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1.
Cell ; 184(4): 856-858, 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33606984

RESUMO

In this issue of Cell, Ma et al. reveal a mechanistic role for PIEZO1 in iron homeostasis through molecular genetic mouse studies. They also demonstrate implications for human iron overload and deficiency syndromes, susceptibility to malarial infection, and red blood cell turnover in persons of African ancestries.

2.
J Clin Invest ; 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) improves diagnostic rates in individuals with suspected Mendelian conditions to varying degrees, primarily by directing the prioritization of candidate DNA variants identified on exome or genome sequencing (ES/GS). Here we implemented an RNA-seq guided method to diagnose individuals across a wide range of ages and clinical phenotypes. METHODS: One hundred fifteen undiagnosed adult and pediatric patients with diverse phenotypes and 67 family members (182 total individuals) underwent RNA-seq from whole blood and fibroblasts at the Baylor College of Medicine (BCM) Undiagnosed Diseases Network (UDN) clinical site from 2014-2020. We implemented a workflow to detect outliers in gene expression and splicing for cases that remained undiagnosed despite standard genomic and transcriptomic analysis. RESULTS: The transcriptome-directed approach resulted in a diagnostic rate of 12% across the entire cohort, or 17% after excluding cases solved on ES/GS alone. Newly diagnosed conditions included Koolen-de Vries syndrome (KANSL1), Renpenning syndrome (PQBP1), TBCK-associated encephalopathy, NSD2- and CLTC-related intellectual disability, and others, all with negative conventional genomic testing, including ES and chromosomal microarray (CMA). Fibroblasts exhibited higher and more consistent expression of clinically relevant genes than whole blood. In solved cases with RNA-seq from both tissues, the causative defect was missed in blood in half the cases but none from fibroblasts. CONCLUSION: For our cohort of undiagnosed individuals with suspected Mendelian conditions, transcriptome-directed genomic analysis facilitated diagnoses, primarily through the identification of variants missed on ES and CMA.

3.
Nature ; 586(7831): 741-748, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33116287

RESUMO

The African continent is regarded as the cradle of modern humans and African genomes contain more genetic variation than those from any other continent, yet only a fraction of the genetic diversity among African individuals has been surveyed1. Here we performed whole-genome sequencing analyses of 426 individuals-comprising 50 ethnolinguistic groups, including previously unsampled populations-to explore the breadth of genomic diversity across Africa. We uncovered more than 3 million previously undescribed variants, most of which were found among individuals from newly sampled ethnolinguistic groups, as well as 62 previously unreported loci that are under strong selection, which were predominantly found in genes that are involved in viral immunity, DNA repair and metabolism. We observed complex patterns of ancestral admixture and putative-damaging and novel variation, both within and between populations, alongside evidence that Zambia was a likely intermediate site along the routes of expansion of Bantu-speaking populations. Pathogenic variants in genes that are currently characterized as medically relevant were uncommon-but in other genes, variants denoted as 'likely pathogenic' in the ClinVar database were commonly observed. Collectively, these findings refine our current understanding of continental migration, identify gene flow and the response to human disease as strong drivers of genome-level population variation, and underscore the scientific imperative for a broader characterization of the genomic diversity of African individuals to understand human ancestry and improve health.

4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2441, 2020 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32415109

RESUMO

KIF21B is a kinesin protein that promotes intracellular transport and controls microtubule dynamics. We report three missense variants and one duplication in KIF21B in individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders associated with brain malformations, including corpus callosum agenesis (ACC) and microcephaly. We demonstrate, in vivo, that the expression of KIF21B missense variants specifically recapitulates patients' neurodevelopmental abnormalities, including microcephaly and reduced intra- and inter-hemispheric connectivity. We establish that missense KIF21B variants impede neuronal migration through attenuation of kinesin autoinhibition leading to aberrant KIF21B motility activity. We also show that the ACC-related KIF21B variant independently perturbs axonal growth and ipsilateral axon branching through two distinct mechanisms, both leading to deregulation of canonical kinesin motor activity. The duplication introduces a premature termination codon leading to nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. Although we demonstrate that Kif21b haploinsufficiency leads to an impaired neuronal positioning, the duplication variant might not be pathogenic. Altogether, our data indicate that impaired KIF21B autoregulation and function play a critical role in the pathogenicity of human neurodevelopmental disorder.


