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1.
Stem Cells Dev ; 2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32295491

RESUMO

Avascular necrosis (AVN) is a severe complication of immunosuppressant therapy or chemotherapy. A beneficial AVN therapy with core decompression (CD) and intraosseous infusion of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) has been described in adult patients, but there are only few data on MSC applications in pediatric and young adult patients (PYAP). Between 2006 and 2015, 14 AVN lesions of 10 PYAP (6 females) with a median age of 16.9 years (range 8.5-25.8 years) received CD and intraosseous application of autologous MSCs. Data of these patients were analyzed regarding efficacy, safety, and feasibility of this procedure as AVN therapy and compared with a control group of 13 AVN lesions of 11 PYAP (5 females) with a median age of 17.9 years (range 13.5-27.5 years) who received CD only. During the follow-up analysis [MSC group: median 3.1 (1.6-5.8) years after CD; CD group: median 2.0 (1.5-8.5) years after CD], relative lesion sizes (as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging) compared with the initial lesion volume, were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in the MSC group (volume reduction to a median of 18.5%) when compared with the CD group (58.0%). One lesion in the MSC group comprised a complete remission. Size progression was not observed in either group. Clinical improvement (pain, mobility) was not significantly different between the two groups. None of the patients experienced treatment-related adverse effects. CD and additional MSC application was regarded safe, effective, feasible, and superior in reducing the lesion size when compared with CD only. Prospective, randomized clinical trials are needed to further evaluate these findings.

2.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 146(4): 1089-1100, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is a severe and distressing complication during allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT). The antiemetic fosaprepitant has shown favorable results in pediatric and adult patients receiving chemotherapy. Data on fosaprepitant in children and adolescents undergoing alloHSCT are missing. METHODS: In this non-interventional observation study, 120 children and adolescents with a median age of 11.8 years undergoing alloHSCT after a moderately or highly emetogenic conditioning (MEC or HEC) were analyzed. They received an antiemetic prophylaxis with granisetron (2 × 40 µg/kg d-1) with or without fosaprepitant (4 mg/kg; single dose, max. 1 × 150 mg/kg BW), and were analyzed in the control (CG; n = 60) or fosaprepitant group (FG; n = 60). The efficacy and safety of the two antiemetic prophylaxis regimens were analyzed and compared with respect to the acute (0-24 h) and the delayed (> 24-120 h) CINV phase and > 120-240 h after MEC or HEC administration. RESULTS: During MEC, significantly more patients in the CG experienced vomiting during the first 0-24 h (58.6 vs. 25.0%; p = 0.0156) and during > 24-120 h (93.1% vs. 57.1%; p = 0.0020), compared with the FG. Likewise, significantly more vomiting events (269 vs. 136; p < 0.0001) were registered in the CG. During HEC, significantly more patients in the CG experienced vomiting during the first 0-24 h (32.3 vs. 9.4%; p = 0.0319) compared with the FG. Significantly more vomiting events (241 vs. 99; p < 0.0001) were registered in the CG. Laboratory and clinical adverse events were not significantly different between the two groups (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Antiemetic prophylaxis with fosaprepitant and granisetron was well tolerated, safe, and effective in pediatric patients undergoing alloHSCT. However, larger prospective trials are necessary to evaluate these findings.


Assuntos
Antieméticos/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Granisetron/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Hematológicas/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Morfolinas/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Neoplasias Hematológicas/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Náusea/induzido quimicamente , Náusea/prevenção & controle , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/efeitos adversos , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Vômito/induzido quimicamente , Vômito/prevenção & controle
4.
Int J Hyperthermia ; 37(1): 55-65, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918587

RESUMO

Introduction: An abscopal effect is a clinical observation whereby a local treatment is associated with regression of metastatic cancer at a site distant from the primary location of treatment. Here, we describe the clinical systemic effect induced by regional hyperthermia combined with low-dose chemotherapy and provide immunologic correlates.Case presentation: A 15-year-old patient had been diagnosed with alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS). All previous treatment options failed in the patient including haploidentical stem cell transplantation and donor lymphocyte infusion. The patient presented with local and metastatic disease, and upon admission, underwent regional hyperthermia combined with low-dose chemotherapy. Immediately following therapy severe skin reactions were observed. Skin biopsies revealed an intraepithelial lymphocytic infiltration dominated by CD3+/CD8+ T cells with a regular network of dendritic cells. Clinical images compared before and during sequential treatment cycles showed complete metabolic response of the local tumor for more than 10 months of therapy. In addition, metastases completely regressed although they were not direct targets of regional hyperthermia. The systemic effect was associated with enhanced frequency of NK cells and T cells expressing the lectin-like natural-killer group 2 D activating receptor (NKG2D), an increase of the CD56bright subset of NK cells, as well as an increase of effector/memory and effector CD8+ and CD4+ T cells in the blood while the percentage of CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells declined.Conclusions: Regional hyperthermia combined with low-dose chemotherapy had the potential to create a systemic effect which was associated with activation of NK cells and T cells.

