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1.
Nat Cell Biol ; 23(11): 1117-1128, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34750582

RESUMO

The Human Reference Atlas (HRA) aims to map all of the cells of the human body to advance biomedical research and clinical practice. This Perspective presents collaborative work by members of 16 international consortia on two essential and interlinked parts of the HRA: (1) three-dimensional representations of anatomy that are linked to (2) tables that name and interlink major anatomical structures, cell types, plus biomarkers (ASCT+B). We discuss four examples that demonstrate the practical utility of the HRA.

2.
Laryngoscope Investig Otolaryngol ; 6(5): 1167-1174, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34667862

RESUMO

Introduction: Otitis media is an umbrella term for middle ear inflammation; ranging from acute infection to chronic mucosal disease. It is a leading cause of antimicrobial therapy prescriptions and surgery in children. Despite this, treatments have changed little in over 50 years. Research has been limited by the lack of physiological models of middle ear epithelium. Methods: We develop a novel human middle ear epithelial culture using an air-liquid interface (ALI) system; akin to the healthy ventilated middle ear in vivo. We validate this using immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and membrane conductance studies. We also utilize this model to perform a pilot challenge of middle ear epithelial cells with SARS-CoV-2. Results: We demonstrate that human middle ear epithelial cells cultured at an ALI undergo mucociliary differentiation to produce diverse epithelial subtypes including basal (p63+), goblet (MUC5AC+, MUC5B+), and ciliated (FOXJ1+) cells. Mature ciliagenesis is visualized and tight junction formation is shown with electron microscopy, and confirmed by membrane conductance. Together, these demonstrate this model reflects the complex epithelial cell types which exist in vivo. Following SARS-CoV-2 challenge, human middle ear epithelium shows positive viral uptake, as measured by polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Conclusion: We describe a novel physiological system to study the human middle ear. This can be utilized for translational research into middle ear diseases. We also demonstrate, for the first time under controlled conditions, that human middle ear epithelium is susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection, which has important clinical implications for safe otological surgery. Level of Evidence: NA.

3.
Nature ; 597(7875): 196-205, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497388

RESUMO

The Human Developmental Cell Atlas (HDCA) initiative, which is part of the Human Cell Atlas, aims to create a comprehensive reference map of cells during development. This will be critical to understanding normal organogenesis, the effect of mutations, environmental factors and infectious agents on human development, congenital and childhood disorders, and the cellular basis of ageing, cancer and regenerative medicine. Here we outline the HDCA initiative and the challenges of mapping and modelling human development using state-of-the-art technologies to create a reference atlas across gestation. Similar to the Human Genome Project, the HDCA will integrate the output from a growing community of scientists who are mapping human development into a unified atlas. We describe the early milestones that have been achieved and the use of human stem-cell-derived cultures, organoids and animal models to inform the HDCA, especially for prenatal tissues that are hard to acquire. Finally, we provide a roadmap towards a complete atlas of human development.


Assuntos
Movimento Celular , Rastreamento de Células , Células/citologia , Biologia do Desenvolvimento/métodos , Embrião de Mamíferos/citologia , Feto/citologia , Disseminação de Informação , Organogênese , Adulto , Animais , Atlas como Assunto , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Sobrevivência Celular , Visualização de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Organogênese/genética , Organoides/citologia , Células-Tronco/citologia
4.
Nature ; 597(7875): 250-255, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497389