Assuntos
Cinesina/genética , Atividade Motora , Mutação/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Animais , Axônios/metabolismo , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Córtex Cerebral/embriologia , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Rede Nervosa/patologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Tamanho do Órgão , Organogênese/genética , Linhagem , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/anatomia & histologia , Peixe-Zebra/genética
5.
Genet Med ; 22(8): 1407-1412, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371920

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The persistence of hypermutable CGN (CGG, CGA, CGC, CGU) arginine codons at high frequency suggests the possibility of negative selective pressure at these sites and that arginine codon usage could be a predictive indicator of human disease genes. METHODS: We analyzed arginine codons (CGN, AGG, AGA) from all canonical Ensembl protein coding gene transcripts before comparing the frequency of CGN codons between genes with and without human disease associations and with gnomAD constraint metrics. RESULTS: The frequency of CGN codons among a gene's total arginine codon count was higher in genes linked to syndromic autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared with genes not associated with ASD. A comparison of genes annotated as dominant or recessive with control genes not matching either classification revealed a progressive increase in CGN codon frequency. Moreover, CGN frequency was positively correlated with a gene's probability of loss-of-function intolerance (pLI) score and negatively correlated with observed-over-expected ratios for both loss-of-function and missense variants. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that genes utilizing CGN arginine codons rather than AGG or AGA are more likely to underlie single-gene disorders, particularly for dominant phenotypes, and thus constitute candidate genes for the study of human genetic disease.

6.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5791, 2019 12 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31857576

RESUMO

Edematous severe acute childhood malnutrition (edematous SAM or ESAM), which includes kwashiorkor, presents with more overt multi-organ dysfunction than non-edematous SAM (NESAM). Reduced concentrations and methyl-flux of methionine in 1-carbon metabolism have been reported in acute, but not recovered, ESAM, suggesting downstream DNA methylation changes could be relevant to differences in SAM pathogenesis. Here, we assess genome-wide DNA methylation in buccal cells of 309 SAM children using the 450 K microarray. Relative to NESAM, ESAM is characterized by multiple significantly hypomethylated loci, which is not observed among SAM-recovered adults. Gene expression and methylation show both positive and negative correlation, suggesting a complex transcriptional response to SAM. Hypomethylated loci link to disorders of nutrition and metabolism, including fatty liver and diabetes, and appear to be influenced by genetic variation. Our epigenetic findings provide a potential molecular link to reported aberrant 1-carbon metabolism in ESAM and support consideration of methyl-group supplementation in ESAM.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Epigenoma/genética , Desnutrição Aguda Grave/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Epigenômica/métodos , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Lactente , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Mucosa Bucal , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Desnutrição Aguda Grave/mortalidade , Sobreviventes , Adulto Jovem
7.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(10): 2138-2143, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31290619

RESUMO

Autosomal recessive COX4I1 deficiency has been previously reported in a single individual with a homozygous pathogenic variant in COX4I1, who presented with short stature, poor weight gain, dysmorphic features, and features of Fanconi anemia. COX4I1 encodes subunit 4, isoform 1 of cytochrome c oxidase. Cytochrome c oxidase is a respiratory chain enzyme that plays an important role in mitochondrial electron transport and reduces molecular oxygen to water leading to the formation of ATP. Defective production of cytochrome c oxidase leads to a variable phenotypic spectrum ranging from isolated myopathy to Leigh syndrome. Here, we describe two siblings, born to consanguineous parents, who presented with encephalopathy, developmental regression, hypotonia, pathognomonic brain imaging findings resembling Leigh-syndrome, and a novel homozygous variant on COX4I1, expanding the known clinical phenotype associated with pathogenic variants in COX4I1.


