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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1205, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139679

RESUMO

Since its invention in the 1960s, one of the most significant evolutions of metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOS-FETs) would be the three dimensionalized version that makes the semiconducting channel vertically wrapped by conformal gate electrodes, also recognized as FinFET. During the past decades, the width of fin (W[Formula: see text]) in FinFETs has shrunk from about 150 nm to a few nanometers. However, W[Formula: see text] seems to have been levelling off in recent years, owing to the limitation of lithography precision. Here, we show that by adapting a template-growth method, different types of mono-layered two-dimensional crystals are isolated in a vertical manner. Based on this, FinFETs with one atomic layer fin are obtained, with on/off ratios reaching [Formula: see text]. Our findings push the FinFET to the sub 1 nm fin-width limit, and may shed light on the next generation nanoelectronics for higher integration and lower power consumption.

2.
Mycotoxin Res ; 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016807

RESUMO

This study was conducted to investigate the exposure to ochratoxin A (OTA) of populations living in Nanjing, China. Plasma samples were collected from 147 healthy adults (age 18-63 years) and analyzed for OTA by a reliable and sensitive ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method (limit of detection 0.04 ng/mL). After enzymatic hydrolysis by ß-glucuronidase/arylsulfatase, OTA was detected in 80.9% plasma samples with mean concentration of 0.26 ± 0.59 ng/mL (range 0.04-6.59 ng/mL). The estimated daily intakes of OTA based on plasma concentrations (mean 0.51 ng/kg bw/day, max 12.99 ng/kg bw/day) were lower than the tolerable daily intake published by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) or Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JFECFA) indicative of rare risks related to the OTA exposure in the investigated area. This study provides a valuable insight on human exposure to OTA in China. Further studies in children and elder people and in adult cohorts from other regions are recommended.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32103663

RESUMO

Growth of large-area, uniform, and high-quality monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) for practical and industrial applications remains a long-standing challenge. The present study demonstrates a modified predeposited chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process by employing an annealing procedure before sulfurization, which helps in achieving large-area, highly uniform, and high-quality TMDs on various substrates. The annealing procedure resulted in a molten liquid state of the precursors in the CVD process, which not only facilitated a uniform redistribution of the precursor on the substrate (avoid the aggregation) because of the uniform redistribution of the liquid precursor on the substrate but more importantly avoided the undesired multilayer growth via the self-limited lateral supply precursors mechanism. A 2 in. uniform and continuous monolayer WS2 film has been synthesized on the SiO2/Si substrate. Moreover, uniform monolayer WS2 single crystals can be prepared on more general and various substrates including sapphire, mica, quartz, and Si3N4 using the same growth procedure. Besides, this growth mechanism can be generalized to synthesize other monolayer TMDs such as MoS2 and MoS2/WS2 heterostructures. Hence, the present method provides a generalized attractive strategy to grow large-area, uniform, single-layer two-dimensional (2D) materials. This study has significant implications in the advancement of batch production of various 2D-material-based devices for industrial and commercial applications.

4.
Science ; 367(6479): 781-786, 2020 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32054761

RESUMO

The ground state of charge-neutral graphene under perpendicular magnetic field was predicted to be a quantum Hall topological insulator with a ferromagnetic order and spin-filtered, helical edge channels. In most experiments, however, an insulating state is observed that is accounted for by lattice-scale interactions that promote a broken-symmetry state with gapped bulk and edge excitations. We tuned the ground state of the graphene zeroth Landau level to the topological phase through a suitable screening of the Coulomb interaction with the high dielectric constant of a strontium titanate (SrTiO3) substrate. Robust helical edge transport emerged at magnetic fields as low as 1 tesla and withstanding temperatures up to 110 kelvin over micron-long distances. This versatile graphene platform may find applications in spintronics and topological quantum computation.