RESUMO

The cellular landscape of the human intestinal tract is dynamic throughout life, developing in utero and changing in response to functional requirements and environmental exposures. Here, to comprehensively map cell lineages, we use single-cell RNA sequencing and antigen receptor analysis of almost half a million cells from up to 5 anatomical regions in the developing and up to 11 distinct anatomical regions in the healthy paediatric and adult human gut. This reveals the existence of transcriptionally distinct BEST4 epithelial cells throughout the human intestinal tract. Furthermore, we implicate IgG sensing as a function of intestinal tuft cells. We describe neural cell populations in the developing enteric nervous system, and predict cell-type-specific expression of genes associated with Hirschsprung's disease. Finally, using a systems approach, we identify key cell players that drive the formation of secondary lymphoid tissue in early human development. We show that these programs are adopted in inflammatory bowel disease to recruit and retain immune cells at the site of inflammation. This catalogue of intestinal cells will provide new insights into cellular programs in development, homeostasis and disease.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Sistema Nervoso Entérico/citologia , Feto/citologia , Saúde , Intestinos/citologia , Intestinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Linfonodos/citologia , Linfonodos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Doença de Crohn/patologia , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Sistema Nervoso Entérico/anatomia & histologia , Sistema Nervoso Entérico/embriologia , Sistema Nervoso Entérico/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Feminino , Feto/anatomia & histologia , Feto/embriologia , Humanos , Intestinos/embriologia , Intestinos/inervação , Linfonodos/embriologia , Linfonodos/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Organogênese , Receptores de IgG/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Fatores de Tempo
5.
Immunity ; 54(11): 2650-2669.e14, 2021 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592166

RESUMO

Longitudinal analyses of the innate immune system, including the earliest time points, are essential to understand the immunopathogenesis and clinical course of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Here, we performed a detailed characterization of natural killer (NK) cells in 205 patients (403 samples; days 2 to 41 after symptom onset) from four independent cohorts using single-cell transcriptomics and proteomics together with functional studies. We found elevated interferon (IFN)-α plasma levels in early severe COVD-19 alongside increased NK cell expression of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) and genes involved in IFN-α signaling, while upregulation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced genes was observed in moderate diseases. NK cells exert anti-SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) activity but are functionally impaired in severe COVID-19. Further, NK cell dysfunction may be relevant for the development of fibrotic lung disease in severe COVID-19, as NK cells exhibited impaired anti-fibrotic activity. Our study indicates preferential IFN-α and TNF responses in severe and moderate COVID-19, respectively, and associates a prolonged IFN-α-induced NK cell response with poorer disease outcome.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , Interferon-alfa/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Interferon-alfa/sangue , Fibrose Pulmonar/patologia , RNA-Seq , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Transcriptoma/genética , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34363841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although ample knowledge exists about phenotype and function of cutaneous T lymphocytes, much less is known about the lymphocytic components of the skin's innate immune system. OBJECTIVE: To better understand the biologic role of cutaneous innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), we investigated their phenotypic and molecular features under physiologic (normal human skin [NHS]) and pathologic (lesional skin of patients with atopic dermatitis [AD]) conditions. METHODS: Skin punch biopsies and reduction sheets as well as blood specimens were obtained from either patients with AD or healthy individuals. Cell and/or tissue samples were analyzed by flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, and single-cell RNA sequencing or subjected to in vitro/ex vivo culture. RESULTS: Notwithstanding substantial quantitative differences between NHS and AD skin, we found that the vast majority of cutaneous ILCs belong to the CRTH2+ subset and reside in the upper skin layers. Single-cell RNA sequencing of cutaneous ILC-enriched cell samples confirmed the predominance of biologically heterogeneous group 2 ILCs and, for the first time, demonstrated considerable ILC lineage infidelity (coexpression of genes typical of either type 2 [GATA3 and IL13] or type 3/17 [RORC, IL22, and IL26] immunity within individual cells) in lesional AD skin, and to a much lesser extent, in NHS. Similar events were demonstrated in ILCs from skin explant cultures and in vitro expanded ILCs from the peripheral blood. CONCLUSION: These findings support the concept that instead of being a stable entity with well-defined components, the skin immune system consists of a network of highly flexible cellular players that are capable of adjusting their function to the needs and challenges of the environment.