Assuntos
Alelos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Doença de Leigh/genética , Mutação/genética , Convulsões/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Transporte de Elétrons , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Leigh/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Fenótipo , Convulsões/diagnóstico por imagem
8.
Front Genet ; 10: 509, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31231425

RESUMO

Hydroxyurea (HU) is clinically beneficial in sickle cell disease (SCD) through fetal hemoglobin (HbF) induction; however, the mechanism of HU is not yet fully elucidated. Selected miRNAs have been associated with HU-induced HbF production. We have investigated differential HU-induced global miRNA expression in peripheral blood of adult SCD patients in patients from Congo, living in South Africa. We found 22 of 798 miRNAs evaluated that were differentially expressed under HU treatment, with the majority (13/22) being functionally associated with HbF-regulatory genes, including BCL11A (miR-148b-3p, miR-32-5p, miR-340-5p, and miR-29c-3p), MYB (miR-105-5p), and KLF-3 (miR-106b-5), and SP1 (miR-29b-3p, miR-625-5p, miR-324-5p, miR-125a-5p, miR-99b-5p, miR-374b-5p, and miR-145-5p). The preliminary study provides potential additional miRNA candidates for therapeutic exploration.

9.
Genet Med ; 21(11): 2453-2461, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30992551

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Maternal diabetes is a known teratogen that can cause a wide spectrum of birth defects, collectively referred to as diabetic embryopathy (DE). However, the pathogenic mechanisms underlying DE remain uncertain and there are no definitive tests to establish the diagnosis. Here, we explore the potential of DNA methylation as a diagnostic biomarker for DE and to inform disease pathogenesis. METHODS: Bisulfite sequencing was used to identify gene regions with differential methylation between DE neonates and healthy infants born with or without prenatal exposure to maternal diabetes, and to investigate the role of allele-specific methylation at implicated sites. RESULTS: We identified a methylation signature consisting of 237 differentially methylated loci that distinguished infants with DE from control infants. These loci were found proximal to genes associated with Mendelian syndromes that overlap the DE phenotype (e.g., CACNA1C, TRIO, ANKRD11) or genes known to influence embryonic development (e.g., BRAX1, RASA3). Further, we identified allele-specific methylation (ASM) at 11 of these loci, within which 61.5% of ASM single-nucleotide variants are known expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs). CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests a role for aberrant DNA methylation and cis-sequence variation in the pathogenesis of DE and highlights the diagnostic potential of DNA methylation for teratogenic birth defects.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/genética , Diabetes Mellitus/embriologia , Doenças Fetais/genética , Alelos , Biomarcadores , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Complicações do Diabetes/genética , Diabetes Mellitus/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Gravidez , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética
10.
Genome Med ; 11(1): 25, 2019 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31014393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intrachromosomal triplications (TRP) can contribute to disease etiology via gene dosage effects, gene disruption, position effects, or fusion gene formation. Recently, post-zygotic de novo triplications adjacent to copy-number neutral genomic intervals with runs of homozygosity (ROH) have been shown to result in uniparental isodisomy (UPD). The genomic structure of these complex genomic rearrangements (CGRs) shows a consistent pattern of an inverted triplication flanked by duplications (DUP-TRP/INV-DUP) formed by an iterative DNA replisome template-switching mechanism during replicative repair of a single-ended, double-stranded DNA (seDNA), the ROH results from an interhomolog or nonsister chromatid template switch. It has been postulated that these CGRs may lead to genetic abnormalities in carriers due to dosage-sensitive genes mapping within the copy-number variant regions, homozygosity for alleles at a locus causing an autosomal recessive (AR) disease trait within the ROH region, or imprinting-associated diseases. METHODS: Here, we report a family wherein the affected subject carries a de novo 2.2-Mb TRP followed by 42.2 Mb of ROH and manifests clinical features overlapping with those observed in association with chromosome 14 maternal UPD (UPD(14)mat). UPD(14)mat can cause clinical phenotypic features enabling a diagnosis of Temple syndrome. This CGR was then molecularly characterized by high-density custom aCGH, genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and methylation arrays, exome sequencing (ES), and the Oxford Nanopore long-read sequencing technology. RESULTS: We confirmed the postulated DUP-TRP/INV-DUP structure by multiple orthogonal genomic technologies in the proband. The methylation status of known differentially methylated regions (DMRs) on chromosome 14 revealed that the subject shows the typical methylation pattern of UPD(14)mat. Consistent with these molecular findings, the clinical features overlap with those observed in Temple syndrome, including speech delay. CONCLUSIONS: These data provide experimental evidence that, in humans, triplication can lead to segmental UPD and imprinting disease. Importantly, genotype/phenotype analyses further reveal how a post-zygotically generated complex structural variant, resulting from a replication-based mutational mechanism, contributes to expanding the clinical phenotype of known genetic syndromes. Mechanistically, such events can distort transmission genetics resulting in homozygosity at a locus for which only one parent is a carrier as well as cause imprinting diseases.


