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1.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 13: 3439-3451, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686784

RESUMO

Background: Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) are a major burden for patients undergoing emetogenic chemotherapy. International guidelines recommend an antiemetic prophylaxis with corticosteroids, 5-HT3R-antagonists and NK1R-antagonists. The NK1R-antagonist fosaprepitant has shown favorable results in pediatric and adult patients. There is little pediatric experience with fosaprepitant. Methods: This non-interventional observation study analyzed 303 chemotherapy courses administered to 83 pediatric patients with a median age of 9 years (2-17 years), who received antiemetic prophylaxis either with fosaprepitant and granisetron with or without dexamethasone (fosaprepitant group/FG; n=41), or granisetron with or without dexamethasone (control group/CG; n=42), during moderately (CINV risk 30-90%) or highly (CINV risk>90%) emetogenic chemotherapy. The two groups' results were compared with respect to the safety and efficacy of the antiemetic prophylaxis during the acute (0-24hrs after chemotherapy), delayed (>24-120hrs after chemotherapy) and both CINV phases. Laboratory and clinical adverse events were compared between the two cohorts. Results: Adverse events were not significantly different in the two groups (p>0.05). Significantly fewer vomiting events occurred during antiemetic prophylaxis with fosaprepitant in the acute (23 vs 142 events; p<0.0001) and the delayed (71 vs 255 events; p<0.0001) CINV phase. In the control group, the percentage of chemotherapy courses with vomiting was significantly higher during the acute (24%/FG vs 45%/CG; p<0.0001) and delayed CINV phase (28%/FG vs 47%/CG; p=0.0004). Dimenhydrinate (rescue medication) was administered significantly more often in the CG, compared to the FG (114/FG vs 320/CG doses; p<0.0001). Likewise, in the control group, dimenhydrinate was administered in significantly more (p<0.0001) chemotherapy courses during the acute and delayed CINV phases (79 of 150; 52.7%), compared to the fosaprepitant group (45 of 153; 29.4%). Conclusion: Antiemetic prophylaxis with fosaprepitant and granisetron with or without dexamethasone was well tolerated, safe and effective in pediatric patients. However, larger prospective trials are needed to evaluate these findings.

2.
Oncol Rep ; 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746397

RESUMO

Ewing sarcomas (ES) are highly malignant mesenchymal tumors, which most often occur in children and adolescents. The current treatment of choice comprises wide resection in combination with multimodal chemotherapy including etoposide (Eto). Due to the serious side effects associated with common chemotherapeutics and prevalent multidrug resistance in recurrent and metastatic ES, there is a growing demand for alternative strategies and add­on drugs. Previous research has demonstrated efficient cell death induction by Eto in combination with arsenic trioxide (ATO) in ES cell lines. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of different temporal sequences of ATO and Eto administration on apoptosis induction and to explore the effect of both drugs on inhibitory glycogen synthase kinase­3ß (GSK3­ß) phosphorylation as well as multidrug transporter gene expression. The intensity of caspase activation was mainly determined by the Eto doses in A673 and TC­71 cells, whereas in RD­ES cells ATO application actively suppressed Eto­induced apoptosis. This coincided with an increase in inhibitory GSK­3ß phosphorylation in ATO­treated RD­ES cells. Inherent mRNA expression of multidrug resistance­associated protein 1 (MRP1) was low in the ES cell lines compared to that observed in the mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), whereas multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) gene expression was considerably increased in the ES cell lines. ATO treatment reduced MRP1 mRNA expression in the A673 and TC­71 cells, while expression was induced in the MSC and RD­ES cells. In contrast, MDR1 mRNA expression was specifically induced by ATO in the A673 and TC­71 cells, reinforcing the expression differences between MSC and the ES cell lines. Although a reliable cell death induction by the combination of ATO and Eto has been previously shown in ES cell lines, the present study showed marked heterogeneity of the ES cell response to ATO and Eto treatment, illustrating the difficulty of prediction of individual treatment outcome in ES.