5.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 55(1): 12-24, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30833742

RESUMO

The number of HLA-haploidentical hematopoietic cell transplants continues to increase worldwide due to recent improvements in outcomes, allowing more patients with hematological malignancies and non-malignant disorders to benefit from this procedure and have a chance to cure their disease. Despite these encouraging results, questions remain as multiple donors are usually available for transplantation, and choosing the best HLA-haploidentical donor for transplantation remains a challenge. Several approaches to haploidentical transplantation have been developed over time and, based on the graft received, can be grouped as follows: T-cell depleted haploidentical transplants, either complete or partial, or with T-cell replete grafts, performed with post-transplant cyclophosphamide-based graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis, or G-CSF-primed bone marrow graft and enhanced GVHD prophylaxis. Carefully selecting the donor can help optimize transplant outcomes for recipients of haploidentical donor transplants. Variables usually considered in the donor selection include presence of donor-specific antibodies in the recipient, donor age, donor/recipient gender and ABO combinations, and immunogenic variables, such as natural killer cell alloreactivity or KIR haplotype. Here we provide a comprehensive review of available evidence for selecting haploidentical donors for transplantation, and summarize the recommendations from the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) on donor selection for different transplant platforms.

6.
Leukemia ; 34(2): 613-624, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578451

RESUMO

AML SCT-BFM 2007 was the first hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) trial in Germany to comply with the European Clinical Trials Directive, and aimed to standardize pediatric HCT for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) across centers in Germany, Austria, and the Czech Republic. Children with high-risk features and a good early response achieving a complete first remission (CR-1) and those in CR-2 after a first relapse were stratified to receive HCT from a matched donor after myeloablative conditioning consisting of busulfan, cyclophosphamide, and melphalan. Four-year EFS and OS were 61 and 70%. Cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR) was 22%. TRM was 15% and correlated with age reaching 9% (SE 3%) in children younger than 12 years and 31% (SE 9%) in older children and adolescents. Children with poorly responding primary disease or relapse were allocated to receive early HCT after a cytoreductive regimen with fludarabine, amsacrine, and cytarabine, followed by reduced intensity conditioning and prophylactic donor lymphocyte infusions. Four-year EFS and OS were 49 and 53%. CIR was 38% and TRM 11%. For patients with primary poor response disease, early use of RIC HCT followed by prophylactic DLI can induce long-term remissions in more than 50% (EFS 46% (SE 9%)).

7.
Haematologica ; 105(1): 170-181, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073076

RESUMO

Alterations of the tumor suppressor gene TP53 are found in different cancers, in particular in carcinomas of adults. In pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), TP53 mutations are infrequent but enriched at relapse. As in most cancers, mainly DNA-binding domain missense mutations are found, resulting in accumulation of mutant p53, poor therapy response, and inferior outcome. Different strategies to target mutant p53 have been developed including reactivation of p53's wildtype function by the small molecule APR-246. We investigated TP53 mutations in cell lines and 62 B-cell precursor ALL samples and evaluated the activity of APR-246 in TP53-mutated or wildtype ALL. We identified cases with TP53 missense mutations, high (mutant) p53 expression and insensitivity to the DNA-damaging agent doxorubicin. In TP53-mutated ALL, APR-246 induced apoptosis showing strong anti-leukemia activity. APR-246 restored mutant p53 to its wildtype conformation, leading to pathway activation with induction of transcriptional targets and re-sensitization to genotoxic therapy in vitro and in vivo In addition, induction of oxidative stress contributed to APR-246-mediated cell death. In a preclinical model of patient-derived TP53-mutant ALL, APR-246 reduced leukemia burden and synergized strongly with the genotoxic agent doxorubicin, leading to superior leukemia-free survival in vivo Thus, targeting mutant p53 by APR-246, restoring its tumor suppressive function, seems to be an effective therapeutic strategy for this high-risk group of TP53-mutant ALL.

