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1.
Chin J Nat Med ; 19(9): 713-720, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34561084

RESUMO

There are two source plants for the traditional Chinese medicine Murrayae Folium et Cacumen (MFC) in Chinese Pharmacopoeia, i.e. Murraya exotica L. and M. paniculata (L.) Jack. Herein, a chemical comparison of M. exotica and M. paniculata by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint analysis coupled with chemometrics and network pharmacology was performed. The main peaks in the fingerprints were identified by liquid chromatography coupled with ion trap/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-IT-TOF-MS) and authenticated by references. The chemometrics results showed that the HPLC fingerprints of these two species were clearly divided into two categories using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA), and a total of 13 significantly differentiated markers were screened out by orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). However, the following network pharmacology analysis showed that these discriminated markers were found to act via many common targets and metabolic pathways, indicating the possibly similar pharmacological effects and mechanisms for M. exotica and M. paniculata. The above results provide valuable evidence for the equivalent use of these two plants in clinical settings. Moreover, the chromatographic fingerprint analysis coupled with chemometrics and network pharmacology supplies an efficient approach for the comparative analysis of multi-source TCMs like MFC.


Assuntos
Murraya , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Espectrometria de Massas , Análise de Componente Principal
2.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(9): 2167-2172, 2021 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34047117

RESUMO

Chrysanthemi Indici Flos(CIF), the capitulum of Chrysanthemum indicum, is widely used in proprietary Chinese medicine and daily chemical products. At present, CIF is mainly produced from wild resources and rarely cultivated. This study aims to reveal the correlations between linarin content in CIF and climatic factors in different habitats, and provide a theoretical basis for suitable zoning and rational production of medicinal materials. The content of linarin in CIF was determined by HPLC. Grey relational analysis and Pearson correlation analysis were carried out for linarin content with climatic factors. The results showed that the content of linarin in CIF was significantly different among different habitats. The grey relational degrees of climatic factors with linarin content was in an order of average annual precipitation>annual average sunshine hours>annual average temperature>longitude>annual frost-free period>latitude>altitude. Longitude, annual average temperature and average annual precipitation had significantly positive correlations with the content of linarin in CIF, whereas latitude and altitude showed negative correlations with it. The annual frost-free period and annual average sunshine hours had no significant correlation with the content of linarin in CIF. The content of linarin in CIF varied significantly in different habitats. High longitude, low latitude, low altitude, high annual average temperature and high annual average precipitation could be used as indicators for the habitats of high-quality Ch. indicum. This study provides a reference for selecting suitable producing areas of Ch. indicum and establishing artificial cultivation system.


Assuntos
Chrysanthemum , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ecossistema , Glicosídeos
3.
Food Funct ; 11(7): 6340-6351, 2020 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608438

RESUMO

Flos Chrysanthemi Indici (FCI), the flower of Chrysanthemum indicum L., is a common functional food and a well-known traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Previous studies have revealed that FCI has anti-inflammatory activity, but little is known about its anti-inflammatory chemical profile. In this study, the potential anti-inflammatory constituents of FCI were investigated by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS) combined with the network pharmacology approach, and further confirmed on a LPS activated RAW264.7 macrophage model. As a result, a total of forty-two compounds, including thirty-two flavonoids, nine phenolic acids and one sesquiterpene, were identified. Among them, fourteen compounds including eight flavonoids (11, 17, 24, 28, 32, 39, 41 and 42) and six caffeoylquinic acids (3, 4, 5, 13, 15 and 20) were recognized as potential key anti-inflammatory constituents of FCI through network pharmacology analysis, because they accounted for 92% of the relative peak area in the UPLC-Q-TOF/MS chromatogram and acted on 87 of 97 the inflammatory targets of FCI. However, only 16 targets were shared between the flavonoids and caffeoylquinic acids, indicative of both acting on more different targets. Further the anti-inflammatory effects of the fourteen constituents were validated with the decreased levels of NO, TNF-α, IL-6 and PGE2 in RAW264.7 macrophage cells treated with LPS. Our results indicated that both flavonoids and caffeoylquinic acids were responsible for the anti-inflammatory effect of FCI through synergetic actions on multi-targets. Moreover, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (15), luteolin (24) and linarin (28) were the most important active constituents of FCI and could be selected as chemical markers for quality control of FCI. Overall, the findings not only explore the anti-inflammatory chemical constituents of FCI, but also provide novel insights into the effective constituents and mechanism of TCMs.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Chrysanthemum/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Flores/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Sobrevivência Celular , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Flavonoides/análise , Glicosídeos , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Luteolina/análise , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Camundongos , Ácido Quínico/análogos & derivados , Células RAW 264.7
4.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(4): 636-640, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989873