3.
Blood Rev ; : 100641, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761379

RESUMO

Due to pioneering in vitro investigations on gene modification, gene engineering platforms have incredibly improved to a safer and more powerful tool for the treatment of multiple blood and immune disorders. Likewise, several clinical trials have been initiated combining autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auto-HSCT) with gene therapy (GT) tools. As several GT modalities such as lentivirus and gene editing tools have a long developmental path ahead to diminish its negative side effects, it is hard to decide which modality is optimal for treating a specific disease. Gene transfer by lentiviruses is the platform of choice for loss-of-mutation diseases, whereas gene correction/addition or gene disruption by gene editing tools, mainly CRISPR/Cas9, is likely to be more efficient in diseases where tight regulation is needed. Therefore, in this review, we compiled pertinent information about lentiviral gene transfer and CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing, their evolution to a safer platform for HSCT, and their applications on other types of gene disorders based on the etiology of the disease and cell fitness.

5.
BMC Pediatr ; 19(1): 346, 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604460

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA ligase IV deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by hypomorphic mutations in the DNA ligase IV (LIG4) gene. DNA ligase IV is an essential protein for the development of a healthy immune system as well as for the protection of genomic integrity. Apart from typical stigmata, patients with DNA ligase IV deficiency are characterized by progressive bone marrow failure and a predisposition to malignancy. To our knowledge this reported case is the first description of two brothers with ligase IV deficiency who are treated with different hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) regimens resulting in vastly divergent outcomes. CASE PRESENTATION: The cases of two brothers suffering from severe recurrent infections and growth retardation are described. The laboratory findings showed pancytopenia with significant lymphopenia. The two boys were diagnosed with DNA ligase IV deficiency, associated with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). Both patients received HSCT from two different matched unrelated donors (MUD) at the age of 33 and 18 months. The older brother succumbed post-transplant due to fatal side-effects 143 days after allogeneic HSCT. The younger brother - conditioned with a different regimen - received a T cell depleted graft 4 months later. No severe side-effects occurred, neither post-transplant nor in the following years. Ten years after HSCT the patient is well off, living a normal life and attending a regular high school. His immune system is fully reconstituted, resulting in a maximum of T cell receptor (TCR) diversity, which is a prerequisite for immune competence. However, he still suffers from microcephaly, dwarfism and dystrophy. CONCLUSIONS: This case report gives an example of a successful HSCT as a treatment option in a genetic disorder such as ligase IV deficiency, using a rather mild conditioning regimen. Further studies are required to determine the viability and efficacy of this treatment option.

6.
Leukemia ; 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578451

RESUMO

AML SCT-BFM 2007 was the first hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) trial in Germany to comply with the European Clinical Trials Directive, and aimed to standardize pediatric HCT for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) across centers in Germany, Austria, and the Czech Republic. Children with high-risk features and a good early response achieving a complete first remission (CR-1) and those in CR-2 after a first relapse were stratified to receive HCT from a matched donor after myeloablative conditioning consisting of busulfan, cyclophosphamide, and melphalan. Four-year EFS and OS were 61 and 70%. Cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR) was 22%. TRM was 15% and correlated with age reaching 9% (SE 3%) in children younger than 12 years and 31% (SE 9%) in older children and adolescents. Children with poorly responding primary disease or relapse were allocated to receive early HCT after a cytoreductive regimen with fludarabine, amsacrine, and cytarabine, followed by reduced intensity conditioning and prophylactic donor lymphocyte infusions. Four-year EFS and OS were 49 and 53%. CIR was 38% and TRM 11%. For patients with primary poor response disease, early use of RIC HCT followed by prophylactic DLI can induce long-term remissions in more than 50% (EFS 46% (SE 9%)).