8.
Haematologica ; 105(1): 47-58, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537691

RESUMO

Donor lymphocyte infusion has been used in the management of relapsed hematologic malignancies after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. It can eradicate minimal residual disease or be used to rescue a hematologic relapse, being able to induce durable remissions in a subset of patients. With the increased use of haploidentical hematopoietic cell transplantation, there is renewed interest in the use of donor lymphocytes to either treat or prevent disease relapse post transplant. Published retrospective and small prospective studies have shown encouraging results with therapeutic donor lymphocyte infusion in different haploidentical transplantation platforms. In this consensus paper, finalized on behalf of the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation, we summarize the available evidence on the use of donor lymphocyte infusion from haploidentical donor, and provide recommendations on its therapeutic, pre-emptive and prophylactic use in clinical practice.

9.
Oncol Rep ; 43(1): 337-345, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746397

RESUMO

Ewing sarcomas (ES) are highly malignant mesenchymal tumors, which most often occur in children and adolescents. The current treatment of choice comprises wide resection in combination with multimodal chemotherapy including etoposide (Eto). Due to the serious side effects associated with common chemotherapeutics and prevalent multidrug resistance in recurrent and metastatic ES, there is a growing demand for alternative strategies and add­on drugs. Previous research has demonstrated efficient cell death induction by Eto in combination with arsenic trioxide (ATO) in ES cell lines. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of different temporal sequences of ATO and Eto administration on apoptosis induction and to explore the effect of both drugs on inhibitory glycogen synthase kinase­3ß (GSK3­ß) phosphorylation as well as multidrug transporter gene expression. The intensity of caspase activation was mainly determined by the Eto doses in A673 and TC­71 cells, whereas in RD­ES cells ATO application actively suppressed Eto­induced apoptosis. This coincided with an increase in inhibitory GSK­3ß phosphorylation in ATO­treated RD­ES cells. Inherent mRNA expression of multidrug resistance­associated protein 1 (MRP1) was low in the ES cell lines compared to that observed in the mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), whereas multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) gene expression was considerably increased in the ES cell lines. ATO treatment reduced MRP1 mRNA expression in the A673 and TC­71 cells, while expression was induced in the MSC and RD­ES cells. In contrast, MDR1 mRNA expression was specifically induced by ATO in the A673 and TC­71 cells, reinforcing the expression differences between MSC and the ES cell lines. Although a reliable cell death induction by the combination of ATO and Eto has been previously shown in ES cell lines, the present study showed marked heterogeneity of the ES cell response to ATO and Eto treatment, illustrating the difficulty of prediction of individual treatment outcome in ES.

10.
Brief Funct Genomics ; 19(3): 191-200, 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31844895

RESUMO

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells have raised among other immunotherapies for cancer treatment, being implemented against B-cell malignancies. Despite the promising outcomes of this innovative technology, CAR-T cells are not exempt from limitations that must yet to be overcome in order to provide reliable and more efficient treatments against other types of cancer. The purpose of this review is to shed light on the field of CAR-T cell gene editing for therapy universalization and further enhancement of antitumor function. Several studies have proven that the disruption of certain key genes is essential to boost immunosuppressive resistance, prevention of fratricide, and clinical safety. Due to its unparalleled simplicity, feasibility to edit multiple gene targets simultaneously, and affordability, CRISPR/CRISPR-associated protein 9 system has been proposed in different clinical trials for such CAR-T cell improvement. The combination of such powerful technologies is expected to provide a new generation of CAR-T cell-based immunotherapies for clinical application.