5.
Mol Carcinog ; 59(4): 339-352, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31989722

RESUMO

Diffuse gastric cancer (DGC) is a lethal malignancy lacking effective systemic therapy. Among the most provocative recent results in DGC has been that the alter of the cellular cytoskeleton and intercellular adhesion. CD2-associated protein (CD2AP) is one of the critical proteins regulating cytoskeleton assembly and intercellular adhesion. However, no study has investigated the expression and biological significance of CD2AP in gastric cancer (GC) to date. Therefore, the aim of our study was to explore if the expression of CD2AP is associated with any clinical features of GC and to elucidate the underlying mechanism. Immunohistochemistry of 620 patient tissue samples indicated that the expression of CD2AP is downregulated in DGC. Moreover, a low CD2AP level was indicative of poor patient prognosis. In vitro, forced expression of CD2AP caused a significant decrease in the migration and invasion of GC cells, whereas depletion of CD2AP had the opposite effect. Immunofluorescence analysis indicated that CD2AP promoted cellular adhesion and influenced cell cytoskeleton assembly via interaction with the F-actin capping protein CAPZA1. Overall, the upregulation of CD2AP could attenuate GC metastasis, suggesting CD2AP as a novel biomarker for the prognosis and treatment of patients with GC.

6.
Adv Mater ; : e1907288, 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977113

RESUMO

In a modern electronics system, charge-coupled devices and data storage devices are the two most indispensable components. Although there has been rapid and independent progress in their development during the last three decades, a cofunctionality of both sensing and memory at single-unit level is yet premature for flexible electronics. For wearable electronics that work in ultralow power conditions and involve strains, conventional sensing-and-memory systems suffer from low sensitivity and are not able to directly transform sensed information into sufficient memory. Here, a new transformative device is demonstrated, which is called "sen-memory", that exhibits the dual functionality of sensing and memory in a monolithic integrated circuit. The active channel of the device is formed by a carbon nanotube thin film and the floating gate is formed by a controllably oxidized aluminum nanoparticle array for electrical- and optical-programming. The device exhibits a high on-off current ratio of ≈106 , a long-term retention of ≈108 s, and durable flexibility at a bending strain of 0.4%. It is shown that the device senses a photogenerated pattern in seconds at zero bias and memorizes an image for a couple of years.

7.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 150: 111894, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761484

RESUMO

Multiple mycotoxin contamination has posed health risks in the area of food safety. In this study, co-reduced molybdenum disulfide and gold nanoparticles (rMoS2-Au) were designed and used for the first time as an efficient platform endowing electrochemical electrodes with superior electron transfer rates, large surface areas and strong abilities to firmly couple with large amounts of different aptamers. After further modification with thionine (Thi) and 6-(Ferrocenyl) hexanethiol (FC6S), a platform enabling sensitive, selective and simultaneous determination of two important mycotoxins, zearalenone (ZEN) and fumonisin B1 (FB1), was achieved. The established aptasensor showed excellent linear relationships (R2 > 0.99) when ZEN and FB1 concentrations were in the range of 1 × 10-3-10 ng mL-1 and 1 × 10-3-1 × 102 ng mL-1, respectively. High sensitivity of ZEN and FB1 with a limit of detection as low as 5 × 10-4 ng mL-1 was obtained with excellent selectivity and stability. The effectiveness of the aptasensor was verified in real maize samples, and satisfactory recoveries were attained. The established platform could be easily expanded to other aptamer-based multiplex screening protocols in biochemical research and clinical diagnosis.

8.
Lung Cancer ; 139: 118-123, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775086

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The 2015 World Health Organization classification defines pulmonary large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) as a high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma. However, the clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of pure LCNEC and combined LCNEC remain unclear. Hence, we performed a multi-center retrospective study to compare the clinical outcomes of pure versus combined LCNEC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from 381 patients with pulmonary LCNEC admitted to 17 Chinese institutes between 2009 and 2016 were collected retrospectively. Clinical characteristics and prognosis were analyzed among patients receiving adjuvant (adjuvant group; n = 56) and first-line (first-line group; n = 146) chemotherapy, as well as among patients receiving small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-SCLC (NSCLC) chemotherapy regimens. The Kaplan-Meier method and multivariable Cox regression were used to identify clinicopathological variables that might influence patient outcomes. RESULTS: Expression levels of neuroendocrine markers (synaptophysin, chromogranin-A, CD56) were associated with patients' prognosis in the total study cohort. In the adjuvant group, median disease-free survival was non-significantly longer for SCLC-based regimens than for NSCLC-based regimens (P = 0.112). In the first-line group, median progression-free survival was significantly longer for SCLC-based regimens than for NSCLC-based regimens (11.5 vs. 7.2 months, P = 0.003). Among patients with combined LCNEC, adenocarcinoma was the most common combined component, accounting for 70.0 % of cases. Additionally, median overall survival was non-significantly shorter for combined LCNEC than for pure LCNEC (P = 0.083). CONCLUSION: The SCLC regimen is a more effective choice, as either first-line or adjuvant chemotherapy, when compared to the NSCLC regimen for LCNEC treatment. Further studies are needed to clarify the survival differences between patients with pure-, and combined LCNEC.

