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1.
Value Health Reg Issues ; 24: 187-192, 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838558

RESUMO

Health Technology Assessment (HTA), a tool for priority setting, has emerged as a means of ensuring the sustainability of a Universal Health Coverage (UHC) system. However, setting up an effective HTA system poses multiple challenges and knowledge exchange can play a crucial role in helping countries achieve their UHC targets. This article reports the results of the discussion during a preconference session at the 2019 HTAsiaLink Conference, an annual gathering of HTA agencies in Asia, which supports knowledge transfer and exchange among HTA practitioners. As part of this discourse, 3 main HTA challenges were identified based on experiences of selected countries in Asia and Africa, namely Bhutan, Kenya, Thailand, and Zambia: availability of funding, building technical capacity, and achieving buy-in among stakeholders for successful translation of HTA research into UHC policy. The potential solutions identified through this South-South engagement included establishing a legal mandate for HTA, building local technical capacity through partnerships and enhancing strategic communication with stakeholders to increase awareness, among others. South-South Knowledge Exchange can therefore be instrumental in sharing lessons learned from common challenges and offer potential solutions to address capacity building initiatives for HTA in LMICs.

2.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 1079, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239032

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As most low and middle-income countries seek to achieve universal health coverage targets, there is an ever-increasing need to train human resources with the required core skills and competencies. This study reports on a needs assessment conducted among health services organisations (HSOs) to understand postgraduate training needs and service gaps for selected public health disciplines - Health Policy and Systems, Health Economics, and Healthcare Management and Planning - at the University of Zambia. METHODS: The study adopted a cross-sectional design, comprising qualitative and quantitative components. Data were collected using semi-structured questionnaires administered to 32 representatives of purposively sampled public and private health service organisations based in Lusaka Zambia. The health services organisations included regulatory authorities, research institutions, government ministries, insurance firms and other cooperating partners. RESULTS: Overall (n = 22), more than 68% of the stakeholders reported that they had no employees that were formally trained in the three disciplines. More than 90% of the stakeholders opined that training in these disciplines would be beneficial in providing competencies to strengthen service provision. The horizontal skills mismatch for health economics, and health services management and planning were found to be 93 and 100%, respectively. Among the critical public health training needs were: policy development and analysis, economic evaluation, and strategic management. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms that introducing post-graduate training in the proposed public health disciplines will not only benefit Zambian health services organisations but also help strengthen the health systems in general. For other empirical contexts, the findings imply the need for the introduction of academic programmes which respond to ever-changing public health skills demanded. They should be matched with local priorities and service delivery.

3.
J Public Health Afr ; 11(1): 1096, 2020 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33209231

RESUMO

Substantial efforts have seen the reduction in malaria prevalence from 33% in 2006 to 19.4% in 2015 in Zambia. Many studies have used effect measures, such as odds ratios, of malaria interventions without combining this information with coverage levels of the interventions to assess how malaria prevalence would change if these interventions were scaled up. We contribute to filling this gap by combining intervention coverage information with marginal predictions to model the extent to which key interventions can bring down malaria in Zambia. We used logistic regression models and derived marginal effects using repeated cross-sectional survey data from the Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS) datasets for Zambia collected in 2010, 2012 and 2015. Average monthly temperature and rainfall data were obtained from climate explorer a satellite-generated database. We then conducted a counterfactual analysis using the estimated marginal effects and various hypothetical levels of intervention coverage to assess how different levels of coverage would affect malaria prevalence. Increasing IRS and ITNs from the 2015 levels of coverage of 28.9% and 58.9% respectively to at least 80% and rising standard housing to 20% from the 13.4% in 2015 may bring malaria prevalence down to below 15%. If the percentage of modern houses were increased further to 90%, malaria prevalence might decrease to 10%. Other than ITN and IRS, streamlining and increasing of the percentage of standard houses in malaria fight would augment and bring malaria down to the levels needed for focal malaria elimination. The effects of ITNs, IRS and Standard housing were pronounced in high than low epidemiological areas.