7.
Expert Rev Mol Med ; 23: e10, 2021 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404500

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Otitis media (OM) is a common reason for children to be prescribed antibiotics and undergo surgery but a thorough understanding of disease mechanisms is lacking. We evaluate the evidence of a dysregulated immune response in the pathogenesis of OM. METHODS: A comprehensive systematic review of the literature using search terms [otitis media OR glue ear OR AOM OR OME] OR [middle ear AND (infection OR inflammation)] which were run through Medline and Embase via Ovid, including both human and animal studies. In total, 82 955 studies underwent automated filtering followed by manual screening. One hundred studies were included in the review. RESULTS: Most studies were based on in vitro or animal work. Abnormalities in pathogen detection pathways, such as Toll-like receptors, have confirmed roles in OM. The aetiology of OM, its chronic subgroups (chronic OM, persistent OM with effusion) and recurrent acute OM is complex; however, inflammatory signalling mechanisms are frequently implicated. Host epithelium likely plays a crucial role, but the characterisation of human middle ear tissue lags behind that of other anatomical subsites. CONCLUSIONS: Translational research for OM presently falls far behind its clinical importance. This has likely hindered the development of new diagnostic and treatment modalities. Further work is urgently required; particularly to disentangle the respective immune pathologies in the clinically observed phenotypes and thereby work towards more personalised treatments.


Assuntos
Otite Média , Animais , Antibacterianos , Orelha Média , Humanos , Imunidade , Otite Média/etiologia , Transdução de Sinais
8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3896, 2021 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162837

RESUMO

Tumor cells may share some patterns of gene expression with their cell of origin, providing clues into the differentiation state and origin of cancer. Here, we study the differentiation state and cellular origin of 1300 childhood and adult kidney tumors. Using single cell mRNA reference maps of normal tissues, we quantify reference "cellular signals" in each tumor. Quantifying global differentiation, we find that childhood tumors exhibit fetal cellular signals, replacing the presumption of "fetalness" with a quantitative measure of immaturity. By contrast, in adult cancers our assessment refutes the suggestion of dedifferentiation towards a fetal state in most cases. We find an intimate connection between developmental mesenchymal populations and childhood renal tumors. We demonstrate the diagnostic potential of our approach with a case study of a cryptic renal tumor. Our findings provide a cellular definition of human renal tumors through an approach that is broadly applicable to human cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Renais/genética , Rim/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA-Seq/métodos , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Transcriptoma , Adulto , Algoritmos , Criança , Feto/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Rim/embriologia , Neoplasias Renais/embriologia , Neoplasias Renais/metabolismo , Modelos Genéticos , Transdução de Sinais/genética
9.
Cell ; 184(15): 4090-4104.e15, 2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34129837

RESUMO

The oral mucosa remains an understudied barrier tissue. This is a site of rich exposure to antigens and commensals, and a tissue susceptible to one of the most prevalent human inflammatory diseases, periodontitis. To aid in understanding tissue-specific pathophysiology, we compile a single-cell transcriptome atlas of human oral mucosa in healthy individuals and patients with periodontitis. We uncover the complex cellular landscape of oral mucosal tissues and identify epithelial and stromal cell populations with inflammatory signatures that promote antimicrobial defenses and neutrophil recruitment. Our findings link exaggerated stromal cell responsiveness with enhanced neutrophil and leukocyte infiltration in periodontitis. Our work provides a resource characterizing the role of tissue stroma in regulating mucosal tissue homeostasis and disease pathogenesis.

