos & derivados , Estradiol/sangue , Estradiol/farmacocinética , Estrona/análogos & derivados , Estrona/sangue , Estrona/farmacocinética , Feminino , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Isetiônico/urina , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Taurina/urina , Ácido Taurocólico/farmacocinética
16.
Xenobiotica ; 41(6): 476-85, 2011 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21381897

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of interferon-α2b (IFN-α2b) on the expression of various drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters in freshly prepared co-cultures (parenchymal and non-parenchymal cells) of human primary hepatocytes. At therapeutically relevant concentrations (from 1000 to 3000 IU/mL), IFN-α2b up-regulated STAT1 (signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 1) mRNA expression. Conversely, three cytochrome P450s (CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2E1), a UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT2B7), a sulphotransferase (SULT1A1) and organic anion transporter (OAT2) were significantly down-regulated (~50%; P < 0.05). Western blot analysis of CYP1A2, UGT2B7 and OAT2 protein supported the mRNA data. Two peroxisome proliferator activator receptor alpha (PPARα)-controlled genes (pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 and adipose differentiation-related protein), CYP3A4 and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 were significantly up-regulated (up to 223%; P < 0.05). On the other hand, SULT2A1, carboxylesterase 2, organic anion transporting peptide (OATP1B1, OATP1B3, OATP2B1), organic cation transporter 1, P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein mRNA expression was not significantly affected. Western blot analysis of CYP3A4 supported the mRNA data also. The present results demonstrated complex interactions between IFN-α2b and hepatocytes and the observed down-regulation of CYP1A2, OAT2 and UGT2B7 is consistent with reports of drug interactions between IFN-α2b and drugs such as theophylline, clozapine and gemfibrozil.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Interferon-alfa/farmacologia , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Hidrocarboneto de Aril Hidroxilases/genética , Hidrocarboneto de Aril Hidroxilases/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/genética , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A2/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A2/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP2B6 , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Família 2 do Citocromo P450 , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucuronosiltransferase/genética , Glucuronosiltransferase/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/enzimologia , Humanos , Interferon alfa-2 , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Desentoxicação Metabólica Fase I/genética , Desintoxicação Metabólica Fase II/genética , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos Sódio-Independentes/genética , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos Sódio-Independentes/metabolismo , Oxirredutases N-Desmetilantes/genética , Oxirredutases N-Desmetilantes/metabolismo , Perilipina-2 , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/metabolismo , Sulfotransferases/genética , Sulfotransferases/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Drug Metab Dispos ; 38(7): 1072-82, 2010 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20360302

RESUMO

17alpha-Ethinylestradiol (EE2), a component of oral contraceptives, is known to undergo considerable first-pass 3-O-sulfation in the intestine and liver. Once formed, the 3-O-sulfate conjugate (EE2-Sul) is detected in circulation at appreciable levels (versus parent EE2) and is present in bile. Therefore, hepatic uptake of EE2-Sul was assessed with suspensions of cryopreserved human primary hepatocytes. In this instance, there was evidence for active (temperature-dependent) uptake, which was described by a two-K(m) (Michaelis constant) model (K(m1) = 220 nM; K(m2) = 15.5 microM). Uptake was inhibited (approximately 90%) by bromosulfophthalein but not by tetraethylammonium or p-aminohippurate. In agreement, EE2-Sul was shown to be a substrate of recombinant organic anion transporter peptides (OATP1B1 and OATP2B1), and Na(+)/taurocholate-cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP), expressed individually in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells. Transport by OATP1B1 was described by two K(m) values (87 nM and 141 microM), whereas OATP2B1- and NTCP-mediated uptake into HEK-293 cells conformed to single K(m) kinetics (10.7 and 2.6 microM, respectively). EE2-Sul was also assessed as an efflux transporter substrate using membrane vesicles expressing bile salt export pump, breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), and individual forms of multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP1, MRP2, and MRP3). Transport studies were also conducted with a cell line expression P-glycoprotein. Only vesicles that contained BCRP exhibited ATP-dependent uptake of EE2-Sul (K(m1) = 2.9 and K(m2) = 307 microM). Collectively, the data show that hepatic uptake of EE2-Sul can be mediated by three transporters (OATP1B1, OATP2B1, and NTCP), whereas biliary excretion of EE2-Sul into bile likely involves BCRP.


Assuntos
Transporte Biológico Ativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Transporte/biossíntese , Etinilestradiol/análogos & derivados , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/biossíntese , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Membro 11 da Subfamília B de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP , Membro 2 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/biossíntese , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Transporte Biológico Ativo/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Linhagem Celular Transformada , Etinilestradiol/metabolismo , Humanos , Cinética , Fígado/metabolismo , Transportador 1 de Ânion Orgânico Específico do Fígado , Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/biossíntese , Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/biossíntese , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/biossíntese , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/genética , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos Dependentes de Sódio/biossíntese , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos Dependentes de Sódio/genética , Simportadores/biossíntese , Simportadores/genética , Transfecção/métodos
18.
Drug Metab Dispos ; 38(7): 1064-71, 2010 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20360303

