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1.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 9(9)2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911712

RESUMO

Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has emerged as a major threat to public health. This study investigated the occurrence of MRSA in humans, chickens, chicken meat and environmental samples within poultry farms and live bird markets in southwestern Nigeria. Methods: MRSA were isolated using selective culture and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility by broth microdilution. Selected isolates were characterized by whole genome sequencing (WGS). From WGS data, spa, dru, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and SCCmec types, but also virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes, were identified. Results: Fifty-six MRSA isolates were detected in 734 samples. They showed resistance to ß-lactams (100%), tetracycline (60.7%), ciprofloxacin (33.9%), erythromycin (28.6%), gentamicin (32.1%), and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (10.7%). All 30 isolates investigated by WGS carried mecA, dfrG, and tet(38) genes. Other resistance genes detected were blaZ (83.3%), fosB (73.3%), tet(K) (60.0%), aacA-aphD (36.6%), aphA3 (33.3%), msr(A) (30.0%), mph(C) (30.0%), dfrS1 (3.3%), and sat4 (3.3%). Seven spa types (t091, t314, t657, t1476, t2331, t4690 and t12236), four known (dt9aw, dt10ao, dt10cj, and dt11a) and two novel (dt10dr and dt11dw) dru types, as well as five sequence types (ST8, ST121, ST152, ST772 and ST789) were found among the MRSA isolates. All ST121 isolates carried an SCCmec type IV cassette and were not dru-typeable. ST152 and ST121 were found only in specific sample categories within defined locations, while ST8 and ST772 were distributed across most sample categories and locations. Three SCCmec types, IVa, V and Vc, were identified. All MRSA isolates possessed virulence genes including aur, clpP, coa, fnbA, esaA, hly, hla, ica, isdA, srtB, sspA, and vWbp, among others. The toxic shock syndrome toxin gene (tst) was not detected in any isolate, whereas the Pantone-Valentine leukocidin genes lukF-PV/lukS-PV were present in all ST121, all ST772, and all but one ST152 isolates. Conclusion: The results of this study (i) showed that chicken meat is contaminated by MRSA and (ii) suggested that live bird markets may serve as focal points for the dissemination of MRSA within the community.

2.
Microorganisms ; 8(8)2020 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32751552

RESUMO

The mechanisms of linezolid resistance among 13 E. faecalis and 6 E. faecium isolates, recovered from six Spanish hospitals during 2017-2018, were investigated. The presence of acquired linezolid resistance genes and mutations in 23S rDNA and in genes encoding for ribosomal proteins was analyzed by PCR and amplicon sequencing. Moreover, the susceptibility to 18 antimicrobial agents was investigated, and the respective molecular background was elucidated by PCR-amplicon sequencing and whole genome sequencing. The transferability of the linezolid resistance genes was evaluated by filter-mating experiments. The optrA gene was detected in all 13 E. faecalis isolates; and one optrA-positive isolate also carried the recently described cfr(D) gene. Moreover, one E. faecalis isolate displayed the nucleotide mutation G2576T in the 23S rDNA. This mutation was also present in all six E. faecium isolates. All linezolid-resistant enterococci showed a multiresistance phenotype and harbored several antimicrobial resistance genes, as well as many virulence determinants. The fexA gene was located upstream of the optrA gene in 12 of the E. faecalis isolates. Moreover, an erm(A)-like gene was located downstream of optrA in two isolates recovered from the same hospital. The optrA gene was transferable in all but one E. faecalis isolates, in all cases along with the fexA gene. The cfr(D) gene was not transferable. The presence of optrA and mutations in the 23S rDNA are the main mechanisms of linezolid resistance among E. faecalis and E. faecium, respectively. We report the first description of the cfr(D) gene in E. faecalis. The presence of the optrA and cfr(D) genes in Spanish hospitals is a public health concern.