Assuntos
Aberrações Cromossômicas , Transtornos Cromossômicos/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 14/genética , Impressão Genômica , Transtornos Cromossômicos/patologia , Metilação de DNA , Replicação do DNA , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto Jovem
11.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 60, 2019 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30961659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congenital malformations associated with maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 16, upd(16)mat, resemble those observed in newborns with the lethal developmental lung disease, alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins (ACDMPV). Interestingly, ACDMPV-causative deletions, involving FOXF1 or its lung-specific upstream enhancer at 16q24.1, arise almost exclusively on the maternally inherited chromosome 16. Given the phenotypic similarities between upd(16)mat and ACDMPV, together with parental allelic bias in ACDMPV, we hypothesized that there may be unknown imprinted loci mapping to chromosome 16 that become functionally unmasked by chromosomal structural variants. RESULTS: To identify parent-of-origin biased DNA methylation, we performed high-resolution bisulfite sequencing of chromosome 16 on peripheral blood and cultured skin fibroblasts from individuals with maternal or paternal upd(16) as well as lung tissue from patients with ACDMPV-causative 16q24.1 deletions and a normal control. We identified 22 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) with ≥ 5 consecutive CpG methylation sites and varying tissue-specificity, including the known DMRs associated with the established imprinted gene ZNF597 and DMRs supporting maternal methylation of PRR25, thought to be paternally expressed in lymphoblastoid cells. Lastly, we found evidence of paternal methylation on 16q24.1 near LINC01082 mapping to the FOXF1 enhancer. CONCLUSIONS: Using high-resolution bisulfite sequencing to evaluate DNA methylation across chromosome 16, we found evidence for novel candidate imprinted loci on chromosome 16 that would not be evident in array-based assays and could contribute to the birth defects observed in patients with upd(16)mat or in ACDMPV.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Dissomia Uniparental/genética , Células Cultivadas , Cromossomos Humanos Par 16/genética , Feminino , Fibroblastos/química , Fibroblastos/citologia , Impressão Genômica , Humanos , Masculino , Pele/química , Pele/citologia
12.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(4): 563-573, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30622330