RESUMO

17alpha-Ethinylestradiol (EE2), a synthetic and potent estrogen receptor agonist, is extensively metabolized in both intestine and liver and is largely excreted in bile and urine as the 3-O-sulfate (EE2-Sul) and 3-O-glucuronide. In the present study, EE2-Sul was evaluated as a substrate of various transporters known to be expressed in the kidney. Uptake studies were performed with human epithelial cells [human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293] that contained individually expressed organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2), organic anion transporter (OAT) forms 3 and 4, and multidrug and toxin extrusion 1 (MATE1). The transporter phenotyping studies were extended to include insect cell (Sf9) membrane vesicles that expressed multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 (MRP4) and Madin-Darby canine kidney cells that expressed OAT1. Based on the results obtained, we concluded that EE2-Sul serves as a substrate of OAT3 and OAT4, but not OCT2, OAT1, MATE1, and MRP4. First, EE2-Sul uptake was highly increased in OAT3/HEK-293 cells (versus mock/HEK-293 cells) and was inhibited by OAT3 inhibitors such as bromosulfophthalein (BSP), cimetidine, and probenecid. OAT3-mediated uptake also conformed to single-K(m) (Michaelis constant) kinetics (K(m) = 21.1 microM). Second, EE2-Sul uptake was also significantly higher in OAT4/HEK-293 cells and was inhibited by BSP, methotrexate, and probenecid. In contrast to OAT3, OAT4-dependent uptake was characterized by a two-K(m) model (K(m1) = 1.6 microM; K(m2) = 195 microM). Based on the results of this study, we hypothesize that EE2-Sul is taken up into renal proximal tubule cells by OAT3, and OAT4 plays a role in its secretion into the renal brush border lumen.


Assuntos
Transporte Biológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Transporte/biossíntese , Etinilestradiol/análogos & derivados , Rim/metabolismo , Animais , Transporte Biológico/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Linhagem Celular Transformada , Cães , Etinilestradiol/metabolismo , Humanos , Insetos , Cinética , Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/biossíntese , Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/genética , Proteína 1 Transportadora de Ânions Orgânicos/biossíntese , Proteína 1 Transportadora de Ânions Orgânicos/genética , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos Sódio-Independentes/antagonistas & inibidores , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos Sódio-Independentes/biossíntese , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos Sódio-Independentes/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions Orgânicos/biossíntese , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions Orgânicos/genética , Transportador 2 de Cátion Orgânico , Especificidade por Substrato , Transfecção/métodos
19.
Pharm Res ; 25(11): 2601-12, 2008 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18654741

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the underlying mechanism of low bioavailabilities of the water-soluble camptothecin derivatives, belotecan and topotecan. METHODS: The bioavailability of belotecan and topotecan in rats was determined following oral administration of each drug at a dose of 5 mg/kg body weight. The vectorial transport of each drug was measured in Caco-2 and engineered MDCK II cells. RESULTS: The bioavailability of belotecan (11.4%) and topotecan (32.0%) in rats was increased to 61.5% and 40.8%, respectively, by the preadministration of CsA at a dose of 40 mg/kg. Contrary to the absorptive transport, the secretory transport of these drugs across the Caco-2 cell monolayer was concentration-dependent, saturable, and significantly inhibited by the cis presence of verapamil (a P-gp substrate), MK-571 (an MRP inhibitor), bromosulfophthalein (BSP, an MRP2 inhibitor), fumitremorgin C (FTC, a BCRP inhibitor) and cyclosporine A (CsA, an inhibitor of P-gp and BCRP, and a substrate of P-gp) suggesting the involvement of these transporters, which could be further confirmed in MDCKII/P-gp, MDCKII/MRP2 and MDCKII/BCRP cells. CONCLUSION: The involvement of secretory transporters P-gp, MRP2 and BCRP, particularly for belotecan, as well as a low passive permeability, appears to be responsible for the low bioavailability of belotecan and topotecan.


Assuntos
Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/fisiologia , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/fisiologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Camptotecina/análogos & derivados , Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/fisiologia , Proteínas de Neoplasias/fisiologia , Topotecan/farmacocinética , Membro 2 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Células CACO-2 , Camptotecina/farmacocinética , Cães , Humanos , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
20.
Arch Pharm Res ; 30(4): 507-18, 2007 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17489369

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of stably transfected MDCK-hPepT1 cells for identifying peptide transporter substrates in early drug discovery and compare the characteristics of this cell line with Caco-2 cells. MDCK-hPepT1, MDCK-mock, and Caco-2 cells grown to confluence on 24-well Transwell were used for this study. Expression levels of different transporter proteins (PepT1, PepT2, P-gp) in these cell lines were assessed by qRT-PCR. Permeability studies were conducted in parallel in all the cells with a diverse set of peptide substrates using the optimized experimental condition: 100 microM, apical pH 6.0, basolateral pH 7.4, 2 hr incubation at 37 degrees C. Permeability studies were also conducted with classical P-gp substrates (tested in bi-directional mode) and paracellularly absorbed probes to investigate the differences between the cell lines. As expected, MDCK-hPepT1 cells express significantly higher level of PepT1 mRNA compared to both Caco-2 and MDCK-mock cells. Efflux transporter, P-gp, was expressed adequately in all the cell lines. Permeability studies demonstrated that classical peptide substrates had significantly higher permeability in stably transfected MDCK-hPepT1 cells compared to MDCK-mock and Caco-2 cells. The transfected MDCK-hPepT1 cells were qualitatively similar to Caco-2 cells with respect to functional P-gp efflux activity and paracellular pore activity. Stably transfected MDCK-hPepT1 cells have been demonstrated as a viable alternative to Caco-2 cells for estimating the human absorption potential of peptide transporter substrates. These cells behave similar to Caco-2 cells with regards to P-gp efflux and paracellular pore activity but demonstrate greater predictability of absorption values for classical peptide substrates (for which Caco-2 cells under-estimate oral absorption).


Assuntos
Absorção Intestinal , Simportadores/metabolismo , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Animais , Células CACO-2 , Cães , Humanos , Transportador 1 de Peptídeos , Permeabilidade , Transfecção
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