7.
Haematologica ; 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537691

RESUMO

Donor lymphocyte infusion has been used in the management of relapsed disease hematological malignancies after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. It can eradicate minimal residual disease or be used to rescue a hematological relapse, being able to induce durable remissions in a subset of patients. With the increased in the use of haploidentical hematopoietic cell transplantation, there is renewed interest in the use of donor lymphocytes to either treat or prevent disease relapse post-transplant. Published retrospective and small prospective studies have shown encouraging results with therapeutic donor lymphocyte infusion in different haploidentical transplantation platforms. In this consensus paper, finalized on behalf of the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation, we summarized the available evidence on the use of donor lymphocyte infusion from haploidentical donor and provide recommendations on its therapeutic, pre-emptive and prophylactic use in clinical practice.

8.
BMC Med Imaging ; 19(1): 70, 2019 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) is a rare clinical disorder and typically occurs in association with occult neuroblastic tumor in pediatric patients. I-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (mIBG) scintigraphy is widely adopted as screening procedure in patients with suspected neuroblastic tumor. Also, contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) are involved in the imaging workup, primarily for the assessment of the primary tumor region. However, the diagnostic value of whole-body MRI (WB-MRI) for the detection of occult neuroblastic tumor in pediatric patients presenting with OMS remains unknown. CASE PRESENTATION: We present three cases of patients with OMS, in whom WB-MRI revealed occult neuroblastic tumor masses, whereas scintigraphy was inconclusive: In a 17 months old girl with OMS, WB-MRI revealed a paravertebral mass. After thoracoscopic resection, histopathology revealed a ganglioneuroblastoma. A 13 months old boy presenting with OMS WB-MRI detected a tumor of the left adrenal gland; histopathology demonstrated a ganglioneuroblastoma after adrenalectomy. In a 2 year old boy with OMS, immunoscintigraphy at the time of diagnosis was inconclusive. At the age of 13 years, a WB-MRI was performed due to persistent neurological symptoms, revealing a paravertebral retroperitoneal mass, which was classified as ganglioneuroblastoma. CONCLUSION: In OMS, particularly in the setting of inconclusive scintigraphy, WB-MRI may be considered as a valuable alternative in the early phase of diagnostic work-up.

9.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 145(11): 2779-2791, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446489

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate serum procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) as diagnostic biomarkers of transplant-related adverse events (TRAE) in pediatric patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). METHODS: This study analyzed PCT and CRP levels of 214 pediatric patients with a median age of 8.5 years (0.4-17.8 years) undergoing allogeneic HSCT with respect to major TRAE. RESULTS: 26 patients (12.1%) did not experience TRAE (control group), and 188 (87.9%) experienced median 2 (range 1-4) TRAE. Median CRP and PCT were highly and significantly increased during sepsis/SIRS and bacteremia (17.24 mg/dl | 6.30 ng/ml; p < 0.0001 vs. prior values), graft rejection (14.73 mg/dl | 3.20 ng/ml; p < 0.0001), and liver GvHD (6.88 mg/dl | 2.29 ng/ml; p < 0.01). Strong CRP increases and slight/minimal/no PCT increases occurred during fungemia (8.85 mg/dl | 0.72 ng/ml; p < 0.001), intestinal GvHD (8.73 mg/dl | 1.06 ng/ml; p < 0.0001), VOD (10.84 mg/dl | 0.59 ng/ml; p < 0.01), mucositis (8.84 mg/dl | 0.81 ng/ml; p < 0.0001), and viremia (3.62 mg/dl; p < 0.0001 | 0.43 ng/ml; below normal limit). During skin GvHD, CRP and PCT were slightly increased (2.03 mg/dl | 0.93 ng/ml; p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: CRP and PCT did not show congruent changes during TRAE. PCT was a clinically relevant marker for the early detection and differentiation of severe mucositis and sepsis/SIRS and bacteremia during the critical neutropenic period after HSCT. PCT helped to discriminate acute intestinal GvHD from adenovirus viremia and liver GvHD from hepatic VOD. Thus, PCT may be a valuable parameter to enable a prompt and appropriate treatment during these complications, improving patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/diagnóstico , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Rejeição de Enxerto/diagnóstico , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/diagnóstico , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Pró-Calcitonina/sangue , Sepse/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Bacteriemia/sangue , Bacteriemia/etiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Seguimentos , Rejeição de Enxerto/sangue , Rejeição de Enxerto/etiologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/sangue , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/patologia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/terapia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sepse/sangue , Sepse/etiologia , Transplante Homólogo
10.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 54(Suppl 2): 689-693, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31431707

