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1.
Span J Psychol ; 24: e11, 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33602351

RESUMO

In the present research, we replicate and extend previous findings on the relations between human values and bright\dark traits of personality, using the functional theory of human values (Gouveia, 2013). Specifically, we assessed which dark traits are associated with human values and whether the dark traits explained variance in values beyond the bright traits (Big Five). While prior research has investigated the relations between the three sets of constructs mainly in Western countries, we tested whether the findings hold in Brazil (N = 819). Although values are defined as positive constructs, several value subfunctions were positively correlated with the dark traits (e.g., excitement values with narcissism), while other relations were negative. Controlling for participants' age and gender, hierarchical regressions further revealed that dark traits explain variance in values beyond bright traits, although overall bright traits were more strongly associated with values than dark traits. Together, our findings replicate previous research. Implications for our understanding of the Dark Triad and cross-cultural research are discussed.

2.
J Pers ; 2020 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33220067

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Extant research mostly treats values as being stable over time. Our research examined how people perceive values over time and whether or not these perceptions reflect motivational tensions between theoretically opposing values. We also assessed the viability of examining values over time to predict well-being and future intentions. METHOD: Four studies (N = 934) asked participants to report their values across past, present, and future settings. These temporal trajectories were analyzed across the four types of higher-order values: self-transcendence, self-enhancement, openness, and conservation. Studies 3 and 4 assessed associations with well-being. Study 4 assessed associations with self-reported behavior over time. RESULTS: Across all four studies, participants perceived their values as being dynamic over time. Younger participants' trajectories did not reflect the motivational conflicts typically reported in values research, but Study 4 showed potential awareness in older age groups. Variability in temporal values correlated with well-being, particularly for openness values. Future values predicted future intentions, even when controlling for present values. CONCLUSION: This novel method of examining values provides new understanding into how people perceive the pursuit of values over time. Additionally, we show two ways that a temporal values measure can offer new insights into well-being and future intentions.

3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5150, 2020 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051452

RESUMO

It is often assumed that incongruence between individuals' values and those of their country is distressing, but the evidence has been mixed. Across 29 countries, the present research investigated whether well-being is higher if people's values match with those of people living in the same country or region. Using representative samples, we find that person-country and person-region value congruence predict six well-being measures (e.g., emotional well-being, relationship support; N = 54,673). Crucially, however, value type moderates whether person-country fit is positively or negatively associated with well-being. People who value self-direction, stimulation, and hedonism more and live in countries and regions where people on average share these values report lower well-being. In contrast, people who value achievement, power, and security more and live in countries and regions where people on average share these values, report higher well-being. Additionally, we find that people who moderately value stimulation report the highest well-being.


Assuntos
Cultura , Valor da Vida , Emoções , Humanos , Percepção , Filosofia , Previdência Social
4.
Br J Soc Psychol ; 59(2): 470-493, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863498

RESUMO

Since the British 'Brexit referendum' in 2016, tensions between 'leave' and 'remain' voters have been growing. Using a novel analytical approach based on the full distribution of responses rather than their arithmetic means, Study 1 (N = 1,506) showed on average 90% of overlap among Leavers and Remainers across a range of important variables. Even on the variables that are commonly used to illustrate how Leavers and Remainers differ (e.g., prejudice against immigrants), the amount of overlap was larger than 50%. In Study 2 (N = 206), we demonstrate the importance of focusing on similarities between groups: Presenting the full distribution of responses from Leavers and Remainers rather than their mean differences caused more accurate perceptions of the actual differences and similarities between both groups and higher perceived intergroup harmony. We conclude that similarities between Leavers and Remainers are substantial and that our proposed approach may help to de-escalate tensions between these and other groups.

5.
J Pers Soc Psychol ; 116(4): 541-562, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30596430

RESUMO

Most published research focuses on describing differences, while neglecting similarities that are arguably at least as interesting and important. In Study 1, we modified and extended prior procedures for describing similarities and demonstrate the importance of this exercise by examining similarities between groups on 22 social variables (e.g., moral attitudes, human values, and trust) within 6 commonly used social categories: gender, age, education, income, nation of residence, and religious denomination (N = 86,272). On average, the amount of similarity between 2 groups (e.g., high vs. low educated or different countries) was greater than 90%. Even large effect sizes revealed more similarities than differences between groups. Studies 2-5 demonstrated the importance of presenting information about similarity in research reports. Compared with the typical presentation of differences (e.g., barplots with confidence intervals), similarity information led to more accurate lay perceptions and to more positive attitudes toward an outgroup. Barplots with a restricted y-axis led to a gross underestimation of similarities (i.e., a gross overestimation of the differences), and information about similarities was rated as more comprehensible. Overall, the presentation of similarity information achieves more balanced scientific communication and may help address the file drawer problem. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Processos Grupais , Psicologia Social , Pesquisa , Pensamento , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
6.
Front Psychol ; 9: 1643, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30319476