11.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 1172, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In pediatric sarcomas, outcomes of established therapies still remain poor, especially due to high-grade resistances to chemotherapeutic compounds. Taking novel biological approaches into account, virotherapy was found to be efficient in many pediatric sarcoma types. Also NK cell therapy was denoted to represent a promising upcoming strategy for pediatric sarcoma patients. We here investigated a combinatorial approach employing oncolytic measles vaccine virotherapeutics (MeV) together with activated human NK cells (or PBMCs). METHODS: The human sarcoma cell lines A673 and HT1080 were used to evaluate the efficacy of this combinatorial treatment modality. Oncolysis was determined by measuring real-time cell proliferation using the xCELLigence RTCA SP system. Furthermore, expression of receptors on NK cells and the respective ligands on A673 cells was analyzed by flow cytometry. To measure the protein release of activated NK cells a LEGENDplex™ assay was performed. RESULTS: Monotherapy with MeV led to a time- and dose-dependent oncolytic reduction of A673 and HT1080 sarcoma tumor cell masses. Concurrently, such MeV infections did not change the expression of NK cell ligands MICA/B, ULBP1, 2, and 3, CD112, and CD155. As shown by real-time proliferation assays, infections of A673 and HT1080 sarcoma cells with MeV followed by co-culture with activated NK cells or PBMCs led to enhanced sarcoma cell destruction when compared to the respective monotherapies. In parallel, this dual therapy resulted in an increased release of granzymes, perforin, and granulysin from NK cells. In contrast, expression of activation and ontogenesis receptors on NK cells was not found to be altered after co-culture with MeV-infected A673 sarcoma cells. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, the combined treatment strategy comprising oncolytic MeV and activated NK cells resulted in enhanced oncolysis of A673 and HT1080 cells when compared to the respective monotherapies. In parallel, we observed an increased release of NK cell activation markers upon co-culture with MeV-infected A673 human sarcoma cells. These results support the onset of clinical trials combining oncolytic virotherapy with NK cell based immunotherapies.

12.
BMC Pediatr ; 19(1): 470, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791281

RESUMO

After publication of the original article (1), it was brought to our attention that references 24 and 31 are inappropriately cited in the article.

14.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 13: 3439-3451, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686784

RESUMO

Background: Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) are a major burden for patients undergoing emetogenic chemotherapy. International guidelines recommend an antiemetic prophylaxis with corticosteroids, 5-HT3R-antagonists and NK1R-antagonists. The NK1R-antagonist fosaprepitant has shown favorable results in pediatric and adult patients. There is little pediatric experience with fosaprepitant. Methods: This non-interventional observation study analyzed 303 chemotherapy courses administered to 83 pediatric patients with a median age of 9 years (2-17 years), who received antiemetic prophylaxis either with fosaprepitant and granisetron with or without dexamethasone (fosaprepitant group/FG; n=41), or granisetron with or without dexamethasone (control group/CG; n=42), during moderately (CINV risk 30-90%) or highly (CINV risk>90%) emetogenic chemotherapy. The two groups' results were compared with respect to the safety and efficacy of the antiemetic prophylaxis during the acute (0-24hrs after chemotherapy), delayed (>24-120hrs after chemotherapy) and both CINV phases. Laboratory and clinical adverse events were compared between the two cohorts. Results: Adverse events were not significantly different in the two groups (p>0.05). Significantly fewer vomiting events occurred during antiemetic prophylaxis with fosaprepitant in the acute (23 vs 142 events; p<0.0001) and the delayed (71 vs 255 events; p<0.0001) CINV phase. In the control group, the percentage of chemotherapy courses with vomiting was significantly higher during the acute (24%/FG vs 45%/CG; p<0.0001) and delayed CINV phase (28%/FG vs 47%/CG; p=0.0004). Dimenhydrinate (rescue medication) was administered significantly more often in the CG, compared to the FG (114/FG vs 320/CG doses; p<0.0001). Likewise, in the control group, dimenhydrinate was administered in significantly more (p<0.0001) chemotherapy courses during the acute and delayed CINV phases (79 of 150; 52.7%), compared to the fosaprepitant group (45 of 153; 29.4%). Conclusion: Antiemetic prophylaxis with fosaprepitant and granisetron with or without dexamethasone was well tolerated, safe and effective in pediatric patients. However, larger prospective trials are needed to evaluate these findings.

15.
Blood Rev ; : 100641, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761379

RESUMO

Due to pioneering in vitro investigations on gene modification, gene engineering platforms have incredibly improved to a safer and more powerful tool for the treatment of multiple blood and immune disorders. Likewise, several clinical trials have been initiated combining autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auto-HSCT) with gene therapy (GT) tools. As several GT modalities such as lentivirus and gene editing tools have a long developmental path ahead to diminish its negative side effects, it is hard to decide which modality is optimal for treating a specific disease. Gene transfer by lentiviruses is the platform of choice for loss-of-mutation diseases, whereas gene correction/addition or gene disruption by gene editing tools, mainly CRISPR/Cas9, is likely to be more efficient in diseases where tight regulation is needed. Therefore, in this review, we compiled pertinent information about lentiviral gene transfer and CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing, their evolution to a safer platform for HSCT, and their applications on other types of gene disorders based on the etiology of the disease and cell fitness.