RESUMO

Posttransplant relapsed B-cell precursor ALL can be cured by 2nd hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in 20% of patients. The major cause of death after second HSCT is leukemic relapse. One reliable predictor for survival after 2nd-HSCT are posttransplant MRD levels. Patients with detectable or increase of MRD are likely to relapse. Patients in complete molecular remission show the best leukemia-free survival and lowest cumulative incidence (CI) of relapse. As patients who undergo second or subsequent HSCT are high-risk patients, we evaluated the prophylactic use of the chimeric Fc-optimized CD19-4G7SDIE-mAb. Posttransplant relapsed CD19+ BCP-ALL patients, who underwent a second or subsequent haplo-HSCT from a T- and B-cell depleted graft received posttransplant prophylactic CD19-4G7SDIE-mAb treatment on compassionate use in complete molecular remission, to increase the antileukemic activity of the new reconstituting immune system by recruiting Fc-expressing effector cells. NK cells recovered early and robust. The 3 year overall survival in 15 evaluable patients was 56%, the 3 year event-free survival was 55% and the CI of relapse 38%. Compared to a historical control group, the CI of relapse was markedly lower and consecutively the EFS higher. Posttransplant-targeted therapy may overcome the need for unspecific GvL effect of undesired GvHD, that can cause severe morbidity and mortality. Due to a low adverse event profile the CD19-4G7SDIE-mAb may be suitable for broad administration to consolidate posttransplant MRD negativity.

11.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 54(Suppl 2): 727-732, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31431711

RESUMO

Posttransplant treatment strategies are narrowed by the vulnerability of bone marrow. Building on immune cells with antitumor activity is a growing field in cancer therapy. Thus, transfer of expanded and preactivated immune cells is a promising intensification of treatment in high-risk tumor patients. We tested ex vivo expanded NK-, γδT-, and CIK cells that were generated by coincubation with irradiated K562-mb15-41BBL and Il2 and compared the expansion conditions of PBMCs versus CD3-depleted PBMCs as well as static versus semi-automated expansion. The median fold expansion was significantly higher using PBMCs and static expansion conditions. Expanded cells were preactivated with a CD56brightCD69high immunophenotype exerting excellent direct cellular cytotoxicity as well as ADCC in various tumor entities. We established a large-scale clinical-grade ex vivo expansion and activation protocol of NK-, γδT-, and CIK cells from donor-derived PBMCs of patients after haploidentical HSCT. In a patient with AML, NK/γδT/CIK cell transfer was associated with MRD response. A significant increase of direct antitumor activity and ADCC post cell transfer was documented. The results that we report here provide the rationale for clinical testing of expanded, preactivated NK/γδT/CIK cells for cancer therapy.

12.
Blood ; 134(14): 1159-1175, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366618

RESUMO

Hematopoietic transcription factor LIM domain only 2 (LMO2), a member of the TAL1 transcriptional complex, plays an essential role during early hematopoiesis and is frequently activated in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) patients. Here, we demonstrate that LMO2 is activated by deacetylation on lysine 74 and 78 via the nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT)/sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) pathway. LMO2 deacetylation enables LMO2 to interact with LIM domain binding 1 and activate the TAL1 complex. NAMPT/SIRT2-mediated activation of LMO2 by deacetylation appears to be important for hematopoietic differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells and blood formation in zebrafish embryos. In T-ALL, deacetylated LMO2 induces expression of TAL1 complex target genes HHEX and NKX3.1 as well as LMO2 autoregulation. Consistent with this, inhibition of NAMPT or SIRT2 suppressed the in vitro growth and in vivo engraftment of T-ALL cells via diminished LMO2 deacetylation. This new molecular mechanism may provide new therapeutic possibilities in T-ALL and may contribute to the development of new methods for in vitro generation of blood cells.