RESUMO

Aberrant left-right patterning in the developing human embryo can lead to a broad spectrum of congenital malformations. The causes of most laterality defects are not known, with variants in established genes accounting for <20% of cases. We sought to characterize the genetic spectrum of these conditions by performing whole-exome sequencing of 323 unrelated laterality cases. We investigated the role of rare, predicted-damaging variation in 1726 putative laterality candidate genes derived from model organisms, pathway analyses, and human phenotypes. We also evaluated the contribution of homo/hemizygous exon deletions and gene-based burden of rare variation. A total of 28 candidate variants (26 rare predicted-damaging variants and 2 hemizygous deletions) were identified, including variants in genes known to cause heterotaxy and primary ciliary dyskinesia (ACVR2B, NODAL, ZIC3, DNAI1, DNAH5, HYDIN, MMP21), and genes without a human phenotype association, but with prior evidence for a role in embryonic laterality or cardiac development. Sanger validation of the latter variants in probands and their parents revealed no de novo variants, but apparent transmitted heterozygous (ROCK2, ISL1, SMAD2), and hemizygous (RAI2, RIPPLY1) variant patterns. Collectively, these variants account for 7.1% of our study subjects. We also observe evidence for an excess burden of rare, predicted loss-of-function variation in PXDNL and BMS1- two genes relevant to the broader laterality phenotype. These findings highlight potential new genes in the development of laterality defects, and suggest extensive locus heterogeneity and complex genetic models in this class of birth defects.


Assuntos
GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/genética , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Síndrome de Heterotaxia/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética , Animais , Padronização Corporal/genética , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Genômica , Cardiopatias Congênitas/fisiopatologia , Síndrome de Heterotaxia/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Peroxidases/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Peixe-Zebra/genética
13.
J Med Case Rep ; 13(1): 10, 2019 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30636638

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is important that multiple genetic diagnoses are not missed. This case report describes the clinical features and management of a patient with co-inheritance of Waardenburg syndrome type 4 or Waardenburg-Shah syndrome, an extremely rare disease, and homozygous sickle cell disease not uncommon in the Caribbean. This case is unusual as it may be the first documented case of the co-inheritance of both these diseases. Given the commonality of sickle cell and related hemoglobinopathies, such combined disorders are likely to be under-reported. Importantly, reporting this case will add to the medical literature as it will raise awareness of the phenotypic manifestations of this disorder. CASE PRESENTATION: A 54-year-old Afro-Caribbean woman had a delayed diagnosis of homozygous sickle cell disease at 7 years of age by hemoglobin electrophoresis. The complications of sickle cell disease she experienced included bone pain, a chronic right leg ulcer, avascular necrosis of her left hip, and symptomatic cholelithiasis. This diagnosis was preceded by an earlier diagnosis of Waardenburg syndrome. The basis for the diagnosis of Waardenburg-Shah syndrome was the presence of pigmentary disturbances of her eyes (hypoplastic blue irides), congenital sensorineural hearing loss, and Hirschsprung's disease. She was mute and complained of chronic constipation which required disimpaction on several occasions. She attended a school for the deaf and communicated via writing. A Duhamel procedure bypassing her rectum was performed at age 9. She died following an admission for acute chest syndrome complications. CONCLUSION: Sickle cell disease can be diagnosed by newborn screening but, as in this case, may have a delayed presentation. The delay in diagnosis of homozygous sickle cell disease illustrates that other genetic disorders should be considered in patients who already have a diagnosis of one Mendelian disorder but show atypical features.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/complicações , Anemia Falciforme/genética , Doença de Hirschsprung/complicações , Doença de Hirschsprung/genética , Síndrome de Waardenburg/complicações , Síndrome de Waardenburg/genética , Diagnóstico Tardio , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
Blood Adv ; 2(24): 3637-3647, 2018 12 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30578281