10.
Ocul Surf ; 21: 279-298, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33865984

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Single cell (sc) analyses of key embryonic, fetal and adult stages were performed to generate a comprehensive single cell atlas of all the corneal and adjacent conjunctival cell types from development to adulthood. METHODS: Four human adult and seventeen embryonic and fetal corneas from 10 to 21 post conception week (PCW) specimens were dissociated to single cells and subjected to scRNA- and/or ATAC-Seq using the 10x Genomics platform. These were embedded using Uniform Manifold Approximation and Projection (UMAP) and clustered using Seurat graph-based clustering. Cluster identification was performed based on marker gene expression, bioinformatic data mining and immunofluorescence (IF) analysis. RNA interference, IF, colony forming efficiency and clonal assays were performed on cultured limbal epithelial cells (LECs). RESULTS: scRNA-Seq analysis of 21,343 cells from four adult human corneas and adjacent conjunctivas revealed the presence of 21 cell clusters, representing the progenitor and differentiated cells in all layers of cornea and conjunctiva as well as immune cells, melanocytes, fibroblasts, and blood/lymphatic vessels. A small cell cluster with high expression of limbal progenitor cell (LPC) markers was identified and shown via pseudotime analysis to give rise to five other cell types representing all the subtypes of differentiated limbal and corneal epithelial cells. A novel putative LPCs surface marker, GPHA2, expressed on the surface of 0.41% ± 0.21 of the cultured LECs, was identified, based on predominant expression in the limbal crypts of adult and developing cornea and RNAi validation in cultured LECs. Combining scRNA- and ATAC-Seq analyses, we identified multiple upstream regulators for LPCs and demonstrated a close interaction between the immune cells and limbal progenitor cells. RNA-Seq analysis indicated the loss of GPHA2 expression and acquisition of proliferative limbal basal epithelial cell markers during ex vivo LEC expansion, independently of the culture method used. Extending the single cell analyses to keratoconus, we were able to reveal activation of collagenase in the corneal stroma and a reduced pool of limbal suprabasal cells as two key changes underlying the disease phenotype. Single cell RNA-Seq of 89,897 cells obtained from embryonic and fetal cornea indicated that during development, the conjunctival epithelium is the first to be specified from the ocular surface epithelium, followed by the corneal epithelium and the establishment of LPCs, which predate the formation of limbal niche by a few weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Our scRNA-and ATAC-Seq data of developing and adult cornea in steady state and disease conditions provide a unique resource for defining genes/pathways that can lead to improvement in ex vivo LPCs expansion, stem cell differentiation methods and better understanding and treatment of ocular surface disorders.


Assuntos
Epitélio Corneano , Limbo da Córnea , Adulto , Diferenciação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Córnea , Células Epiteliais , Humanos , Células-Tronco
11.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2147, 2021 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33846309

RESUMO

Tissue mononuclear phagocytes (MNP) are specialised in pathogen detection and antigen presentation. As such they deliver HIV to its primary target cells; CD4 T cells. Most MNP HIV transmission studies have focused on epithelial MNPs. However, as mucosal trauma and inflammation are now known to be strongly associated with HIV transmission, here we examine the role of sub-epithelial MNPs which are present in a diverse array of subsets. We show that HIV can penetrate the epithelial surface to interact with sub-epithelial resident MNPs in anogenital explants and define the full array of subsets that are present in the human anogenital and colorectal tissues that HIV may encounter during sexual transmission. In doing so we identify two subsets that preferentially take up HIV, become infected and transmit the virus to CD4 T cells; CD14+CD1c+ monocyte-derived dendritic cells and langerin-expressing conventional dendritic cells 2 (cDC2).


Assuntos
Canal Anal/citologia , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Genitália/citologia , HIV-1/fisiologia , Lectinas Tipo C/metabolismo , Lectinas de Ligação a Manose/metabolismo , Monócitos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Forma Celular , Colagenases/metabolismo , Derme/metabolismo , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Receptores de Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Membrana Mucosa/metabolismo , Fagócitos/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Receptores CCR5/metabolismo , Lectina 1 Semelhante a Ig de Ligação ao Ácido Siálico/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética
12.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 649937, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33898444

RESUMO

The human mononuclear phagocyte (MP) system, which includes dendritic cells, monocytes, and macrophages, is a critical regulator of innate and adaptive immune responses. During embryonic development, MPs derive sequentially in yolk sac progenitors, fetal liver, and bone marrow haematopoietic stem cells. MPs maintain tissue homeostasis and confer protective immunity in post-natal life. Recent evidence - primarily in animal models - highlight their critical role in coordinating the remodeling, maturation, and repair of target organs during embryonic and fetal development. However, the molecular regulation governing chemotaxis, homeostasis, and functional diversification of resident MP cells in their respective organ systems during development remains elusive. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the development and functional contribution of tissue MPs during human organ development and morphogenesis and its relevance to regenerative medicine. We outline how single-cell multi-omic approaches and next-generation ex-vivo organ-on-chip models provide new experimental platforms to study the role of human MPs during development and disease.