13.
Cytotherapy ; 21(9): 973-986, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in childhood and adolescence. Although some patients present with distinct genetic alterations, such as mutated TP53 or MYC amplification, pediatric medulloblastoma is a tumor entity with minimal mutational load and low immunogenicity. METHODS: We identified tumor-specific mutations using next-generation sequencing of medulloblastoma DNA and RNA derived from primary tumor samples from pediatric patients. Tumor-specific mutations were confirmed using deep sequencing and in silico analyses predicted high binding affinity of the neoantigen-derived peptides to the patients' human leukocyte antigen molecules. Tumor-specific peptides were synthesized and used to induce a de novo T-cell response characterized by interferon gamma and tumor necrosis factor alpha release of CD8+ cytotoxic T cells in vitro. RESULTS: Despite low mutational tumor burden, at least two immunogenic tumor-specific peptides were identified in each patient. T cells showed a balanced CD4/CD8 ratio and mostly effector memory phenotype. Induction of a CD8-specific T-cell response was achieved for the neoepitopes derived from Histidine Ammonia-Lyase (HAL), Neuraminidase 2 (NEU2), Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin (PCSK9), Programmed Cell Death 10 (PDCD10), Supervillin (SVIL) and tRNA Splicing Endonuclease Subunit 54 (TSEN54) variants. CONCLUSION: Detection of patient-specific, tumor-derived neoantigens confirms that even in tumors with low mutational load a molecular design of targets for specific T-cell immunotherapy is possible. The identified neoantigens may guide future approaches of adoptive T-cell transfer, transgenic T-cell receptor transfer or tumor vaccination.

14.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1542, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31354710

RESUMO

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) is a curative treatment option for hematologic malignancies but relapse remains the most common cause of death. Infusion of donor lymphocytes (DLIs) can induce remission and prolong survival by exerting graft-vs.-leukemia (GVL) effects. However, sufficient tumor control cannot be established in all patients and occurrence of graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD) prevents further dose escalation. Previous data indicate that invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells promote anti-tumor immunity without exacerbating GVHD. In the present study we investigated lysis of leukemic blasts through iNKT cells from donor-derived lymphocytes for leukemia control and found that iNKT cells constitute about 0.12% of cryopreserved donor T cells. Therefore, we established a 2-week cell culture protocol allowing for a robust expansion of iNKT cells from cryopreserved DLIs (DLI-iNKTs) that can be used for further preclinical and clinical applications. Such DLI-iNKTs efficiently lysed leukemia cell lines and primary patient AML blasts ex vivo in a dose- and CD1d-dependent manner. Furthermore, expression of CD1d on target cells was required to release proinflammatory cytokines and proapoptotic effector molecules. Our results suggest that iNKT cells from donor-derived lymphocytes are involved in anti-tumor immunity after allo-HCT and therefore may reduce the risk of relapse and improve progression-free and overall survival.

15.
J Labelled Comp Radiopharm ; 62(8): 438-447, 2019 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090094

RESUMO

The catecholamine analogue [123 I]mIBG has been used for scintigraphic imaging of neuroblastoma since 1984. It is taken up by the noradrenaline transporter (NAT), which is present in most neuroblastoma cells. An alternative imaging method could be PET with 6-[18 F]fluorodopamine, which is also taken up by NAT, but-in contrast to mIBG-also by dopamine transporter (DAT), present in neuroblastoma cells (NAT > DAT). An enzymatic method was established allowing a rapid, quantitative transformation of FDOPA to FDA by DOPA decarboxylase within 25 minutes. This strategy was applied to [18 F]FDOPA, which was produced via nucleophilic synthesis (RCY 15%, 10 GBq, 50 GBq/µmol) and subsequently converted to [18 F]FDA (RCY 35%-50%, n = 5). Uptake and metabolism of FDOPA and FDA were analyzed in human Kelly and SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cell lines and in human Caki-1 kidney cells that can take up catecholamines and mIBG via an organic cation transporter (OCT). FDOPA and FDA were taken up by all three cells, but FDOPA could only be converted to FDA in neuroblastoma cells. As today, [18 F]FDOPA is well available in high yields, efficient enzymatic conversion to [18 F]FDA to be used for NAT/DAT PET imaging in neuroendocrine tumors is an attractive, alternative synthesis route.

