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1.
J Phys Chem A ; 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32011141

RESUMO

We present the first experimental study of the frontier orbitals in an ultrathin film of the novel hexa-carbene photosensitizer [Fe(btz)3]3+, where btz is 3,3'-dimethyl-1,1'-bis(p-tolyl)-4,4'-bis(1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidene). Resonant photoelectron spectroscopy (RPES) was used to probe the electronic structure of films where the molecular and oxidative integrities had been confirmed with optical and X-ray spectroscopies. In combination with density functional theory calculations, RPES measurements provided direct and site-selective information about localization and interactions of occupied and unoccupied molecular orbitals. Fe 2p, N 1s, and C 1s measurements selectively probed the metal, carbene, and side-group contributions revealing strong metal-ligand orbital mixing of the frontier orbitals. This helps explain the remarkable photophysical properties of iron-carbenes in terms of unconventional electronic structure properties and favorable metal-ligand bonding interactions-important for the continued development of these type of complexes toward light-harvesting and light-emitting applications.

2.
J Chem Phys ; 151(7): 074701, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438696

RESUMO

N 1s Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) was used to probe the molecular electronic structure of the ruthenium photosensitizer complex cis-bis(isothiocyanato) bis(2,2'-bipyridyl-4,4'-dicarboxylato) ruthenium(II), known as "N3." In order to interpret these data, crystalline powder samples of the bipyridine-dicarboxylic acid ligand ("bi-isonicotinic acid") and the single ring analog "isonicotinic acid" were studied separately using the same method. Clear evidence for intermolecular hydrogen bonding is observed for each of these crystalline powders, along with clear vibronic coupling features. For bi-isonicotinic acid, these results are compared to those of a physisorbed multilayer, where no hydrogen bonding is observed. The RIXS of the "N3" dye, again prepared as a bulk powder sample, is interpreted in terms of the orbital contributions of the bi-isonicotinic acid and thiocyanate ligands by considering the two different nitrogen species. This allows direct comparison with the isolated ligand molecules where we highlight the impact of the central Ru atom on the electronic structure of the ligand. Further interpretation is provided through complementary resonant photoemission spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. This combination of techniques allows us to confirm the localization and relative coupling of the frontier orbitals and associated vibrational losses.

3.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(35): 18893-18910, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441923

RESUMO

The atomic contributions to valence electronic structure for 37 ionic liquids (ILs) are identified using a combination of variable photon energy XPS, resonant Auger electron spectroscopy (RAES) and a subtraction method. The ILs studied include a diverse range of cationic and anionic structural moieties. We introduce a new parameter for ILs, the energy difference between the energies of the cationic and anionic highest occupied fragment orbitals (HOFOs), which we use to identify the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO). The anion gave rise to the HOMO for 25 of the 37 ILs studied here. For 10 of the ILs, the energies of the cationic and anionic HOFOs were the same (within experimental error); therefore, it could not be determined whether the HOMO was from the cation or the anion. For two of the ILs, the HOMO was from the cation and not from the anion; consequently it is energetically more favourable to remove an electron from the cation than the anion for these two ILs. In addition, we used a combination of area normalisation and subtraction of XP spectra to produce what are effectively XP spectra for individual ions; this was achieved for 10 cations and 14 anions.

4.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 20(45): 28606-28615, 2018 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30406249

RESUMO

Using a radio-frequency ion trap to study ion-molecule reactions under isolated conditions, we report a direct experimental determination of reaction rate constants for the sequential oxidation of iodine anions by ozone at room temperature (300 K). The results are R1: I- + O3 → IO- + O2, k1 = (7 ± 2) × 10-12 cm3 s-1; R2: IO- + O3 → IO2- + O2, k2 = (10 ± 2) × 10-9 cm3 s-1; R3: IO2- + O3 → IO3- + O2, k3 = (16 ± 2) × 10-9 cm3 s-1. More oxidized forms such as IO4- and IO5- were not observed. Additionally, we performed quantum chemical calculations to elucidate the energetics of these oxidation reactions.

5.
J Chem Phys ; 148(20): 204705, 2018 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29865819

RESUMO

Two-dimensional resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) and resonant photoelectron spectroscopy (RPES) maps are presented for multilayer and monolayer coverages of an aromatic molecule (bi-isonicotinic acid) on the rutile TiO2(110) single crystal surface. The data reveal ultra-fast intramolecular vibronic coupling upon core excitation from the N 1s orbital into the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) derived resonance. In the RIXS measurements, this results in the splitting of the participator decay channel into a purely elastic line which disperses linearly with excitation energy and a vibronic coupling channel at constant emission energy. In the RPES measurements, the vibronic coupling results in a linear shift in binding energy of the participator channel as the excitation is tuned over the LUMO-derived resonance. Localisation of the vibrations on the molecule on the femtosecond time scale results in predominantly inelastic scattering from the core-excited state in both the physisorbed multilayer and the chemisorbed monolayer.