4.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(10)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028701

RESUMO

In health outcomes terms, the poorest countries stand to lose the most from these disruptions. In this paper, we make the case for a rational approach to public sector health spending and decision making during and in the early recovery phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. Based on ethics and equity principles, it is crucial to ensure that patients not infected by COVID-19 continue to get access to healthcare and that the services they need continue to be resourced. We present a list of 120 essential non-COVID-19 health interventions that were adapted from the model health benefit packages developed by the Disease Control Priorities project.


Assuntos
Altruísmo , Infecções por Coronavirus , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Países em Desenvolvimento , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/normas , Humanos , Pobreza , Saúde Pública
5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15092, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32934309

RESUMO

This study quantitatively assessed the population-wide lead poisoning conditions in Kabwe, Zambia, a town with severe lead pollution. While existing data have reported concerning blood lead levels (BLLs) of residents in pollution hotspots, the data representing the entire population are lacking. Further, selection bias is a concern. Given the lack of compulsory testing schemes, BLLs have been observed from voluntary participants in blood sampling surveys, but such data can represent higher or lower BLLs than the population average because of factors simultaneously affecting participation and BLLs. To illustrate the lead poisoning conditions of the population, we expanded the focus of our surveys and then econometrically estimated the BLLs of individuals representing the population, including those not participating in blood sampling, using background geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic information. The estimated population mean BLL was 11.9 µg/dL (11.6-12.1, 95% CI), lower than existing data because of our wide focus and correction of selection bias. However, the scale of lead poisoning remained immense and 74.9% of residents had BLLs greater than 5 µg/dL, the standard reference level for lead poisoning. Our estimates provide a deeper understanding of the problem and a foundation for policy intervention designs.

6.
Health Econ Rev ; 10(1): 26, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32803373

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Morbidity and mortality due to pregnancy and childbearing are high in developing countries. This study aims to estimate patient and health system costs of managing pregnancy and birth-related complications in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify costing studies published and unpublished, from January 2000 to May 2019. The search was done in Pubmed, EMBASE, Cinahl, and Web of Science databases and grey literature. The study was registered in PROSPERO with registration No. CRD42019119316. All costs were converted to 2018 US dollars using relevant Consumer Price Indices. RESULTS: Out of 1652 studies identified, 48 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The included studies were of moderate to high quality. Spontaneous vaginal delivery cost patients and health systems between USD 6-52 and USD 8-73, but cesarean section costs between USD 56-377 and USD 80-562, respectively. Patient and health system costs of abortion range between USD 11-66 and USD 40-298, while post-abortion care costs between USD 21-158 and USD 46-151, respectively. The patient and health system costs for managing a case of eclampsia range between USD 52-231 and USD 123-186, while for maternal hemorrhage they range between USD 65-196 and USD 30-127, respectively. Patient cost for caring low-birth weight babies ranges between USD 38-489 while the health system cost was estimated to be USD 514. CONCLUSION: This is the first systematic review to compile comprehensive up-to-date patient and health system costs of managing pregnancy and birth-related complications in sub-Saharan Africa. It indicates that these costs are relatively high in this region and that patient costs were largely catastrophic relative to a 10 % of average national per capita income.

7.
Int J Equity Health ; 19(1): 104, 2020 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32586388

RESUMO

The COVID-19 is disproportionally affecting the poor, minorities and a broad range of vulnerable populations, due to its inequitable spread in areas of dense population and limited mitigation capacity due to high prevalence of chronic conditions or poor access to high quality public health and medical care. Moreover, the collateral effects of the pandemic due to the global economic downturn, and social isolation and movement restriction measures, are unequally affecting those in the lowest power strata of societies. To address the challenges to health equity and describe some of the approaches taken by governments and local organizations, we have compiled 13 country case studies from various regions around the world: China, Brazil, Thailand, Sub Saharan Africa, Nicaragua, Armenia, India, Guatemala, United States of America (USA), Israel, Australia, Colombia, and Belgium. This compilation is by no-means representative or all inclusive, and we encourage researchers to continue advancing global knowledge on COVID-19 health equity related issues, through rigorous research and generation of a strong evidence base of new empirical studies in this field.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Equidade em Saúde , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
8.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(4)2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32354785