16.
Haematologica ; 2019 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073076

RESUMO

Alterations of the tumor suppressor gene TP53 are found in different cancers, in particular in carcinomas of adults. In pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia, TP53 mutations are infrequent but enriched at relapse. As in most cancers, mainly DNA-binding domain missense mutations are found, resulting in accumulation of mutant p53, poor therapy response, and inferior outcome. Different strategies to target mutant p53 have been developed including reactivation of p53's wild type function by the small molecule APR-246. We investigated TP53 mutations in cell lines and 62 B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia samples and evaluated the activity of APR-246 in TP53 mutated or wild type acute lymphoblastic leukemias. We identified cases with TP53 missense mutations, high (mutant) p53 expression and insensitivity to the DNA-damaging agent doxorubicin. In TP53 mutated acute lymphoblastic leukemia, APR-246 induced apoptosis showing strong anti-leukemia activity. APR-246 restored mutant p53 to its wild type conformation, leading to pathway activation with induction of transcriptional targets and re-sensitization to genotoxic therapy in vitro and in vivo. In addition, induction of oxidative stress contributed to APR-246 mediated cell death. In a pre-clinical model of patient-derived TP53 mutant acute lymphoblastic leukemia, APR-246 reduced leukemia burden and strongly synergized with the genotoxic agent doxorubicin leading to superior leukemia-free survival in vivo. Thus, targeting mutant p53 by APR-246 restoring its tumor suppressive function seems to be an effective therapeutic strategy for this high-risk group of TP53 mutant acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30833742

RESUMO

The number of HLA-haploidentical hematopoietic cell transplants continues to increase worldwide due to recent improvements in outcomes, allowing more patients with hematological malignancies and non-malignant disorders to benefit from this procedure and have a chance to cure their disease. Despite these encouraging results, questions remain as multiple donors are usually available for transplantation, and choosing the best HLA-haploidentical donor for transplantation remains a challenge. Several approaches to haploidentical transplantation have been developed over time and, based on the graft received, can be grouped as follows: T-cell depleted haploidentical transplants, either complete or partial, or with T-cell replete grafts, performed with post-transplant cyclophosphamide-based graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis, or G-CSF-primed bone marrow graft and enhanced GVHD prophylaxis. Carefully selecting the donor can help optimize transplant outcomes for recipients of haploidentical donor transplants. Variables usually considered in the donor selection include presence of donor-specific antibodies in the recipient, donor age, donor/recipient gender and ABO combinations, and immunogenic variables, such as natural killer cell alloreactivity or KIR haplotype. Here we provide a comprehensive review of available evidence for selecting haploidentical donors for transplantation, and summarize the recommendations from the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) on donor selection for different transplant platforms.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30903024

RESUMO

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a standard therapeutic intervention for hematological malignancies and several monogenic diseases. However, this approach has limitations related to lack of a suitable donor, graft-versus-host disease and infectious complications due to immune suppression. On the contrary, autologous HSCT diminishes the negative effects of allogeneic HSCT. Despite the good efficacy, earlier gene therapy trials with autologous HSCs and viral vectors have raised serious safety concerns. However, the CRISPR/Cas9-edited autologous HSCs have been proposed to be an alternative option with a high safety profile. In this review, we summarized the possibility of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated autologous HSCT as a potential treatment option for various diseases supported by preclinical gene-editing studies. Furthermore, we discussed future clinical perspectives and possible clinical grade improvements of CRISPR/cas9-mediated autologous HSCT.