RESUMO

Over the past century, various value models have been proposed. To determine which value model best predicts prosocial behavior, mental health, and pro-environmental behavior, we subjected seven value models to a hierarchical regression analysis. A sample of University students (N = 271) completed the Portrait Value Questionnaire (Schwartz et al., 2012), the Basic Value Survey (Gouveia et al., 2008), and the Social Value Orientation scale (Van Lange et al., 1997). Additionally, they completed the Values Survey Module (Hofstede and Minkov, 2013), Inglehart's (1977) materialism-postmaterialism items, the Study of Values, fourth edition (Allport et al., 1960; Kopelman et al., 2003), and the Rokeach (1973) Value Survey. However, because the reliability of the latter measures was low, only the PVQ-RR, the BVS, and the SVO where entered into our analysis. Our results provide empirical evidence that the PVQ-RR is the strongest predictor of all three outcome variables, explaining variance above and beyond the other two instruments in almost all cases. The BVS significantly predicted prosocial and pro-environmental behavior, while the SVO only explained variance in pro-environmental behavior.

7.
Front Psychol ; 9: 849, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29896151

RESUMO

Previous research found that the within-country variability of human values (e.g., equality and helpfulness) clearly outweighs between-country variability. Across three countries (Brazil, India, and the United Kingdom), the present research tested in student samples whether between-nation differences reside more in the behaviors used to concretely instantiate (i.e., exemplify or understand) values than in their importance as abstract ideals. In Study 1 (N = 630), we found several meaningful between-country differences in the behaviors that were used to concretely instantiate values, alongside high within-country variability. In Study 2 (N = 677), we found that participants were able to match instantiations back to the values from which they were derived, even if the behavior instantiations were spontaneously produced only by participants from another country or were created by us. Together, these results support the hypothesis that people in different nations can differ in the behaviors that are seen as typical as instantiations of values, while holding similar ideas about the abstract meaning of the values and their importance.

8.
Front Psychol ; 8: 1963, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29209246

RESUMO

A significant proportion of all deaths globally can be attributed to alcohol consumption. Although a range of correlates of alcohol consumption have already been identified at the individual level, less is understood about correlates at the macro level, such as cultural values. As a development in this understanding may prove useful for global health organizations aiming to tackle the problems associated with excessive drinking, our aim was to investigate the association between encultured alcohol consumption and Cultural Value Orientations. We obtained data describing average alcohol consumption and Cultural Value Orientations, for 74 countries, from an online data repository. To assess whether Cultural Value Orientations are associated with alcohol consumption we calculated partial correlations and performed a ridge regression analysis. Our analyses revealed that Cultural Value Orientations were significantly associated with alcohol consumption, even after controlling for average income and education level. A profile emerged in which values of autonomy and harmony were shown to be positively associated with alcohol consumption, and hierarchy and embeddedness negatively associated with alcohol consumption. The effect was modified by gender. Changes in cultural Harmony, Mastery, Autonomy and Egalitarianism were associated with increases in alcohol consumption in males, but not females, while changes in cultural Embeddedness and Hierarchy were associated with decreases in consumption in females, but no change in males. Finally, we demonstrate that latitude, and by extension its covariates such as climatic demands, partially accounted for the effect of harmony and affective autonomy on alcohol consumption. This research highlights that cultural values, and their interaction with gender, should be an important consideration for international public health organizations aiming to tackle the problems associated with alcohol consumption, but that future research is required to fully understand the link between cultural values and alcohol.

9.
Front Psychol ; 8: 1160, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28744246

RESUMO

In the present article, we investigate predictors of how often a scientific article is cited. Specifically, we focus on the influence of two often neglected predictors of citation rate: effect size and sample size, using samples from two psychological topical areas. Both can be considered as indicators of the importance of an article and post hoc (or observed) statistical power, and should, especially in applied fields, predict citation rates. In Study 1, effect size did not have an influence on citation rates across a topical area, both with and without controlling for numerous variables that have been previously linked to citation rates. In contrast, sample size predicted citation rates, but only while controlling for other variables. In Study 2, sample and partly effect sizes predicted citation rates, indicating that the relations vary even between scientific topical areas. Statistically significant results had more citations in Study 2 but not in Study 1. The results indicate that the importance (or power) of scientific findings may not be as strongly related to citation rate as is generally assumed.