RESUMO

The global burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) has been rising. A key risk factor for NCDs is obesity, which has been partly linked to consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs). A tax on SSBs is an attractive control measure to curb the rising trend in NCDs, as it has the potential to reduce consumption of SSBs. However, studies on the potential effects of SSB taxes have been concentrated in high-income countries with limited studies in low-income and middle-income countries. Using data from the 2015 Zambia Living Conditions Monitoring Survey (LCMS) data, the 2017 Zambia NCD STEPS Survey, and key parameters from the literature, we simulated the effect of a 25% SSB tax in Zambia on energy intake and the corresponding change in body mass index (BMI), obesity prevalence, deaths averted, life years gained and revenues generated using a mathematical model developed using Microsoft Excel. We conducted Monte Carlo simulations to construct 95% confidence bands and sensitivity analyses to account for uncertainties in key parameters. We found that a 25% SSB would avert 2526 deaths, though these results were not statistically significant overall. However, when broken down by gender, the tax was found to significantly avert 1133 deaths in women (95% CI 353 to 1970). The tax was found to potentially generate an additional US$5.46 million (95% CI 4.66 to 6.14) in revenue annually. We conclude that an SSB tax in Zambia has the potential to significantly decrease the amount of disability-adjusted life years lost to lifestyle-related diseases in women, highlighting important health equity outcomes. Women have higher baseline BMI and therefore are at higher risk for NCDs. In addition, an SSB tax will provide government with additional revenue which if earmarked for health could contribute to healthcare financing in Zambia.

10.
Chemosphere ; 243: 125412, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995873

RESUMO

Childhood lead (Pb) poisoning has devastating effects on neurodevelopment and causes overt clinical signs including convulsions and coma. Health effects including hypertension and various reproductive problems have been reported in adults. Historical Pb mining in Zambia's Kabwe town left a legacy of environmental pollution and childhood Pb poisoning. The current study aimed at establishing the extent of Pb poisoning and exposure differences among family members in Kabwe as well as determining populations at risk and identify children eligible for chelation therapy. Blood samples were collected in July and August 2017 from 1190 household members and Pb was measured using a portable LeadCare-II analyser. Participants included 291 younger children (3-months to 3-years-old), 271 older children (4-9-years-old), 412 mothers and 216 fathers from 13 townships with diverse levels of Pb contamination. The Blood Lead Levels (BLL) ranged from 1.65 to 162  µg/dL, with residents from Kasanda (mean 45.7  µg/dL) recording the highest BLL while Hamududu residents recorded the lowest (mean 3.3  µg/dL). Of the total number of children sampled (n = 562), 23% exceeded the 45  µg/dL, the threshold required for chelation therapy. A few children (5) exceeded the 100  µg/dL whereas none of the parents exceeded the 100  µg/dL value. Children had higher BLL than parents, with peak BLL-recorded at the age of 2-years-old. Lead exposure differences in Kabwe were attributed to distance and direction from the mine, with younger children at highest risk. Exposure levels in parents were equally alarming. For prompt diagnosis and treatment, a portable point-of-care devise such as a LeadCare-II would be preferable in Kabwe.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Intoxicação por Chumbo/epidemiologia , Chumbo/sangue , Chumbo/toxicidade , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Pai , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mineração , Mães , Registros , Reprodução , Manejo de Espécimes , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
11.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 42, 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948452