RESUMO

To provide theoretical basis for the formation of Chrysanthemum indicum resource and quality,the differences in biology,ecology,yield and quality of Ch. indicum population in the wild tending,the cultivated and the wild were analyzed and compared in this study. The results showed that in the aspect of biology,there was no significant difference between the condition of wild tending and cultivated Ch. indicum at the height of plant,both were significantly higher than wild Ch. indicum. In the aspect of ecology,in the condition of wild tending is less likely to occur water logging than cultivated Ch. indicum. In the condition of wild tending is less likely to occur plant diseases and insect pests than Ch. indicum in the condition of wild. In the aspect of production,the average output of the sample of the condition of wild tending was significantly higher than that the condition of artificial cultivation and wild quadrat. There was no significant difference between the three kinds of condition on the traits of capitulum dichasium,the content of buddleoside of the wild tending Ch. indicum was significantly higher than that of 0. 80% required by the Chinese Pharmacopoeia( 2015 edition). Therefore,the artificial supplement and the appropriate artificial management of wild tending is a mode of production to increase the population density of Ch. indicum and obtain high quality and high yield medicinal materials.


Assuntos
Chrysanthemum , Água
5.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(4): 641-647, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989874

RESUMO

The Cd stress of Chrysanthemum indicum was treated by different concentrations of Cd Cl2 solution in the culture substrate. The content of Cd in different parts of Ch. indicum and the content of buddleoside and the total flavonoids in Ch. indicum were determined. The absorption characteristics of Cd elements in Ch. indicum were analyzed. And the influence of Cd elements on the quality of the herbs. The results showed that the application of soil Cd in the range of 0-100 mg·kg~(-1) had no significant effect on the biomass of Ch. indicum,and the root-shoot ratio showed a decreasing-increasing-decreasing trend. The content of Cd in different parts of Ch. indicum was significantly different,and the content of aboveground part was higher than that of underground part. The enrichment factors of Cd elements in different parts of Ch. indicum are different. The enrichment coefficient of aboveground parts is larger than that of underground parts. The whole parts and plants show an increase first and then decrease,and the overall enrichment factor is greater than1. The transfer coefficient of the aerial part/underground part of Ch. indicum showed a decreasing-increasing-decreasing-increasing trend with the increase of the amount of Cd applied in the soil,and the transfer coefficient was higher than 1. The contents of buddleoside and total flavonoids in Ch. indicum after Cd stress treatment were lower than the control,and the overall performance was lower and then increased,but it was still significantly lower than the control,indicating that Cd pollution directly led to the decrease of chemical quality of Ch. indicum.