10.
J Pers ; 85(5): 658-674, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27392549

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We conducted five studies testing whether an implicit measure of favorability toward power over universalism values predicts spontaneous prejudice and discrimination. METHOD: Studies 1 (N = 192) and 2 (N = 86) examined correlations between spontaneous favorability toward power (vs. universalism) values, achievement (vs. benevolence) values, and a spontaneous measure of prejudice toward ethnic minorities. Study 3 (N = 159) tested whether conditioning participants to associate power values with positive adjectives and universalism values with negative adjectives (or inversely) affects spontaneous prejudice. Study 4 (N = 95) tested whether decision bias toward female handball players could be predicted by spontaneous attitude toward power (vs. universalism) values. Study 5 (N = 123) examined correlations between spontaneous attitude toward power (vs. universalism) values, spontaneous importance toward power (vs. universalism) values, and spontaneous prejudice toward Black African people. RESULTS: Spontaneous positivity toward power (vs. universalism) values was associated with spontaneous negativity toward minorities and predicted gender bias in a decision task, whereas the explicit measures did not. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that the implicit assessment of evaluative responses attached to human values helps to model value-attitude-behavior relations.


Assuntos
Poder Psicológico , Preconceito , Percepção Social , Valores Sociais , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Racismo , Sexismo , Adulto Jovem
11.
Soc Neurosci ; 12(6): 673-684, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27635795

RESUMO

Human values guide behavior and the smooth functioning of societies. Schwartz's circumplex model of values predicts a sinusoidal waveform in relations between ratings of the importance of diverse human value types (e.g., achievement, benevolence) and any variables psychologically relevant to them. In this neuroimaging study, we examined these nonlinear associations between values types and brain structure. In 85 participants, we found the predicted sinusoidal relationship between ratings of values types and two measures of white matter (WM), volume and myelin volume fraction, as well as for grey matter (GM) parameters in several frontal regions. These effects reveal new functional associations for structural brain parameters and provide a novel cross-validation of Schwartz's model. Moreover, the sinusoidal waveform test can be applied to other circumplex models in social, affective and cognitive neuroscience.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Valores Sociais , Adulto , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
12.
PLoS One ; 11(12): e0168354, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28002494

RESUMO

Most psychological studies rely on student samples. Students are usually considered as more homogenous than representative samples both within and across countries. However, little is known about the nature of the differences between student and representative samples. This is an important gap, also because knowledge about the degree of difference between student and representative samples may allow to infer from the former to the latter group. Across 59 countries and 12 personality (Big-5) and attitudinal variables we found that differences between students and general public were partly substantial, incoherent, and contradicted previous findings. Two often used cultural variables, embeddedness and intellectual autonomy, failed to explain the differences between both groups across countries. We further found that students vary as much as the general population both between and within countries. In summary, our results indicate that generalizing from students to the general public can be problematic when personal and attitudinal variables are used, as students vary mostly randomly from the general public. Findings are also discussed in terms of the replication crisis within psychology.


Assuntos
Testes Psicológicos/normas , Estudantes/psicologia , Atitude , Feminino , Humanos , Conhecimento , Masculino , Personalidade , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Univ. psychol ; 15(2): 397-408, abr.-jun. 2016. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-963169

RESUMO

Across two studies we aimed to provide evidences of validity and reliability for the Brief Resilience Scale (BRS) in Brazil. In study 1, 171 individuals participated (Age M = 21.9, SD = 6.59) and 232 in Study 2 (Age M = 26.3, SD = 7.06). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) supported the predicted one-factor solution, with five items and satisfactory internal consistence (a = 0.76). A multi-group CFA revealed partial measurement equivalence between our and the original (USA) versions of the BRS. The BRS correlated significant with positivity and personality traits. The composite reliability was satisfying; the convergent validity, measured with the average variance extracted, was slightly below the recommendations. Overall, the results show that the measure is psychometrically suitable for research in Brazil.


Se realizaron dos estudios buscando evidenciar la validez y confiabilidad de la Breve Escala de Resiliencia (BER) en Brasil. En el estúdio 1, 171 personas participaron (Edad M = 21.9, SD = 6.59) y 232 en el Estudio 2 (Edad M = 26.3, SD = 7.06). El análisis factorial confirmatório (AFC) apoya la solución unifactorial, con cinco ítems y fidedignidad satisfactoria (a = 0.76). Una AFC Multigrupo reveló la equivalencia de medición parcial entre la nuestra y la versión original (EUA) de la BER. La BER se correlaciona significativamente con positividad y rasgos de personalidad. La confiabilidad compuesta fue satisfactoria; la validez convergente, utilizando la varianza media extraída, fue ligeramente abajo de las recomendaciones. En general, los resultados muestran que la medida es psicométricamente adecuada para la investigación en Brasil.

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