19.
Br J Haematol ; 186(1): 60-71, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30916396

RESUMO

Donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) is an effective method to establish full donor chimerism or to prevent and treat relapse after allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). Usually, DLIs are collected from naïve donors as steady-state lymphocytes. When donor lymphocytes are collected during stem cell apheresis, donors are pre-treated with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). However, the impact of G-CSF stimulation and the resulting composition of DLIs on beneficial anti-leukaemic responses and survival remain elusive. Therefore, we performed a retrospective analysis to evaluate the role of G-CSF-DLIs: 44 patients received either steady-state DLIs or G-CSF-DLIs to prevent and treat relapse or establish full donor chimerism after allo-HCT. The G-CSF-DLI patient cohort showed an improved conversion to full donor chimerism and a lower cumulative incidence of relapse or disease progression without a significantly increased cumulative incidence of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). CD34+ cells, monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells and monocytes as well as donor age and the subsequent occurrence of chronic GVHD were identified as risk factors that significantly improve overall survival after DLI administration. In conclusion, our data suggest that administration of G-CSF-DLIs results in graft-versus-leukaemia effects without exacerbating GVHD, therefore, improving survival after DLIs.

20.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 104(1): 137-143, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30593907

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This retrospective analysis aimed to address the efficacy of total nodal irradiation (TNI)-based reconditioning regimens in pediatric patients with graft failure/rejection after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Thirty-three pediatric patients with malignant (n = 25) and nonmalignant diseases (n = 8) were treated with a TNI-based reconditioning regimen. All patients received a 7-Gy single dose combined with anti-T lymphocyte antibody OKT3 (n = 16), anti-thymocyte globulin (n = 24), fludarabine (n = 31), and/or thiotepa (n = 28), followed by an infusion of peripheral blood stem cells (n = 31) or bone marrow transplant (n = 2). Twenty-eight of 33 patients had haploidentical family donors. RESULTS: After a median of 11 days, engraftment was seen in 32 of 33 children. Two children died 34 days after retransplantation because of either disease relapse or treatment-related multiple organ failure. Severe acute toxicity was reported in only 1 child (systemic inflammatory response syndrome-like reaction; recovery after cortisone treatment). The average follow-up was 60.2 months (range, 1.1-162.5 months). Event-free and overall survival rates at 2/5 years follow-up were 62.0%/58.6% and 65.1%/61.7%, respectively. Despite sustained engraftment, 12 patients died from disease relapse (n = 3), Moschkowitz syndrome (n = 1), or multiple organ failure (n = 8). Follow-up data were available for 18 of 21 survivors, with a median follow-up of 92.8 months (range, 3.6-162.5 months). Hypothyroidism was present in 78.6% of patients, and sex/growth hormonal insufficiencies were reported for 37.5%. Mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second after TNI was 84%; mean vital capacity was 79%. Severe growth failure (<3rd percentile) occurred in 28.6% (height) and 35.7% (weight) of patients. No secondary malignancies were reported. CONCLUSIONS: In the high-risk group of patients with graft failure/rejection after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation, the TNI-based reconditioning regimen seems to allow sustained engraftment combined with a favorable toxicity profile, leading to long-term event-free and overall survival. Late toxicity after a median follow-up of over 7.5 years includes growth failure, manageable hormonal deficiencies, and a low risk of decrease of lung function.


Assuntos
Rejeição de Enxerto , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Imunossupressão/métodos , Irradiação Linfática/métodos , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Adolescente , Aloenxertos , Soro Antilinfocitário/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Medula Óssea , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Seguimentos , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Imunossupressão/efeitos adversos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Irradiação Linfática/efeitos adversos , Muromonab-CD3/uso terapêutico , Agonistas Mieloablativos/uso terapêutico , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Retratamento/efeitos adversos , Retratamento/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tiotepa/uso terapêutico , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/efeitos adversos , Vidarabina/análogos & derivados , Vidarabina/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
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