3.
Heliyon ; 6(6): e04070, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32613099

RESUMO

Surface disinfectants are regularly used in prophylactic and infection control measures. Concern has been raised whether residues of sub-inhibitory disinfectant concentrations may constitute a selective pressure and could contribute to the development of strains which are tolerant and/or resistant to biocides including antibiotics. The current study investigated whether Staphylococcus (S.) aureus ATCC® 29213™ and ATCC® 6538™ would change their growth characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles after prolonged treatment with sub-inhibitory concentrations of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). NaOCl is a fast-acting disinfectant with a broad-spectrum activity, inexpensive and widely used in healthcare and the food production industry. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for NaOCl was determined by broth macrodilution according to the guidelines for disinfectant efficacy testing provided by the German Veterinary Medical Society. Serial passages after 24 h and 72 h, respectively, in defined sub-inhibitory concentrations of NaOCl resulted in a number of phenotypic variants. Two of these variants, derived from S. aureus ATCC® 29213™, showed elevated MICs of oxacillin and were considered as in vitro-generated borderline oxacillin-resistant S. aureus (BORSA). Transmission electron microscopy revealed a significantly thickened cell wall in these isolates, a phenomenon that has also been described for Listeria monocytogenes after low-level exposure to NaOCl. Whole genome sequencing revealed an early stop codon in the gene coding for the GdpP protein and thereby abolishing the function of this gene. GdpP represents a phosphodiesterase that regulates gene expression, and loss of function of the GdpP protein has been described in association with borderline oxacillin resistance. Our findings suggest that a mutation in the GdpP protein gene and morphological changes of the cell wall were induced by repeated exposure to sub-lethal NaOCl concentrations, and most likely accounted for a BORSA phenotype in two variants derived from S. aureus ATCC® 29213™.

4.
Vet Microbiol ; 244: 108687, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32402352

RESUMO

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) have recently emerged as a major therapeutic challenge in small animal medicine because of their antimicrobial multidrug resistance and their role as nosocomial pathogens. This study focused on the prevalence, molecular characteristics and antimicrobial resistance pheno- and genotypes of MRSP isolated from conjunctival swabs of dogs and cats. Conjunctival swabs were collected from 72 dogs and 24 cats suffering from conjunctivitis/blepharitis, keratitis or uveitis and screened for the presence of MRSP. S. pseudintermedius was isolated from 38 (39.6 %) of all samples. Three (7.9 %) S. pseudintermedius isolates were confirmed as MRSP. They harboured the mecA gene and originated from dogs. One MRSP isolate was from a case of uveitis while the other two MRSP isolates originated from cases of conjunctivitis/blepharitis. All MRSP isolates were subjected to broth microdilution and whole genome sequencing (WGS). Resistance and virulence genes, multilocus sequence (MLS), spa, dru and SCCmec types were deduced from WGS data. Two of the three MRSP isolates, IMT360/16 and IMT515/16, shared the same MLS type (ST71), spa type (t02), dru type (dt9a), SCCmec type (II-III), and indistinguishable multidrug resistance pheno- and genotypes, including resistance to ß-lactams (blaZ, mecA), erythromycin and clindamycin (erm(B)), streptomycin (aphA3), gentamicin (aacA-aphD), enrofloxacin (mutations in grlA and gyrA), tetracycline (tet(K)), and trimethoprim (dfrG)/sulfamethoxazole. The third isolate, IMT1670/16, differed in all those characteristics (MLST (ST1403), dru type (dt10h), SCCmec type (IVg), except the spa type (t02). In addition, isolate IMT1670/16 carried a different tetracycline resistance gene (tet(M)) and was susceptible to erythromycin and clindamycin.