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The youths in Zambia have limited access to information concerning Sexual Reproductive Health (SRH) and this puts them at risk of unwanted pregnancies. Talking about other methods of preventing pregnancy or sexually transmitted infections than abstinence is regarded as culturally unacceptable. The Research Initiative to Support the Empowerment of Girls (RISE) is a cluster randomised controlled trial testing the effectiveness of different support packages on teenage pregnancies, early marriages and school drop-out rates. One of the support packages included youth clubs focusing on Comprehensive Sexual and Reproductive Health Education (CSRHE). Although similar interventions have been implemented in other settings, their integration process has been complex and comprehensive assessments of factors shaping acceptability of CSRHE are lacking. This article qualitatively aimed at identifying factors that shaped the acceptability of CSRHE youth clubs in rural schools in Central Province. METHOD: A qualitative case study was conducted after the youth clubs had been running for a year. Data were gathered through eight focus group discussions with grade eight pupils and eight individual interviews with teachers. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: The perceived advantage and simplicity of the clubs related to the use of participatory learning methods, films and role plays to communicate sensitive reproductive health information made the learners like the youth clubs. Further, the perceived compatibility of the content of the sessions with the science curriculum increased the learners' interest in the youth clubs as the meetings also helped them to prepare for the school examinations. However, cultural and religious beliefs among teachers and parents regarding the use of contraceptives complicated the delivery of reproductive health messages and the acceptability of youth clubs' information among the learners. CONCLUSION: The study indicated that CSRHE youth clubs may be acceptable in rural schools if participatory learning methods are used and head-teachers, teachers as well as parents appreciate and support the clubs.


Assuntos
Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Saúde Reprodutiva/educação , População Rural , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/organização & administração , Saúde Sexual/educação , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Gravidez na Adolescência/prevenção & controle , Pesquisa Qualitativa , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Zâmbia
12.
Global Health ; 15(1): 82, 2019 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847871

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A recurring discussion in the literature relates to the possible contradictions among the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The focus has been on economic goals, such as economic growth and goals related to climate change. We explore the possible contradictions that may arise between economic goals and health goals, specifically, the goal on Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) - SDG3.4. As a way to achieve SDG3.4, countries have been urged to introduce sin taxes, such as those on sugar. Yet others have argued that such taxes may affect employment (SDG 8.5), economic growth (SDG 8.1), and increase poverty (SDG1). However, there is limited or no reliable evidence, using actual experience, on the effect of sugar tax on health and economic outcomes. This makes it hard to assess the possible contradictions in SDGs that sugar taxes may generate. MAIN BODY: Using a conceptual framework on SDGs that views relationships among SDGs as either contradictory, reinforcing, or neutral, we carefully consider whether there are contradictions between SDG 3.4 on one hand and SDG 1, SDG 8.1, and SDG 8.5 on the other hand. We illustrate this using Zambia which recently introduced an equivalent 3% tax on non-alcoholic beverages, implicitly targeted at sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), given the stated goal of reducing NCDs. Concerns are that such a tax would be detrimental to the Zambia sugar value chain which contributes about 6% to GDP, in which case the achievement of SDG 3.4 (health) would be at odds with, or contradict, SDG 1, SDG 8.1, and SDG 8.5 (poverty eradication, economic growth, and creation of employment). We discuss that the existence of contradictions depend on a number of contextual factors, which allows us to make two conclusions about sugar taxation in Zambia. First, the current tax rate of 3% is likely neutral (no contradictions or reinforcing relationships) because it is too low to have any health or employment effects. However, the revenue raised can be reinvested to improve livelihoods. Secondly, the tax rate should be increased but care has to be exercised to ensure that the rate is not too high to generate contradictions. There will be need to carefully assess important parameters such as elasticities and explore alternative economic livelihoods. CONCLUSION: Without paying due consideration to important contextual factors, Zambia and many LMIC risk experiencing contradictions among SDGs.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Emprego , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/economia , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Impostos , Humanos , Zâmbia
13.
Glob Health Sci Pract ; 7(Suppl 1): S104-S122, 2019 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30867212