6.
J Chem Phys ; 147(13): 134705, 2017 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28987114

RESUMO

We present for the first time two-dimensional resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) maps of multilayer and monolayer bi-isonicotinic acid adsorbed on the rutile TiO2(110) single crystal surface. This enables the elastic channel to be followed over the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals resonantly excited at the N 1s absorption edge. The data also reveal ultra-fast intramolecular vibronic coupling, particularly during excitation into the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital-derived resonance. Both elastic scattering and the vibronic coupling loss features are expected to contain the channel in which the originally excited electron is directly involved in the core-hole decay process. This allows RIXS data for a molecule coupled to a wide bandgap semiconductor to be considered in the same way as the core-hole clock implementation of resonant photoemission spectroscopy (RPES). However, contrary to RPES measurements, we find no evidence for the depletion of the participator channel under the conditions of ultra-fast charge transfer from the molecule to the substrate densities of states, on the time scale of the core-hole lifetime. These results suggest that the radiative core-hole decay processes in RIXS are not significantly modified by charge transfer on the femtosecond time scale in this system.

7.
J Chem Phys ; 147(5): 054703, 2017 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28789551

RESUMO

The adsorption and charge transfer dynamics of the organic molecule bi-isonicotinic acid (4,4-dicarboxy-2,2-bipyridine) on single crystal Ag(111) has been studied using synchrotron radiation-based photoemission, x-ray absorption, and resonant core spectroscopies. Measurements for multilayer and monolayer coverage are used to determine the nature of the molecule-surface interactions and the molecular orientation. An experimental density of states for the monolayer with respect to the underlying metal surface is obtained by combining x-ray absorption spectroscopy at the N 1s edge and valence photoemission to measure the unoccupied and occupied valence states, respectively. This shows that the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital in the core-excited state lies energetically below the Fermi level of the surface allowing charge transfer from the metal into this orbital. Resonant photoelectron spectroscopy was used to probe this charge transfer in the context of super-spectator and super-Auger electron transitions. The results presented provide a novel interpretation of resonant core-level spectroscopy to explore ultra-fast charge transfer between an adsorbed organic molecule and a metal surface through the observation of electrons from the metal surface playing a direct role in the core-hole decay of the core-excited molecule.

8.
Nanoscale ; 9(18): 6056-6067, 2017 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28443889

RESUMO

Achieving control of the surface chemistry of colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) is essential to fully exploit their properties in solar cells, but direct measurement of the chemistry and electronic structure in the outermost atomic layers is challenging. Here we probe the surface oxidation and passivation of cation-exchanged PbS/CdS core/shell CQDs with sub nm-scale precision using synchrotron-radiation-excited depth-profiling photoemission. We investigate the surface composition of the topmost 1-2.5 nm of the CQDs as a function of depth, for CQDs of varying CdS shell thickness, and examine how the surface changes after prolonged air exposure. We demonstrate that the Cd is localized at the surface of the CQDs. The surface-localized products of oxidation are identified, and the extent of oxidation quantified. We show that oxidised sulfur species are progressively eliminated as Cd replaces Pb at the surface. A sub-monolayer surface 'decoration' of Cd is found to be effective in passivating the CQDs. We show that the measured energy-level alignments at PbS/CdS colloidal quantum dot surfaces differ from those expected on the basis of bulk band offsets, and are strongly affected by the oxidation products. We develop a model for the passivating action of Cd. The optimum shell thickness (of around 0.1 nm, previously found to give maximised power conversion efficiency in PbS/CdS solar cells) is found to correspond to a trade-off between the rate of oxidation and the introduction of a surface barrier to charge transport.

9.
Nature ; 543(7647): 695-699, 2017 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28358064

RESUMO

Transition-metal complexes are used as photosensitizers, in light-emitting diodes, for biosensing and in photocatalysis. A key feature in these applications is excitation from the ground state to a charge-transfer state; the long charge-transfer-state lifetimes typical for complexes of ruthenium and other precious metals are often essential to ensure high performance. There is much interest in replacing these scarce elements with Earth-abundant metals, with iron and copper being particularly attractive owing to their low cost and non-toxicity. But despite the exploration of innovative molecular designs, it remains a formidable scientific challenge to access Earth-abundant transition-metal complexes with long-lived charge-transfer excited states. No known iron complexes are considered photoluminescent at room temperature, and their rapid excited-state deactivation precludes their use as photosensitizers. Here we present the iron complex [Fe(btz)3]3+ (where btz is 3,3'-dimethyl-1,1'-bis(p-tolyl)-4,4'-bis(1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidene)), and show that the superior σ-donor and π-acceptor electron properties of the ligand stabilize the excited state sufficiently to realize a long charge-transfer lifetime of 100 picoseconds (ps) and room-temperature photoluminescence. This species is a low-spin Fe(iii) d5 complex, and emission occurs from a long-lived doublet ligand-to-metal charge-transfer (2LMCT) state that is rarely seen for transition-metal complexes. The absence of intersystem crossing, which often gives rise to large excited-state energy losses in transition-metal complexes, enables the observation of spin-allowed emission directly to the ground state and could be exploited as an increased driving force in photochemical reactions on surfaces. These findings suggest that appropriate design strategies can deliver new iron-based materials for use as light emitters and photosensitizers.