Assuntos
Chrysanthemum , Cádmio , Flavonoides , Solo , Poluentes do Solo
6.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 43(21): 4267-4273, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30583628

RESUMO

Phytochemical investigation on Ilex asprella stems by using various chromatographic techniques led to the isolation of 18 phenolic constituents. Based on spectroscopic data analyses and/or comparison of the spectroscopic data with those in literature, these constituents were identified, including two lignans (1, 2), five phenylpropanes (3-7), six chlorogenic analogues (8-13), and five benzoic analogues (14-18). Among them, compounds 3-7, 9, 11, 13, 14, 17, and 18 were isolated from genus Ilex for the first time, and 2, 8, 10, 15, and 16 were isolated from this species for the first time. The in vitro anti-inflammatory assay results showed that compounds 8, 9, 11, 13, and 15 possessed moderate inhibition on the NO production in RAW264.7 cells with IC50 values of 51.1-85.8 µmol·L⁻¹. The present study brought preliminary reference for the clarification of therapeutic ingredients of I. asprella with anti-inflammatory efficacy and its quality evaluation.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Ilex/química , Fenóis/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Caules de Planta/química , Células RAW 264.7
7.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 43(14): 2908-2917, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30111049

RESUMO

ICP-MS was used to determine the contents of five heavy metals such as lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As) and copper (Cu) in Chrysanthemum indicum and soil samples. Pearson correlation and path analysis were used to analyze the effects of latitude and longitude and altitude on the content of heavy metal elements in Ch. indicum. To explore the relationship between geographical location of heavy metal content in Ch. indicum and the content of heavy metal elements in soil. The results showed that the Ch. indicum had high enrichment of Cd and had a synergistic effect on the absorption of five heavy metal elements. Elevation directly affected the accumulation of Pb and Cd in Ch. indicum and was a positive effect. The direct positive effect of latitude acts on the accumulation of Hg and Cu in Ch. indicum. The effect of longitude on the Cd content was the negative effect of longitude. The geographical location had different effects on the accumulation of heavy metal elements in Ch. indicum. There was a certain interaction between direct and indirect effects. Ch. indicum had different absorption and enrichment characteristics for different heavy metal species. When controlling the heavy metal content and medicinal material quality of Ch. indicum, we must fully consider the influence of geographical location on the quality of medicinal materials, select suitable geographic regions to carry out acquisitions, and choose a good ecological environment. Regional establishment of Chinese herbal medicine planting bases, or adopting certain agricultural measures to reduce the absorption of heavy metal elements in Ch. indicum herbs, while conducting research on chemical composition, strengthening the research on the effective forms of heavy metals, and paying attention to the safety of medicinal herbs.


Assuntos
Chrysanthemum , China , Metais Pesados , Solo , Poluentes do Solo
8.
J Asian Nat Prod Res ; 20(5): 439-444, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29580098

RESUMO

Three new triterpenoid saponins, namely asprellinoids A-C (1-3), featuring a sulfate substitution in sugar moiety, were isolated from the stems of Ilex asprella (Hook. et Arn.) Champ. ex Benth. Their structures were elucidated by the spectroscopic data analyses including HR-ESI-MS, IR, and NMR spectra, and chemical method.


Assuntos
Ilex/química , Caules de Planta/química , Saponinas/química , Triterpenos/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Estrutura Molecular
9.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 42(21): 4154-4158, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29271154

RESUMO

Phytochemical investigation on the stems of Ilex asprella by using various chromatographic techniques led to the isolation of 13 compounds. By spectroscopic analyses and comparisons the spectral data with those in literatures, these compounds were identified as salicifoneoliganol(1), rel-(7R,8S)-3,3',5-trimethoxy-4',7-epoxy-8,5'-neolignan-4,9,9'-triol 9-ß-D-glucopyranoside(2),(+)-cycloolivil(3),(+)-syringaresinol-4'-O-ß-D-monoglucoside(4), liriodendrin(5), caffeic acid (6), 3,4-dihydroxy-5-methoxybenzaldehyde(7), benzene-1,2,4-triol(8), 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl-1-O-ß-D-apiofuranosyl(1″→6')-glucopyranoside(9), aeculetin(10), cryptochlorogenic acid ethyl ester(11), chlorogenic acid ethyl ester(12), and rel-5-(3S,8S-dihydroxy-1R,5S-dimethyl-7-oxa-6-oxobicyclo [3,2,1]oct-8-yl)-3-methyl-2Z,4E-pentadienoic acid(13). Among them, compounds 7, 8, 11, and 13 were isolated from genus Ilex for the first time, and 1-3, 9, 10, and 12 were isolated from this speciesfor the first time. The anti-inflammatory assay results of these compounds showed that compounds 1 and 9 showed moderate inhibitory effect against NO production in RAW 267. 4 cells with IC50 values of 35.7 and 50.6 µmol•L⁻¹, in vitro respectively, whereas compound 10 showed weak inhibition(IC50 value 98.7 µmol•L⁻¹).