5.
Microb Drug Resist ; 2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32456543

RESUMO

This study aimed at determining the mechanisms of linezolid resistance and the molecular characteristics of clinical Staphylococcus aureus (n = 2) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (n = 15) isolates obtained from four Spanish hospitals. The detection of linezolid resistance mechanisms (mutations and acquisition of resistance genes) was performed by PCR/sequencing. The antimicrobial resistance and virulence profile was determined, and the isolates were typed by different molecular techniques. Moreover, the genetic environment of the cfr gene was determined by whole-genome sequencing. The cfr gene was detected in one methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) that also displayed the amino acid change Val118Ala in the ribosomal protein L4. The second S. aureus isolate was methicillin susceptible and showed different alterations in the ribosomal protein L4. All remaining linezolid-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (n = 14) and Staphylococcus hominis isolates (n = 1) showed the mutation G2576T (n = 14) or C2534T (n = 1) in the 23S rRNA. Moreover, different amino acid changes were detected in the ribosomal proteins L3 and L4 in S. epidermidis isolates. All S. epidermidis isolates belonged to the multilocus sequence type ST2. Linezolid-resistant staphylococci (LRS) showed a multiresistance phenotype, including methicillin resistance that was detected in all isolates but one, and was mediated by the mecA gene. The cfr gene in the MRSA isolate was located together with the fexA gene on a conjugative 38,864 bp plasmid. Linezolid- and methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis ST2 showing mutations in the 23S rRNA and in the ribosomal proteins L3 and L4 are spread among Spanish hospitals, whereas LRS carrying acquired linezolid resistance genes are rarely detected.

6.
Vet Microbiol ; 243: 108631, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32273010

RESUMO

This work aimed at characterizing four Staphylococcus aureus and 68 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), recovered from the air and liquid manure tank of two swine farms with intensive- and semi-extensive-production types, for their antimicrobial resistance pheno-/genotypes and their virulence gene content. Molecular typing was performed by spa typing, MLST, agr typing, and SCCmec typing, where applicable. Conjugation experiments were performed to assess the transferability of the linezolid resistance gene cfr, and its genetic environment was determined by Whole-Genome-Sequencing. The four S. aureus (intensive-production farm, IP-farm) were typed as t011-agrI-CC398-ST398, were scn-negative and two of them were methicillin-resistant (MRSA) with the mecA gene (SCCmec-V). Multidrug resistance was seen in 87 % of the CoNS. Statistically significant differences among the antimicrobial resistance rates of CoNS from the two farms were observed for cefoxitin, aminoglycosides, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Eight methicillin-resistant CoNS, which were recovered from the IP-farm, carried the mecA gene. One S. simulans isolate was PVL-positive and three S. cohnii eta-positive. One S. equorum and one S. arlettae showed linezolid resistance and carried the cfr gene (IP-farm), which was non-transferable by conjugation into S. aureus. The cfr genetic context in both isolates was identical, with the lsa(B) gene located upstream of cfr. The environment of swine farms might contribute to the dissemination of CoNS that show multidrug resistance and harbor important virulence factors.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Exotoxinas/genética , Leucocidinas/genética , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Staphylococcus/genética , Microbiologia do Ar , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Coagulase , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Fazendas , Genes Bacterianos , Esterco/microbiologia , Meticilina/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Suínos , Fatores de Virulência/genética
7.
Vet Microbiol ; 242: 108600, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122605

RESUMO

Based on antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST), correct classifications as susceptible, intermediate or resistant are challenging for some antimicrobial agent-bacterial species combinations. In this study, we investigated 19 equine Staphylococcus aureus isolates for their susceptibility to the combination sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (SXT) by using broth microdilution (BMD), agar disk diffusion (DD) and automated test systems. To elucidate the presence of the corresponding genetic resistance properties among the isolates, whole genome sequence analysis was performed and the genomes were screened for trimethoprim (TMP) resistance genes and mutations in the deduced FolP amino acid (aa) sequences, known to confer sulfonamide resistance. To check for hetero-resistance, zone diameters in DD were screened after 18 and 42 h of incubation. All 19 isolates harboured one of the TMP resistance genes dfrG or dfrS1. Three isolates had an aa exchange in their FolP aa sequence (F17L), which has previously been described to result in sulfonamide resistance. These isolates were classified as SXT-resistant by all methods. The remaining 16 isolates were classified as SXT-susceptible or -intermediate (BMD and/or DD) or SXT-resistant (mainly automated test systems). None of the isolates had relevant aa variations in their FolP aa sequences. All 19 isolates showed slight growth within their SXT inhibition zone by DD, pointing towards hetero-resistance. Overall, automated test systems classified isolates lacking genetic resistance determinants more frequently as SXT-resistant than DD and BMD. Therefore, further studies are needed to define a reliable method for SXT susceptibility testing.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Combinação Trimetoprima e Sulfametoxazol/farmacologia , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Cavalos/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mutação , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
8.
J Glob Antimicrob Resist ; 22: 28-31, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884049