10.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 51(63): 12593-6, 2015 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26154619

RESUMO

The surface-assisted synthesis of gold-organometallic hybrids on the Au(111) surface both by thermo- and light-initiated dehalogenation of bromo-substituted tetracene is reported. Combined X-ray photoemission (XPS) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) data reveal a significant increase of the surface order when mild reaction conditions are combined with 405 nm light irradiation.

11.
J Chem Phys ; 140(23): 234708, 2014 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24952561

RESUMO

The interaction of the dye molecule N3 (cis-bis(isothiocyanato)bis(2,2-bipyridyl-4,4'-dicarbo-xylato)-ruthenium(II)) with the ultra-thin oxide layer on a AlNi(110) substrate, has been studied using synchrotron radiation based photoelectron spectroscopy, resonant photoemission spectroscopy, and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. Calibrated X-ray absorption and valence band spectra of the monolayer and multilayer coverages reveal that charge transfer is possible from the molecule to the AlNi(110) substrate via tunnelling through the ultra-thin oxide layer and into the conduction band edge of the substrate. This charge transfer mechanism is possible from the LUMO+2 and 3 in the excited state but not from the LUMO, therefore enabling core-hole clock analysis, which gives an upper limit of 6.0 ± 2.5 fs for the transfer time. This indicates that ultra-thin oxide layers are a viable material for use in dye-sensitized solar cells, which may lead to reduced recombination effects and improved efficiencies of future devices.

12.
J Chem Phys ; 139(15): 154708, 2013 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24160534

RESUMO

Two single molecule magnets based on the dodecamanganese (III, IV) cluster with either benzoate or terphenyl-4-carboxylate ligands, have been studied on the Au(111) and rutile TiO2(110) surfaces. We have used in situ electrospray deposition to produce a series of surface coverages from a fraction of a monolayer to multilayer films in both cases. X-ray absorption spectroscopy measured at the Mn L-edge (Mn 2p) has been used to study the effect of adsorption on the oxidation states of the manganese atoms in the core. In the case of the benzoate-functionalised complex reduction of the manganese metal centres is observed due to the interaction of the manganese core with the underlying surface. In the case of terphenyl-4-carboxylate, the presence of this much larger ligand prevents the magnetic core from interacting with either the gold or the titanium dioxide surfaces and the characteristic Mn(3+) and Mn(4+) oxidation states necessary for magnetic behaviour are preserved.

13.
J Chem Phys ; 137(22): 224706, 2012 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23249025

RESUMO

Charge transfer from photoexcited dye molecules to a semiconductor substrate forms the basis of dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs); the overall effectiveness of a DSC device is critically dependent upon the efficiency of this process due to competition with other de-excitation channels. In this paper, we experimentally derive timescales for the charge transfer process in model water splitting DSCs. We studied two organometallic dye complexes adsorbed onto a rutile TiO(2)(110) substrate, the dye molecules were deposited in ultra-high vacuum using electrospray deposition. DFT simulations were used to calculate the spatial distribution of orbitals relevant to the charge transfer process. The core-hole clock implementation of resonant photoemission spectroscopy was used to determine upper limits on charge transfer timescales for previously unoccupied orbitals, which were found to be in the low-femtosecond regime apart from one orbital found to have an upper limit in the sub-femtosecond regime.

14.
J Chem Phys ; 135(11): 114703, 2011 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21950879

RESUMO

A single centre water splitting dye complex (aqua(2,2'-bipyridyl-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid)-(2,2':6',6''-terpyridine)Ruthenium(II)), along with a related complex ((2,2'-bipyridyl-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid)-(2,2':6',6''-terpyridine)chloride Ruthenium(II)), has been investigated using photoemission and compared to molecules with similar structures. Dye molecules were deposited in situ using ultra-high vacuum electrospray deposition, which allows for the deposition of thermally labile molecules, such as these dye molecules. Adsorption of the dye molecules on the rutile TiO(2)(110) surface has been studied using core-level and valence photoemission. Core-level photoemission spectra reveal that each complex bonds to the surface via deprotonation of its carboxylic acid groups. A consideration of the energy level alignments reveals that both complexes are capable of charge transfer from the adsorbed molecules to the conduction band of the rutile TiO(2) substrate.

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