Assuntos
Ilex/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Caules de Planta/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Células RAW 264.7
10.
Zhong Yao Cai ; 39(1): 164-9, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30080020

RESUMO

Objective: To provide the experimental evidence for expansion of medicinal parts of Zanthoxylum nitidum by comparing the effects of anti-gastritis,gastric mucosal protection and gastrointestinal movement promotion of its root and stem. Methods: The pharmacological effects between root and stem of Zanthoxylum nitidum were compared by observing the anti-gastritis effect on rats with chronic superficial gastritis induced by iodoacetamide, evaluating the gastric mucosal protective effect on rats' gastric ulcer induced by stress, indometacin and pylorus ligation test, and investigating gastrointestinal movement promotion effect on mice gastric evacuation and intestinal propelling. Results: Both root and stem of Zanthoxylum nitidum showed effects of relieving the inflammation symptoms of rats' gastric mucosa induced by iodoacetamide, gastric ulcer respectively induced by stress, and presenting a strong inhibition of free acid and pepsin activity in gastric juice. Furthermore stem parts of Zanthoxylum nitidum in promoting gastrointestinal motility even showed better efficacy than root. Conclusion: Stem of Zanthoxylum nitidum has similar effects of anti-gastritis, gastric mucosal protection and gastrointestinal movement promotion with root of Zanthoxylum nitidum.


Assuntos
Raízes de Plantas , Zanthoxylum , Animais , Suco Gástrico , Mucosa Gástrica , Gastrite , Inflamação , Camundongos , Caules de Planta , Ratos , Úlcera Gástrica
11.
J Asian Nat Prod Res ; 17(7): 711-6, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26096179

RESUMO

Phytochemical investigation on the roots of Zanthoxylum nitidum led to the isolation of four new unsaturated alkylamides, zanthoxylumamides A-D. Their structures were established via the detailed spectroscopic analyses.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/isolamento & purificação , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas/isolamento & purificação , Zanthoxylum/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Estrutura Molecular , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , Raízes de Plantas/química , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas/química
12.
Zhong Yao Cai ; 38(11): 2358-63, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27356392

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To provide the scientific evidence for expansion of medicinal parts of Zanthoxylum nitidum by comparing the effects of anti-contusion injury, analgesia and anti-inflammation of its root and stem. METHODS: The pharmacological effects between root and stem of Zanthoxylum nitidum were compared by observing the anti-injury effect in rats with injury struck by hammer. The analgesic effect in mice was evaluated by writhing test and hot plate test, and the anti-inflammatory effect on paw edema induced by carrageenan and granuloma induced by cotton pellet were investigated in rats. RESULTS: Both root and stem of Zanthoxylum nitidum relieved the exterior and histological symptoms of rats' injury legs struck by hammer, decreased the numbers of mice's writhing, enhanced pain threshold of mice on heat plate, inhibited the edema of rats induced by carrageenan, and suppressed the granuloma of rats induced by cotton pellet. CONCLUSION: Stem of Zanthoxylum nitidum has similar effects of anti-contusion injury, analgesia and anti-inflammation with root of Zanthoxylum nitidum.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Contusões/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Zanthoxylum/química , Animais , Carragenina , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Camundongos , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Limiar da Dor , Raízes de Plantas/química , Caules de Planta/química , Ratos
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