RESUMO

Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion remains a critical therapeutic intervention in sickle cell disease (SCD); however, the apparent propensity of some patients to regularly develop RBC alloantibodies after transfusion presents a significant challenge to finding compatible blood for so-called alloimmunization responders. Predisposing genetic loci have long been thought to contribute to the responder phenomenon, but to date, no definitive loci have been identified. We undertook a genome-wide association study of alloimmunization responder status in 267 SCD multiple transfusion recipients, using genetic estimates of ancestral admixture to bolster our findings. Analyses revealed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on chromosomes 2 and 5 approaching genome-wide significance (minimum P = 2.0 × 10-8 and 8.4 × 10-8, respectively), with local ancestry analysis demonstrating similar levels of admixture in responders and nonresponders at implicated loci. Association at chromosome 5 was nominally replicated in an independent cohort of 130 SCD transfusion recipients, with meta-analysis surpassing genome-wide significance (rs75853687, P meta = 6.6 × 10-9), and this extended to individuals forming multiple (>3) alloantibodies (P meta = 9.4 × 10-5). The associated variant is rare outside of African populations, and orthogonal genome-wide haplotype analyses, contingent on local ancestry, revealed genome-wide significant sharing of a ∼60-kb haplotype of African ancestry at the chromosome 5 locus (Bayes Factor = 4.95). This locus overlaps a putative cis-acting enhancer predicted to regulate transcription of ADRA1B and the lncRNA LINC01847, both members of larger ontologies associated with immune regulation. Our findings provide potential insights to the pathophysiology underlying the development of alloantibodies and implicate non-RBC ancestry-limited loci in the susceptibility to alloimmunization.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Anemia Falciforme/patologia , Cromossomos Humanos Par 5/genética , Isoanticorpos/sangue , Alelos , Anemia Falciforme/genética , Anemia Falciforme/imunologia , Cromossomos Humanos Par 2/genética , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 1/genética , Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 1/metabolismo
15.
Clin Chim Acta ; 486: 151-155, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30053402

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (CLN3 disease) is a hereditary progressive neurodegenerative disease well documented among Caucasians, but such clinical data and genetic characterization is lacking among Asian populations. PATIENT AND METHODS: A 13-year-old Chinese girl presented for diagnostic evaluation with retinitis pigmentosa, generalised tonic-clonic seizure and cerebellar ataxia. Electron microscopy of whole blood and skin biopsy, and mutation analysis of CLN3 gene with genomic DNA and cDNA, were performed. RESULTS: Electron microscopy showed vacuolated lymphocytes, and characteristic patterns in eccrine glands suggestive of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. Sequencing of genomic DNA showed homozygous splice site variant NM_000086.2(CLN3):c.906+6T>G, and the pathogenicity of which was confirmed by cDNA sequencing to demonstrate the deletion of a transmembrane domain of the CLN3 protein. The mutant protein was predicted to adversely affect ligand binding of CLN3 as a lysosomal membrane protein. CONCLUSIONS: Here we report the first genetically confirmed CLN3 disease in Chinese, with a novel splice site variant with proposed pathogenetic mechanism relating gene and protein, and highlights the potential ethnic differences in the mutation spectrum. We wish to establish the importance of clinical awareness and laboratory diagnosis of CLN3 disease, especially in the promising age of gene therapy.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo/genética , DNA Complementar/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Chaperonas Moleculares/genética , Lipofuscinoses Ceroides Neuronais/genética , Lipofuscinoses Ceroides Neuronais/patologia , Adolescente , Sequência de Bases , China , Feminino , Humanos
16.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(5): 731-743, 2018 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29706352

RESUMO

Large-scale, population-based genomic studies have provided a context for modern medical genetics. Among such studies, however, African populations have remained relatively underrepresented. The breadth of genetic diversity across the African continent argues for an exploration of local genomic context to facilitate burgeoning disease mapping studies in Africa. We sought to characterize genetic variation and to assess population substructure within a cohort of HIV-positive children from Botswana-a Southern African country that is regionally underrepresented in genomic databases. Using whole-exome sequencing data from 164 Batswana and comparisons with 150 similarly sequenced HIV-positive Ugandan children, we found that 13%-25% of variation observed among Batswana was not captured by public databases. Uncaptured variants were significantly enriched (p = 2.2 × 10-16) for coding variants with minor allele frequencies between 1% and 5% and included predicted-damaging non-synonymous variants. Among variants found in public databases, corresponding allele frequencies varied widely, with Botswana having significantly higher allele frequencies among rare (<1%) pathogenic and damaging variants. Batswana clustered with other Southern African populations, but distinctly from 1000 Genomes African populations, and had limited evidence for admixture with extra-continental ancestries. We also observed a surprising lack of genetic substructure in Botswana, despite multiple tribal ethnicities and language groups, alongside a higher degree of relatedness than purported founder populations from the 1000 Genomes project. Our observations reveal a complex, but distinct, ancestral history and genomic architecture among Batswana and suggest that disease mapping within similar Southern African populations will require a deeper repository of genetic variation and allelic dependencies than presently exists.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Variação Genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Botsuana , Estudos de Coortes , Pool Gênico , Genética Populacional , Genoma Humano , Geografia , Humanos , Filogenia , Análise de Componente Principal
17.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(1): 69-87, 2018 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29290338