9.
Quant Imaging Med Surg ; 9(9): 1579-1591, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667143

RESUMO

Background: To develop liposomes loaded with iodinated agents as nanosized CT/MRI bimodal contrast agents for monitoring liposome-mediated drug delivery. Methods: Rhodamine-labeled iodixanol (VisipaqueTM)-loaded liposomes (IX-lipo) were prepared and tested for their properties as a diamagnetic CEST contrast agent in vitro. Mice bearing subcutaneous CT26 colon tumors were injected i.v. with 1 g/kg (535 mg iodine/kg) IX-lipo, and in vivo CT and CEST MR images were acquired on day 3. CT and CEST MR images were also acquired for tumor-bearing mice co-injected with IX-lipo and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α). Results: In addition to CT contrast, IX-lipo exhibited a strong CEST contrast similar to its non-liposomal form, with a detectability of ~2 nM per liposome. Both CT imaging and CEST MRI showed that i.v. injection of IX-lipo resulted in a rim enhancement of CT26 tumors with a heterogeneous central distribution. In contrast, co-injection of TNF-α caused a significantly augmented CT/MRI contrast in the tumor center. The intratumoral biodistribution of IX-lipo correlated well to the rhodamine patterns observed with fluorescence microscopy. Conclusions: We have developed a CT/MRI bimodal imaging approach for monitoring the delivery and biodistribution of liposomes by loading them with the clinically approved X-ray/CT contrast agent iodixanol. Our approach may be easily adapted for other-FDA approved iodinated agents and thus has great translational potential.

10.
J Craniofac Surg ; 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31764567

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To summarize the prognosis of pediatric patients with mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) of the parotid gland. METHODS: Pediatric patients with MEC of parotid gland who were surgically treated at the Capital Medical University School of Stomatology from 2000 to 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. Clinical characteristics, pathology reports, and operation records were reviewed and analyzed. RESULTS: In total, 33 patients with an average age of 13.2 years were enrolled. The 5-year overall survival and disease-free survival were 95.8% and 84.4%, respectively. The disease-free survival and overall survival rates were lower in the under-10 age group (75.0 versus 87.7% and 83.3% versus 100%), though no statistically significant difference was found (P = 0.279 and P = 0.075). The patients who underwent complete resection all had a good prognosis without any recurrence or death regardless of whether the cut margin was 1.0 cm, 0.5 cm, or only extracapsular. One patient experienced 3 recurrences within 18 months and eventually died of disease. CONCLUSION: Good outcomes were achieved in pediatric patients with MEC of the parotid gland. Radical resection ensured a good prognosis regardless of the extent of resection. Frequent recurrence in a short period was associated with a poor prognosis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: None.

11.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(45): 42358-42364, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633328

RESUMO

Two-dimensional material-based ferroelectric field-effect transistors (2D-FeFETs) hold great promise in information storage and processing. However, an often-observed and hard-to-control anti-hysteresis response of 2D-FeFETs, for example, hysteretic switching of the resistance states of the devices opposite to that of the actual polarization of the ferroelectric dielectric, represents a major issue in the industrial applications of such devices. Here, we demonstrate a van der Waals buffer technique that eliminates anti-hysteresis in black phosphorus (BP) 2D-FeFETs and restores their intrinsic hysteretic behavior. Our modified BP 2D-FeFETs showed outstanding performance including high room-temperature carrier mobility, robust bistable states with fast response to a gate, a large on/off ratio at zero gate voltage, a large and considerably more stable memory window, and a long retention time. During repeated gate operation, the memory window of the buffered device is ∼7000 times more stable than the unbuffered device. Such a method could be crucial in future information technological applications that utilize the intrinsic properties of 2D-FeFETs.