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Two linezolid-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates, C10004 and C10009, were recovered from air samples of a Spanish swine farm and comprehensively characterized. METHODS: Detection of linezolid resistance mechanisms (mutations and acquisition of resistance genes) was performed by PCR/sequencing. Isolates were characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), antimicrobial susceptibility testing, detection of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes, and analysis of the genetic environment of the linezolid resistance genes. The characterization of isolate C10009 was performed by Whole-Genome-Sequencing and of isolate C10004 by PCR and amplicon sequencing, where applicable. Conjugation experiments to assess the transferability of the optrA and poxtA genes implicated in linezolid resistance were performed. RESULTS: The linezolid-resistant E. faecium isolates C10004 and C10009, assigned to ST128 and ST437, respectively, harbored the optrA and poxtA genes. Neither mutations in the 23S rRNA nor in the genes for the ribosomal proteins L3, L4 and L22 were detected. C10004 and C10009 carried fourteen and thirteen antimicrobial resistance genes, respectively. The sequence alignment indicated that the genetic environment of the poxtA gene was identical in both isolates, with a downstream-located fexB gene. The poxtA gene was transferred by conjugation together with the fexB gene, and also with tet(M) and tet(L) in the case of isolate C10004. The optrA gene could not be transferred. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of the poxtA gene in Spain. The presence of poxtA- and optrA-carrying E. faecium isolates in air samples represents a public health concern, indicating an involvement of swine farms in the spread of linezolid-resistant bacteria.

9.
Toxins (Basel) ; 11(9)2019 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540335

RESUMO

The detection of borderline oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (BORSA) represents a challenge to both, veterinary and human laboratories. Between 2015 and 2017, 19 equine S. aureus with elevated minimal inhibitory concentrations for oxacillin were detected in routine diagnostics. The aim of this study was to characterize these isolates to identify factors possibly associated with the BORSA phenotype. All S. aureus were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing and whole genome sequencing (WGS). A quantifiable ß-lactamase activity assay was performed for a representative subset of 13 isolates. The WGS data analysis of the 19 BORSA isolates identified two different genomic lineages, sequence type (ST) 1 and ST1660. The core genome multilocus sequence typing (cgMLST) revealed a close relatedness of all isolates belonging to either ST1 or ST1660. The WGS analysis identified the resistance genes aadD, dfrG, tet(L), and/or blaZ and aacA-aphD. Phenotypic resistance to penicillins, aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim was observed in the respective isolates. For the penicillin-binding proteins 1-4, amino acid substitutions were predicted using WGS data. Since neither transglycosylase nor transpeptidase domains were affected, these alterations might not explain the BORSA phenotype. Moreover, ß-lactamase activity was found to be associated with an inducible blaZ gene. The lineage-specific differences regarding the expression profiles were noted.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Cavalos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Oxacilina/farmacologia , Filogenia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolismo , Fatores de Virulência/genética , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo
10.
Int J Parasitol ; 49(10): 769-777, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31361998