13.
Nature ; 592(7852): 80-85, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33692543

RESUMO

Placentas can exhibit chromosomal aberrations that are absent from the fetus1. The basis of this genetic segregation, which is known as confined placental mosaicism, remains unknown. Here we investigated the phylogeny of human placental cells as reconstructed from somatic mutations, using whole-genome sequencing of 86 bulk placental samples (with a median weight of 28 mg) and of 106 microdissections of placental tissue. We found that every bulk placental sample represents a clonal expansion that is genetically distinct, and exhibits a genomic landscape akin to that of childhood cancer in terms of mutation burden and mutational imprints. To our knowledge, unlike any other healthy human tissue studied so far, the placental genomes often contained changes in copy number. We reconstructed phylogenetic relationships between tissues from the same pregnancy, which revealed that developmental bottlenecks genetically isolate placental tissues by separating trophectodermal lineages from lineages derived from the inner cell mass. Notably, there were some cases with full segregation-within a few cell divisions of the zygote-of placental lineages and lineages derived from the inner cell mass. Such early embryonic bottlenecks may enable the normalization of zygotic aneuploidy. We observed direct evidence for this in a case of mosaic trisomic rescue. Our findings reveal extensive mutagenesis in placental tissues and suggest that mosaicism is a typical feature of placental development.


Assuntos
Mosaicismo , Mutagênese , Mutação , Placenta/metabolismo , Biópsia , Massa Celular Interna do Blastocisto/citologia , Feminino , Genoma Humano/genética , Humanos , Mesoderma/citologia , Taxa de Mutação , Placenta/citologia , Gravidez , Trissomia/genética , Trofoblastos/citologia , Trofoblastos/metabolismo , Zigoto/citologia
14.
Immunity ; 54(2): 194-196, 2021 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33567257

RESUMO

The human lung harbors diverse macrophages that provide barrier immunity and maintain homeostasis, but their precursors are unclear. In this issue of Immunity, Evren et al. use a humanized mouse model to discern that classical monocytes give rise to alveolar and interstitial macrophages, whereas non-classical monocytes contribute to pulmonary intravascular macrophages.


Assuntos
Pulmão , Macrófagos Alveolares , Animais , Humanos , Macrófagos , Camundongos , Monócitos
15.
Sci Adv ; 7(6)2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547074

RESUMO

Neuroblastoma is a childhood cancer that resembles developmental stages of the neural crest. It is not established what developmental processes neuroblastoma cancer cells represent. Here, we sought to reveal the phenotype of neuroblastoma cancer cells by comparing cancer (n = 19,723) with normal fetal adrenal single-cell transcriptomes (n = 57,972). Our principal finding was that the neuroblastoma cancer cell resembled fetal sympathoblasts, but no other fetal adrenal cell type. The sympathoblastic state was a universal feature of neuroblastoma cells, transcending cell cluster diversity, individual patients, and clinical phenotypes. We substantiated our findings in 650 neuroblastoma bulk transcriptomes and by integrating canonical features of the neuroblastoma genome with transcriptional signals. Overall, our observations indicate that a pan-neuroblastoma cancer cell state exists, which may be attractive for novel immunotherapeutic and targeted avenues.

16.
Eur J Immunol ; 51(4): 764-772, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33569778

RESUMO

The development of the human immune system during embryonic and fetal life has historically been difficult to research due to limited access to human tissue. Experimental animal models have been widely used to study development but cellular and molecular programmes may not be conserved across species. The advent of multiomic single-cell technologies and an increase in human developmental tissue biobank resources have facilitated single-cell multiomic studies focused on human immune development. A critical question in the near future is "How do we best reconcile scientific findings across multiple omic modalities, developmental time, and organismic space?" In this review, we discuss the application of single-cell multiomic technologies to unravel the major cellular lineages in the prenatal human immune system. We also identify key areas where the combined power of multiomics technologies can be leveraged to address specific immunological gaps in our current knowledge and explore new research horizons in human development.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Embrionário/imunologia , Epigenômica/métodos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Genômica/métodos , Proteômica/métodos , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Linhagem da Célula/genética , Linhagem da Célula/imunologia , Embrião de Mamíferos/embriologia , Embrião de Mamíferos/imunologia , Embrião de Mamíferos/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos
17.
Science ; 371(6527)2021 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33479125