12.
Opt Lett ; 44(18): 4523-4526, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517921

RESUMO

Quantum key distribution (QKD) can generate secure key bits between remote users employing the features of quantum physics. However, a shared reference frame is necessary for QKD systems in most scenarios. A reference-frame-independent (RFI) scheme can tolerate the reference frame drifting between legitimate remote users, which is significant in the operation of relative moving terminals such as satellites and aircraft. We design and experimentally demonstrate an RFI-BB84-QKD system by joint encoding with the polarization and orbital angular momentum states of the photons. We use self-compensating fiber Sagnac interferometers to perform high-speed polarization modulation, and q-plates to passively manipulate the rotation-invariant photon states, which makes the system feasible for high-speed operation using off-the-shelf components.

13.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12407, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455842

RESUMO

We report on a comprehensive method for analyzing landslide stability and the mitigation effect of countermeasures in this paper. The proposed method is a combination of theoretical method and numerical method. To address the uncertainties of the soil strength parameters, the rational values of these parameters are comprehensively determined by the back-analysis result of the reliability method and the result by the quantitative method, as well as the in-situ geological test. To evaluate the slope stability, the limit analysis using the 2D upper bound method and the FEM simulation using strength reduction method are performed, respectively. In order to illustrate the presented method, the so-called Lanmuxi landslide in China is selected as a case study. Results demonstrated that the stress and strain majorly concentrated at the toe and crown of the slope. According to the analysis results, countermeasures consisting of anchor lattice beams, landslide piles, and cracks filling, are suggested to reduce the failure risk of the landslide. Effect assessment based on the FEM analysis verifies the feasibility and effectiveness of the recommended countermeasures.

14.
Sci Adv ; 5(8): eaaw8904, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467976

RESUMO

The recent discovery of ferromagnetism in two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals (vdW) materials holds promises for spintronic devices with exceptional properties. However, to use 2D vdW magnets for building spintronic nanodevices such as magnetic memories, key challenges remain in terms of effectively switching the magnetization from one state to the other electrically. Here, we devise a bilayer structure of Fe3GeTe2/Pt, in which the magnetization of few-layered Fe3GeTe2 can be effectively switched by the spin-orbit torques (SOTs) originated from the current flowing in the Pt layer. The effective magnetic fields corresponding to the SOTs are further quantitatively characterized using harmonic measurements. Our demonstration of the SOT-driven magnetization switching in a 2D vdW magnet could pave the way for implementing low-dimensional materials in the next-generation spintronic applications.

15.
Molecules ; 24(15)2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382421

RESUMO

A rapid and reliable liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for simultaneous determination of ochratoxin A (OTA) and its metabolite ochratoxin α (OTα), for the first time, in dairy cow plasma, milk, urine, heart, liver, spleen, lung, and kidney. The established method was extensively validated by determining the linearity (R2 ≥ 0.990), sensitivity (lower limit of quantification, 0.1-0.2 ng mL-1), recovery (75.3-114.1%), precision (RSD ≤ 13.6%), and stability (≥83.0%). Based on the methodological advances, the carry-over of OTA was subsequently studied after oral administration of 30 µg/kg body weight OTA to dairy cows. As revealed, OTA and OTα were detected in urine, with maximal concentrations of 1.8 ng mL-1 and 324.6 ng mL-1, respectively, but not in milk, plasma, or different tissues, verifying the protection effects of rumen flora against OTA exposure for dairy cows. Moreover, 100 fresh milk samples randomly collected from different supermarkets in Shanghai were also analyzed, and no positive samples were found, further proving the correctness of the in vivo biotransformation results. Thus, from the currently available data, regarding OTA contamination issues on dairy cows, no significant health risks were related to OTA exposure due to the consumption of these products.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Ocratoxinas/análise , Ocratoxinas/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Animais , Líquidos Corporais/química , Bovinos , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Leite/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
16.
Toxins (Basel) ; 11(8)2019 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357671

RESUMO

With the widespread contamination of ochratoxin A (OTA), it is of significant importance for detecting OTA in foods and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). In this study, a novel label-free fluorescent aptasensor utilizing the interaction between OTA-triggered antiparallel G-quadruplex and (N-methyl-4-pyridy) porphyrin (TMPyP) for the rapid and sensitive determination of OTA was established. The fluorescence of CdTe quantum dots (QDs) could be quenched by TMPyP. In the presence of analyte (OTA), the aptamer could recognize OTA and transform from a random coil to the antiparallel G-quadruplex. The interaction between G-quadruplex and TMPyP could release CdTe QDs from TMPyP, and thus recover the fluorescence of CdTe QDs. Under optimized conditions, the detection limit of the designed aptasensor was 0.16 ng mL-1, with a linear range of 0.2 to 20 ng mL-1. Furthermore, this aptasensor showed high selectivity toward OTA against other structural analogs and other mycotoxins, and was successfully applied in Astragalus membranaceus samples. The presented aptasensor for OTA detection could be a promising tool for the field monitoring of food and TCM.