RESUMO

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), a common genetic disorder with a birth incidence of 1:2,000-3,000, is characterized by a highly variable clinical presentation. To date, only two clinically relevant intragenic genotype-phenotype correlations have been reported for NF1 missense mutations affecting p.Arg1809 and a single amino acid deletion p.Met922del. Both variants predispose to a distinct mild NF1 phenotype with neither externally visible cutaneous/plexiform neurofibromas nor other tumors. Here, we report 162 individuals (129 unrelated probands and 33 affected relatives) heterozygous for a constitutional missense mutation affecting one of five neighboring NF1 codons-Leu844, Cys845, Ala846, Leu847, and Gly848-located in the cysteine-serine-rich domain (CSRD). Collectively, these recurrent missense mutations affect ∼0.8% of unrelated NF1 mutation-positive probands in the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) cohort. Major superficial plexiform neurofibromas and symptomatic spinal neurofibromas were more prevalent in these individuals compared with classic NF1-affected cohorts (both p < 0.0001). Nearly half of the individuals had symptomatic or asymptomatic optic pathway gliomas and/or skeletal abnormalities. Additionally, variants in this region seem to confer a high predisposition to develop malignancies compared with the general NF1-affected population (p = 0.0061). Our results demonstrate that these NF1 missense mutations, although located outside the GAP-related domain, may be an important risk factor for a severe presentation. A genotype-phenotype correlation at the NF1 region 844-848 exists and will be valuable in the management and genetic counseling of a significant number of individuals.


Assuntos
Códon/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Neurofibromatose 1/genética , Neurofibromina 1/genética , Adolescente , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Simulação por Computador , Demografia , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Neurofibromina 1/química , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
18.
AAS Open Res ; 1: 3, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30714022

RESUMO

Background: Here, we describe how the Collaborative African Genomics Network ( CAfGEN) of the Human Heredity and Health in Africa (H3Africa) consortium is using genomics to probe host genetic factors important to the progression of HIV and HIV-tuberculosis (TB) coinfection in sub-Saharan Africa.   The H3Africa was conceived to facilitate the application of genomics technologies to improve health across Africa..          Methods: CAfGEN is an H3Africa collaborative centre comprising expertise from the University of Botswana; Makerere University; Baylor College of Medicine Children's Clinical Centers of Excellence (COEs) in Botswana, Uganda, and Swaziland; as well as Baylor College of Medicine, Texas. The COEs provide clinical expertise for community engagement, participant recruitment and sample collection while the three University settings facilitate processing and management of genomic samples and provide infrastructure and training opportunities to sustain genomics research. Results: The project has focused on utilizing whole-exome sequencing to identify genetic variants contributing to extreme HIV disease progression phenotypes in children, as well as RNA sequencing and integrated genomics to identify host genetic factors associated with TB disease progression among HIV-positive children. These cohorts, developed using the COEs' electronic medical records, are exceptionally well-phenotyped and present an unprecedented opportunity to assess genetic factors in individuals whose HIV was acquired by a different route than their adult counterparts in the context of a unique clinical course and disease pathophysiology. Conclusions: Our approach offers the prospect of developing a critical mass of well-trained, highly-skilled, continent-based African genomic scientists. To ensure long term genomics research sustainability in Africa, CAfGEN contributes to a wide range of genomics capacity and infrastructure development on the continent, has laid a foundation for genomics graduate programs at its institutions, and continues to actively promote genomics research through innovative forms of community engagement brokered by partnerships with governments and academia to support genomics policy formulation.