RESUMO

The skin confers biophysical and immunological protection through a complex cellular network established early in embryonic development. We profiled the transcriptomes of more than 500,000 single cells from developing human fetal skin, healthy adult skin, and adult skin with atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. We leveraged these datasets to compare cell states across development, homeostasis, and disease. Our analysis revealed an enrichment of innate immune cells in skin during the first trimester and clonal expansion of disease-associated lymphocytes in atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. We uncovered and validated in situ a reemergence of prenatal vascular endothelial cell and macrophage cellular programs in atopic dermatitis and psoriasis lesional skin. These data illustrate the dynamism of cutaneous immunity and provide opportunities for targeting pathological developmental programs in inflammatory skin diseases.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica/embriologia , Dermatite Atópica/patologia , Psoríase/embriologia , Psoríase/patologia , Pele/embriologia , Animais , Atlas como Assunto , Movimento Celular , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Dermatite Atópica/imunologia , Fármacos Dermatológicos/farmacologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/genética , Metotrexato/farmacologia , Camundongos , Fagócitos/imunologia , Psoríase/imunologia , Análise de Célula Única , Pele/citologia , Pele/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Transcriptoma
18.
J Invest Dermatol ; 141(2): 255-264, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32713511

RESUMO

Single-cell genomics has revolutionized biological science, enabling high-resolution analysis of human tissues. The ability to demonstrate the role and function of distinct cell types comprising human tissues paves the way for a new understanding of cellular pathways, interactions, and future research directions. The skin, easily accessible and possessing a diverse and complex role in defending us both physically and immunologically from the outside world, lends itself ideally to single-cell genomics analysis. Here, we outline the benefits of single-cell RNA sequencing while also highlighting the challenges in achieving a meaningful result from its use. Key milestones relating to the study of skin in this way are introduced, covering both healthy and diseased states, and we discuss the potential promise of single-cell RNA sequencing to result in tangible medical advances, with a particular focus on precision medicine.


Assuntos
Genômica , Medicina de Precisão , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Pele/citologia , Análise de Dados , Humanos , Análise de Sequência de RNA
19.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 114(12): 926-936, 2020 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33099652

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Podoconiosis is a tropical lymphoedema of the leg resulting from barefoot exposure to irritant volcanic soils. Approximately 4 million people are affected, mainly in African highland regions. The pathogenesis of this neglected tropical disease is still largely unknown, although HLA class II (HLAII) polymorphisms are associated with the disease. METHODS: NanoString technology was used to assess expression of 579 immune-related genes in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded lymph node archival samples from podoconiosis patients and unaffected controls. RESULTS: Forty-eight genes were upregulated and 21 downregulated in podoconiosis samples compared with controls. Gene ontology analysis showed differentially expressed genes to be closely related to major histocompatibility complex protein, cytokine and TNF receptor binding genes. Pathway enrichment analysis revealed involvement of lymphocyte activation, adaptive immunity, cytokine signalling, antigen processing and the IL-12 pathways. CONCLUSIONS: This exploratory study reports a multiplex gene expression analysis in podoconiosis and shows upregulation of pro-inflammatory transcripts compatible with the notion of local, chronic immune activation in this HLAII-associated disease. Implicated pathways will inform future research into podoconiosis immunopathogenesis.


Assuntos
Elefantíase , Linfedema , Elefantíase/genética , Etiópia , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Doenças Negligenciadas , Solo
20.
Mol Immunol ; 123: 1-6, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380279

RESUMO

The repertoire of dendritic cells (DCs), monocytes and macrophages in adult humans is diverse and we are appreciating this to a greater extent as high throughput methods, such a single-cell RNA sequencing, become widely adopted and scalable. This powerful lens of analysis is also beginning to shed light on prenatal immunology, allowing us to chart the emergence, tissue distribution and developmental regulation of DCs, monocytes and macrophages during early human life. In this review, we will integrate recent insights from studies of the developing immune system into our understanding of adult DC, monocyte and macrophage organization, illustrating where insights from early life both affirm and challenge current understanding.


Assuntos
Células Dendríticas/citologia , Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Macrófagos/citologia , Monócitos/citologia , Mielopoese/fisiologia , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Adulto , Animais , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Diferenciação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Células Dendríticas/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Monócitos/fisiologia , Gravidez
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