16.
BMC Pediatr ; 19(1): 346, 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604460

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA ligase IV deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by hypomorphic mutations in the DNA ligase IV (LIG4) gene. DNA ligase IV is an essential protein for the development of a healthy immune system as well as for the protection of genomic integrity. Apart from typical stigmata, patients with DNA ligase IV deficiency are characterized by progressive bone marrow failure and a predisposition to malignancy. To our knowledge this reported case is the first description of two brothers with ligase IV deficiency who are treated with different hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) regimens resulting in vastly divergent outcomes. CASE PRESENTATION: The cases of two brothers suffering from severe recurrent infections and growth retardation are described. The laboratory findings showed pancytopenia with significant lymphopenia. The two boys were diagnosed with DNA ligase IV deficiency, associated with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). Both patients received HSCT from two different matched unrelated donors (MUD) at the age of 33 and 18 months. The older brother succumbed post-transplant due to fatal side-effects 143 days after allogeneic HSCT. The younger brother - conditioned with a different regimen - received a T cell depleted graft 4 months later. No severe side-effects occurred, neither post-transplant nor in the following years. Ten years after HSCT the patient is well off, living a normal life and attending a regular high school. His immune system is fully reconstituted, resulting in a maximum of T cell receptor (TCR) diversity, which is a prerequisite for immune competence. However, he still suffers from microcephaly, dwarfism and dystrophy. CONCLUSIONS: This case report gives an example of a successful HSCT as a treatment option in a genetic disorder such as ligase IV deficiency, using a rather mild conditioning regimen. Further studies are required to determine the viability and efficacy of this treatment option.

17.
Blood ; 134(14): 1159-1175, 2019 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366618

RESUMO

Hematopoietic transcription factor LIM domain only 2 (LMO2), a member of the TAL1 transcriptional complex, plays an essential role during early hematopoiesis and is frequently activated in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) patients. Here, we demonstrate that LMO2 is activated by deacetylation on lysine 74 and 78 via the nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT)/sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) pathway. LMO2 deacetylation enables LMO2 to interact with LIM domain binding 1 and activate the TAL1 complex. NAMPT/SIRT2-mediated activation of LMO2 by deacetylation appears to be important for hematopoietic differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells and blood formation in zebrafish embryos. In T-ALL, deacetylated LMO2 induces expression of TAL1 complex target genes HHEX and NKX3.1 as well as LMO2 autoregulation. Consistent with this, inhibition of NAMPT or SIRT2 suppressed the in vitro growth and in vivo engraftment of T-ALL cells via diminished LMO2 deacetylation. This new molecular mechanism may provide new therapeutic possibilities in T-ALL and may contribute to the development of new methods for in vitro generation of blood cells.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Hematopoese , Proteínas com Domínio LIM/metabolismo , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células T Precursoras/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Acetilação , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Leucopoese , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células T Precursoras/patologia , Peixe-Zebra
18.
BMC Med Imaging ; 19(1): 70, 2019 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) is a rare clinical disorder and typically occurs in association with occult neuroblastic tumor in pediatric patients. I-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (mIBG) scintigraphy is widely adopted as screening procedure in patients with suspected neuroblastic tumor. Also, contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) are involved in the imaging workup, primarily for the assessment of the primary tumor region. However, the diagnostic value of whole-body MRI (WB-MRI) for the detection of occult neuroblastic tumor in pediatric patients presenting with OMS remains unknown. CASE PRESENTATION: We present three cases of patients with OMS, in whom WB-MRI revealed occult neuroblastic tumor masses, whereas scintigraphy was inconclusive: In a 17 months old girl with OMS, WB-MRI revealed a paravertebral mass. After thoracoscopic resection, histopathology revealed a ganglioneuroblastoma. A 13 months old boy presenting with OMS WB-MRI detected a tumor of the left adrenal gland; histopathology demonstrated a ganglioneuroblastoma after adrenalectomy. In a 2 year old boy with OMS, immunoscintigraphy at the time of diagnosis was inconclusive. At the age of 13 years, a WB-MRI was performed due to persistent neurological symptoms, revealing a paravertebral retroperitoneal mass, which was classified as ganglioneuroblastoma. CONCLUSION: In OMS, particularly in the setting of inconclusive scintigraphy, WB-MRI may be considered as a valuable alternative in the early phase of diagnostic work-up.