RESUMO

The primary objective of this study was to estimate the costs and the incremental cost-effectiveness of maternal and newborn care associated with the Saving Mothers, Giving Life (SMGL) initiative-a comprehensive district-strengthening approach addressing the 3 delays associated with maternal mortality-in Uganda and Zambia. To assess effectiveness, we used a before-after design comparing facility outcome data from 2012 (before) and 2016 (after). To estimate costs, we used unit costs collected from comparison districts in 2016 coupled with data on health services utilization from 2012 in SMGL-supported districts to estimate the costs before the start of SMGL. We collected data from health facilities, ministerial health offices, and implementing partners for the year 2016 in 2 SMGL-supported districts in each country and in 3 comparison non-SMGL districts (2 in Zambia, 1 in Uganda). Incremental costs for maternal and newborn health care per SMGL-supported district in 2016 was estimated to be US$845,000 in Uganda and $760,000 in Zambia. The incremental cost per delivery was estimated to be $38 in Uganda and $95 in Zambia. For the districts included in this study, SMGL maternal and newborn health activities were associated with approximately 164 deaths averted in Uganda and 121 deaths averted in Zambia in 2016 compared to 2012. In Uganda, the cost per death averted was $10,311, or $177 per life-year gained. In Zambia, the cost per death averted was $12,514, or $206 per life-year gained. The SMGL approach can be very cost-effective, with the cost per life-year gained as a percentage of the gross domestic product (GDP) being 25.6% and 16.4% in Uganda and Zambia, respectively. In terms of affordability, the SMGL approach could be paid for by increasing health spending from 7.3% to 7.5% of GDP in Uganda and from 5.4% to 5.8% in Zambia.


Assuntos
Morte Materna/prevenção & controle , Serviços de Saúde Materna/economia , Serviços de Saúde Materna/organização & administração , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Mortalidade Materna/tendências , Gravidez , Uganda/epidemiologia , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
14.
Malar J ; 18(1): 61, 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30845998

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria is among the top causes of mortality and morbidity in Zambia. Efforts to control, prevent, and eliminate it have been intensified in the past two decades which has contributed to reductions in malaria prevalence and under-five mortality. However, there was a 21% upsurge in malaria prevalence between 2010 and 2015. Zambia is one of the only 13 countries to record an increase in malaria among 91 countries monitored by the World Health Organization in 2015. This study investigated the upsurge by decomposition of drivers of malaria. METHODS: The study used secondary data from three waves of nationally representative cross-sectional surveys on key malaria indicators conducted in 2010, 2012 and 2015. Using multivariable logistic regression, determinants of malaria prevalence were identified and then marginal effects of each determinant were derived. The marginal effects were then combined with changes in coverage rates of determinants between 2010 and 2015 to obtain the magnitude of how much each variable contributed to the change in the malaria prevalence. RESULTS: The odds ratio of malaria for those who slept under an insecticide-treated net (ITN) was 0.90 (95% CI 0.77-0.97), indoor residual spraying (IRS) was 0.66 (95% CI 0.49-0.89), urban residence was 0.23 (95% CI 0.15-0.37), standard house was 0.40 (95% CI 0.35-0.71) and age group 12-59 Months against those below 12 months was 4.04 (95% CI 2.80-5.81). Decomposition of prevalence changes by determinants showed that IRS reduced malaria prevalence by - 0.3% and ITNs by - 0.2% however, these reductions were overridden by increases in prevalence due to increases in the proportion of more at-risk children aged 12-59 months by + 2.3% and rural residents by + 2.2%. CONCLUSION: The increases in interventions, such as ITNs and IRS, were shown to have contributed to malaria reduction in 2015; however, changes in demographics such as increases in the proportion of more at risk groups among under-five children and rural residents may have overridden the impact of these interventions and resulted in an overall increase. The upsurge in malaria in 2015 compared to 2010 may not have been due to weaknesses in programme interventions but due to increases in more at-risk children and rural residents compared to 2010. The apparent increase in rural residents in the sample population may not have been a true reflection of the population structure but due to oversampling in rural areas which was not fully adjusted for. The increase in malaria prevalence may therefore have been overestimated.