19.
Transfusion ; 58(3): 726-735, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29210071

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyperhemolysis syndrome (HHS) is an uncommon, but life-threatening, transfusion-related complication of red blood cell transfusion. HHS has predominantly been described in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) and is difficult to diagnose and treat. The pathogenesis of HHS, including its occurrence in only a subset of apparently susceptible individuals, is poorly understood. We undertook whole-exome sequencing (WES) of 12 SCD-HHS patients to identify shared genetic variants that might be relevant to the development of HHS. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: DNA from adults with SCD having at least one previous episode of HHS were subject to WES. High-quality variants were passed through a series of bioinformatics filters to identify variants that were uncommon among African populations represented in public databases. Recurrent, putative loss-of-function variants occurring in biologically plausible genes were prioritized and then genotyped in a larger, ancestry-matched cohort of non-HHS controls. RESULTS: A rare, heterozygous stop-gain variant (p.Glu210Ter) in MBL2 was significantly enriched among HHS cases (p = 0.002). This variant is predicted to result in a premature termination codon that escapes nonsense-mediated mRNA decay, potentially leading to a novel phenotype. We also observed a complex insertion-deletion variant in the final exon of KLRC3 that was enriched among cases (p = 0.0019), although neither variant was found among seven pediatric SCD-HHS patients. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest a potential role for rare genetic defects in the development of HHS among adult SCD patients. Such enriched variants may ultimately be useful for identifying high-risk individuals and informing therapeutic approaches in HHS.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme , Exoma , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Hemólise/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Anemia Falciforme/complicações , Anemia Falciforme/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome
20.
Genome Med ; 9(1): 95, 2017 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29089047

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Left-sided lesions (LSLs) account for an important fraction of severe congenital cardiovascular malformations (CVMs). The genetic contributions to LSLs are complex, and the mutations that cause these malformations span several diverse biological signaling pathways: TGFB, NOTCH, SHH, and more. Here, we use whole exome sequence data generated in 342 LSL cases to identify likely damaging variants in putative candidate CVM genes. METHODS: Using a series of bioinformatics filters, we focused on genes harboring population-rare, putative loss-of-function (LOF), and predicted damaging variants in 1760 CVM candidate genes constructed a priori from the literature and model organism databases. Gene variants that were not observed in a comparably sequenced control dataset of 5492 samples without severe CVM were then subjected to targeted validation in cases and parents. Whole exome sequencing data from 4593 individuals referred for clinical sequencing were used to bolster evidence for the role of candidate genes in CVMs and LSLs. RESULTS: Our analyses revealed 28 candidate variants in 27 genes, including 17 genes not previously associated with a human CVM disorder, and revealed diverse patterns of inheritance among LOF carriers, including 9 confirmed de novo variants in both novel and newly described human CVM candidate genes (ACVR1, JARID2, NR2F2, PLRG1, SMURF1) as well as established syndromic CVM genes (KMT2D, NF1, TBX20, ZEB2). We also identified two genes (DNAH5, OFD1) with evidence of recessive and hemizygous inheritance patterns, respectively. Within our clinical cohort, we also observed heterozygous LOF variants in JARID2 and SMAD1 in individuals with cardiac phenotypes, and collectively, carriers of LOF variants in our candidate genes had a four times higher odds of having CVM (odds ratio = 4.0, 95% confidence interval 2.5-6.5). CONCLUSIONS: Our analytical strategy highlights the utility of bioinformatic resources, including human disease records and model organism phenotyping, in novel gene discovery for rare human disease. The results underscore the extensive genetic heterogeneity underlying non-syndromic LSLs, and posit potential novel candidate genes and complex modes of inheritance in this important group of birth defects.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Feminino , Heterogeneidade Genética , Humanos , Padrões de Herança , Masculino , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
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