Assuntos
Ganglioneuroblastoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Síndrome de Opsoclonia-Mioclonia/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem Corporal Total/métodos , 3-Iodobenzilguanidina/administração & dosagem , Adrenalectomia , Feminino , Ganglioneuroblastoma/cirurgia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Cintilografia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
19.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 145(11): 2779-2791, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446489

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate serum procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) as diagnostic biomarkers of transplant-related adverse events (TRAE) in pediatric patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). METHODS: This study analyzed PCT and CRP levels of 214 pediatric patients with a median age of 8.5 years (0.4-17.8 years) undergoing allogeneic HSCT with respect to major TRAE. RESULTS: 26 patients (12.1%) did not experience TRAE (control group), and 188 (87.9%) experienced median 2 (range 1-4) TRAE. Median CRP and PCT were highly and significantly increased during sepsis/SIRS and bacteremia (17.24 mg/dl | 6.30 ng/ml; p < 0.0001 vs. prior values), graft rejection (14.73 mg/dl | 3.20 ng/ml; p < 0.0001), and liver GvHD (6.88 mg/dl | 2.29 ng/ml; p < 0.01). Strong CRP increases and slight/minimal/no PCT increases occurred during fungemia (8.85 mg/dl | 0.72 ng/ml; p < 0.001), intestinal GvHD (8.73 mg/dl | 1.06 ng/ml; p < 0.0001), VOD (10.84 mg/dl | 0.59 ng/ml; p < 0.01), mucositis (8.84 mg/dl | 0.81 ng/ml; p < 0.0001), and viremia (3.62 mg/dl; p < 0.0001 | 0.43 ng/ml; below normal limit). During skin GvHD, CRP and PCT were slightly increased (2.03 mg/dl | 0.93 ng/ml; p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: CRP and PCT did not show congruent changes during TRAE. PCT was a clinically relevant marker for the early detection and differentiation of severe mucositis and sepsis/SIRS and bacteremia during the critical neutropenic period after HSCT. PCT helped to discriminate acute intestinal GvHD from adenovirus viremia and liver GvHD from hepatic VOD. Thus, PCT may be a valuable parameter to enable a prompt and appropriate treatment during these complications, improving patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/diagnóstico , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Rejeição de Enxerto/diagnóstico , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/diagnóstico , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Pró-Calcitonina/sangue , Sepse/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Bacteriemia/sangue , Bacteriemia/etiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Seguimentos , Rejeição de Enxerto/sangue , Rejeição de Enxerto/etiologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/sangue , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/patologia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/terapia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sepse/sangue , Sepse/etiologia , Transplante Homólogo
20.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 54(Suppl 2): 689-693, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31431707

RESUMO

Posttransplant relapsed B-cell precursor ALL can be cured by 2nd hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in 20% of patients. The major cause of death after second HSCT is leukemic relapse. One reliable predictor for survival after 2nd-HSCT are posttransplant MRD levels. Patients with detectable or increase of MRD are likely to relapse. Patients in complete molecular remission show the best leukemia-free survival and lowest cumulative incidence (CI) of relapse. As patients who undergo second or subsequent HSCT are high-risk patients, we evaluated the prophylactic use of the chimeric Fc-optimized CD19-4G7SDIE-mAb. Posttransplant relapsed CD19+ BCP-ALL patients, who underwent a second or subsequent haplo-HSCT from a T- and B-cell depleted graft received posttransplant prophylactic CD19-4G7SDIE-mAb treatment on compassionate use in complete molecular remission, to increase the antileukemic activity of the new reconstituting immune system by recruiting Fc-expressing effector cells. NK cells recovered early and robust. The 3 year overall survival in 15 evaluable patients was 56%, the 3 year event-free survival was 55% and the CI of relapse 38%. Compared to a historical control group, the CI of relapse was markedly lower and consecutively the EFS higher. Posttransplant-targeted therapy may overcome the need for unspecific GvL effect of undesired GvHD, that can cause severe morbidity and mortality. Due to a low adverse event profile the CD19-4G7SDIE-mAb may be suitable for broad administration to consolidate posttransplant MRD negativity.

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