Assuntos
Malária/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
15.
World Dev ; 101: 334-350, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29422705

RESUMO

Zambia removed user fees in publicly supported-government and faith based- health facilities in 54 out of 72 districts in 2006. This was extended to rural areas of previously unaffected districts in 2007. The natural experiment provided by the step-wise implementation of the removal policy and five waves of nationally representative household survey data enables us to study the impact of the removal policy on utilization and household health expenditure. We find that the policy increased overall use of health services in the short term and the effects were sustained in the long term. The increases were higher for individuals whose household heads were unemployed or had no or less education. The policy also led to a small shift in care seeking from private to publicly supported facilities, an effect driven primarily by individuals whose household heads were either formally employed or engaged in farming. The likelihood of incurring any spending reduced, although this weakened slightly in the long term. At the same time, there was an upward pressure on conditional health expenditure, i.e., expenditure was higher after removal of fees for those who incurred any spending. Hence, total (unconditional) household health expenditure was not significantly affected.

16.
PLoS One ; 12(2): e0170995, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28170442

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Child health interventions were drastically scaled up in the period leading up to 2015 as countries aimed at meeting the 2015 target of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). MDGs were defined in terms of achieving improvements in average health. Significant improvements in average child health are documented, but evidence also points to rising inequality. It is important to investigate factors that drive the increasing disparities in order to inform the post-2015 development agenda of reducing inequality, as captured in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We investigated changes in socioeconomic inequality in stunting and fever in Zambia in 2007 and 2014. Unlike the huge literature that seeks to quantify the contribution of different determinants on the observed inequality at any given time, we quantify determinants of changes in inequality. METHODS: Data from the 2007 and 2014 waves of the Zambia Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) were utilized. Our sample consisted of children aged 0-5 years (n = 5,616 in 2007 and n = 12,714 in 2014). We employed multilevel models to assess the determinants of stunting and fever, which are two important child health indicators. The concentration index (CI) was used to measure the magnitude of inequality. Changes in inequality of stunting and fever were investigated using Oaxaca-type decomposition of the CI. In this approach, the change in the CI for stunting/fever is decomposed into changes in CI for each determinant and changes in the effect-measured as an elasticity-of each determinant on stunting/fever. RESULTS: While average rates of stunting reduced in 2014 socioeconomic inequality in stunting increased significantly. Inequality in fever incidence also increased significantly, but average rates of fever did not reduce. The increase in the inequality (CI) of determinants accounted for the largest part (42.5%) of the increase in inequality of stunting, while the increase in the effect of determinants explained 35% of the increase. The determinants with the greatest total contribution (change in CI plus change in effect) to the increase in inequality of stunting were mother's height and weight, wealth, birth order, facility delivery, duration of breastfeeding, and maternal education. For fever, almost all (86%) the increase in inequality was accounted for by the increase in the effect of determinants of fever, while the distribution of determinants mattered less. The determinants with the greatest total contribution to the increase in inequality of fever were wealth, maternal education, birth order and breastfeeding duration. In the multilevel model, we found that the likelihood of a child being stunted or experiencing fever depends on the community in which they live. CONCLUSIONS: To curb the increase in inequality of stunting and fever, policy may focus on improving levels of, and reducing inequality in, access to facility deliveries, maternal nutrition (which may be related to maternal weight and height), complementary feeding (for breastfed children), wealth, maternal education, and child care (related to birth order effects). Improving overall levels of these determinants contribute to the persistence of inequality if these determinants are unequally concentrated on the well off to begin with.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Adulto , Algoritmos , Saúde da Criança/normas , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Febre/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Estatísticos , Mães , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
17.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 97(3_Suppl): 58-64, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26880778