17.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 141: 111442, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31252256

RESUMO

Phenol contains an exchangeable hydroxyl proton resonant at 4.8 ppm from the resonance frequency of water in the 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectrum, enabling itself to be detected at sub-mM concentration by either chemical exchange saturation transfer magnetic resonance imaging (CEST MRI) or exchange-based T2 relaxation enhancement (T2ex) effect under acidic and basic conditions, respectively. We recently investigated the T2ex effects of phenol and its derivatives, but the CEST characteristics of phenols are unknown in detail, and no study on using the natural CEST MRI effects of phenol for detecting enzymatic activity has been conducted. Herein, on the basis of the inherent CEST MR property of phenol, namely phenolCEST, we developed the first MRI approach to detect acid phosphatase (AcP) enzymatic activity. Upon the activity of AcP at pH = 5.0, non-CEST-detectable enzyme substrate phenyl phosphate was converted to CEST-detectable phenol, providing a simple way to quantify AcP activity directly without the need for a second signalling probe. We showed the application of this phenolCEST biosensor for measuring AcP activity in both enzyme solutions and cell lysates of prostate cells. This work opens a door for the utilization of phenolCEST MRI technique in sensor design and development.


Assuntos
Fosfatase Ácida/análise , Meios de Contraste/química , Fenol/química , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Próstata/enzimologia
18.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(29): 9871-9875, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31162873

RESUMO

While carbon dots (C-dots) have been extensively investigated pertaining to their fluorescent, phosphorescent, electrochemiluminescent, optoelectronic, and catalytic features, their inherent chemical exchange saturation transfer magnetic resonance imaging (CEST MRI) properties are unknown. By virtue of their hydrophilicity and abundant exchangeable protons of hydroxyl, amine, and amide anchored on the surface, we report here that C-dots can be adapted as effective diamagnetic CEST (diaCEST) MRI contrast agents. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, human glioma cells were labeled with liposomes with or without encapsulated C-dots and implanted in mouse brain. In vivo CEST MRI was able to clearly differentiate labeled cells from non-labeled cells. The present findings may encourage new applications of C-dots for in vivo imaging in deep tissues, which is currently not possible using conventional fluorescent (near-infrared) C-dots.

19.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2217, 2019 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101813

RESUMO

Cd3As2 is a three-dimensional Dirac semimetal with separated Dirac points in momentum space. In spite of extensive transport and spectroscopic studies on its exotic properties, the evidence of superconductivity in its surface states remains elusive. Here, we report the observation of proximity-induced surface superconductivity in Nb/Cd3As2 hybrid structures. Our four-terminal transport measurement identifies a pronounced proximity-induced pairing gap (gap size comparable to Nb) on the surfaces, which exhibits a flat conductance plateau in differential conductance spectra, consistent with our theoretical simulations. The surface supercurrent from Nb/Cd3As2/Nb junctions is also achieved with a Fraunhofer/SQUID-like pattern under out-of-plane/in-plane magnetic fields, respectively. The resultant mapping shows a predominant distribution on the top and bottom surfaces as the bulk carriers are depleted, which can be regarded as a higher dimensional analog of edge supercurrent in two-dimensional quantum spin Hall insulators. Our study provides the evidence of surface superconductivity in Dirac semimetals.

20.
Inorg Chem ; 58(12): 7657-7661, 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31124668

RESUMO

A unique 3D framework containing three different types of nanoscale polyhedron cages was constructed by incorporating dinuclear [M2(µ2-OH)(COO)4] (M = Co, Ni) secondary building units and pyridyl-carboxylic-acid-supported tetracarboxylates. The assembled complexes possess isolated bifunctional single-site Lewis acid and Brønsted acid and can be used as highly efficient heterogeneous catalysts for the solvent-free Biginelli reaction with a high turnover frequency value of 338.4 h-1. Interestingly, a variety of 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1 H)-ones have been obtained in high yields and short times.

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