RESUMO

Under-five mortality in Zambia has declined since 1990, with reductions accelerating after 2000. Zambia's scale-up of malaria control is viewed as the driver of these gains, but past studies have not fully accounted for other potential factors. This study sought to systematically evaluate the impact of malaria vector control on under-five mortality. Using a mixed-effects regression model, we quantified the relationship between malaria vector control, other priority health interventions, and socioeconomic indicators and district-level under-five mortality trends from 1990 to 2010. We then conducted counterfactual analyses to estimate under-five mortality in the absence of scaling up malaria vector control. Throughout Zambia, increased malaria vector control coverage coincided with scaling up three other interventions: the pentavalent vaccine, exclusive breast-feeding, and prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV services. This simultaneous scale-up made statistically isolating intervention-specific impact infeasible. Instead, in combination, these interventions jointly accelerated declines in under-five mortality by 11% between 2000 and 2010. Zambia's scale-up of multiple interventions is notable, yet our findings highlight challenges in quantifying program-specific impact without better health data and information systems. As countries aim to further improve health outcomes, there is even greater need-and opportunity-to strengthen routine data systems and to develop more rigorous evaluation strategies.


Assuntos
Mortalidade da Criança , Mortalidade Infantil , Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida , Inseticidas/uso terapêutico , Malária/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Mosquitos Vetores , Causas de Morte , Saúde da Criança , Pré-Escolar , Avaliação do Impacto na Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Malária/mortalidade , Malária/transmissão , Saúde Materna , Modelos Estatísticos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Zâmbia
18.
BMC Med ; 13: 69, 2015 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25889124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Achieving universal health coverage and reducing health inequalities are primary goals for an increasing number of health systems worldwide. Timely and accurate measurements of levels and trends in key health indicators at local levels are crucial to assess progress and identify drivers of success and areas that may be lagging behind. METHODS: We generated estimates of 17 key maternal and child health indicators for Zambia's 72 districts from 1990 to 2010 using surveys, censuses, and administrative data. We used a three-step statistical model involving spatial-temporal smoothing and Gaussian process regression. We generated estimates at the national level for each indicator by calculating the population-weighted mean of the district values and calculated composite coverage as the average of 10 priority interventions. RESULTS: National estimates masked substantial variation across districts in the levels and trends of all indicators. Overall, composite coverage increased from 46% in 1990 to 73% in 2010, and most of this gain was attributable to the scale-up of malaria control interventions, pentavalent immunization, and exclusive breastfeeding. The scale-up of these interventions was relatively equitable across districts. In contrast, progress in routine services, including polio immunization, antenatal care, and skilled birth attendance, stagnated or declined and exhibited large disparities across districts. The absolute difference in composite coverage between the highest-performing and lowest-performing districts declined from 37 to 26 percentage points between 1990 and 2010, although considerable variation in composite coverage across districts persisted. CONCLUSIONS: Zambia has made marked progress in delivering maternal and child health interventions between 1990 and 2010; nevertheless, substantial variations across districts and interventions remained. Subnational benchmarking is important to identify these disparities, allowing policymakers to prioritize areas of greatest need. Analyses such as this one should be conducted regularly and feed directly into policy decisions in order to increase accountability at the local, regional, and national levels.


Assuntos
Benchmarking , Bem-Estar da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Bem-Estar Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Coleta de Dados , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Gravidez , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Zâmbia
19.
Spat Spatiotemporal Epidemiol ; 11: 89-107, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25457599

RESUMO

Birth history data-the primary source of data on under-5 mortality in developing countries-are infrequently used for subnational estimates due to concerns over small sample sizes. In this study we consider different methods for analyzing birth history data in combination with various small area models. We construct a simulation environment to assess the performance of different combinations of birth history methods and small area models in terms of bias, efficiency, and coverage. We find that performance is highly dependent on the birth history method applied and how temporal trends are accounted for. We estimated trends in district-level under-5 mortality in Zambia from 1980 to 2010 using the best-performing model. We find that under-5 mortality is highly variable within Zambia: there was a 1.8-fold difference between the lowest and highest levels in 2010, and declines over the period 1980 to 2010 ranged from less than 5% to more than 50%.


Assuntos
Mortalidade da Criança/tendências , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Análise Espacial , Pré-Escolar , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
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