RESUMO

Efficient and reliable identification of emerging pathogens is crucial for the design and implementation of timely and proportionate control strategies. This is difficult if the pathogen is so far unknown or only distantly related with known pathogens. Diagnostic metagenomics - an undirected, broad and sensitive method for the efficient identification of pathogens - was frequently used for virus and bacteria detection, but seldom applied to parasite identification. Here, metagenomics datasets prepared from swine faeces using an unbiased sample processing approach with RNA serving as starting material were re-analysed with respect to parasite detection. The taxonomic identification tool RIEMS, used for initial detection, provided basic hints on potential pathogens contained in the datasets. The suspected parasites/intestinal protists (Blastocystis, Entamoeba, Iodamoeba, Neobalantidium, Tetratrichomonas) were verified using subsequently applied reference mapping analyses on the base of rRNA sequences. Nearly full-length gene sequences could be extracted from the RNA-derived datasets. In the case of Blastocystis, subtyping was possible with subtype (ST)15 discovered for the first known time in swine faeces. Using RIEMS, some of the suspected candidates turned out to be false-positives caused by the poor status of sequences in publicly available databases. Altogether, 11 different species/STs of parasites/intestinal protists were detected in 34 out of 41 datasets extracted from metagenomics data. The approach operates without any primer bias that typically hampers the analysis of amplicon-based approaches, and allows the detection and taxonomic classification including subtyping of protist and metazoan endobionts (parasites, commensals or mutualists) based on an abundant biomarker, the 18S rRNA. The generic nature of the approach also allows evaluation of interdependencies that induce mutualistic or pathogenic effects that are often not clear for many intestinal protists and perhaps other parasites. Thus, metagenomics has the potential for generic pathogen identification beyond the characterisation of viruses and bacteria when starting from RNA instead of DNA.


Assuntos
Fezes/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Metagenômica , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Animais , Blastocystis hominis/genética , Blastocystis hominis/isolamento & purificação , Biologia Computacional , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , DNA Ribossômico/química , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Entamoeba/classificação , Entamoeba/genética , Entamoeba/isolamento & purificação , Entamoeba histolytica/genética , Entamoeba histolytica/isolamento & purificação , Enteropatias Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Filogenia , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/genética , RNA Ribossômico 18S/química , Valores de Referência , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Trichomonadida/classificação , Trichomonadida/genética , Trichomonadida/isolamento & purificação
11.
Vet Microbiol ; 230: 235-240, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827394

RESUMO

Pasteurella multocida is an important respiratory tract pathogen in intensive livestock farming, especially in pigs. Antimicrobial agents are frequently used to combat infections caused by this pathogen. In a study on antimicrobial resistance among respiratory tract pathogens of pigs from 30 German pig-producing farms, P. multocida isolates (n = 9) with high minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 16/304 mg/L (n = 2), 32/608 mg/L (n = 3) or ≥64/1216 mg/L (n = 4) for trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (1:19) and of ≥512 mg/L (n = 9) for trimethoprim (TMP) were detected in three of these farms. The genetic relatedness of the isolates was investigated via capsule-specific PCR and macrorestriction analyses with ApaI and SmaI. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed indistinguishable restriction patterns per farm, with slight differences between the three farms. All isolates represented capsular type A. Four representative isolates, that were subjected to whole genome sequencing, shared the multi-locus sequence type (ST) 3. Their plasmids were transformed into E. coli TOP10 with subsequent selection on TMP-containing agar plates. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and plasmid analysis of the transformants confirmed that they were resistant to sulfonamides and trimethoprim and carried only a single small plasmid. This plasmid was completely sequenced and revealed a size of 6050 bp. Sequence analyses identified the presence of a resistance gene cluster comprising the genes sul2-ΔstrA-dfrA14-ΔstrA-ΔstrB. Further analysis identified a dfrA14 gene cassette being integrated into the strA reading frame. Neither the gene dfrA14 nor this gene cluster have been detected before in P. multocida.


Assuntos
Genes Bacterianos , Pasteurella multocida/genética , Suínos/microbiologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Fazendas , Alemanha , Gado/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Família Multigênica , Pasteurella multocida/efeitos dos fármacos , Pasteurella multocida/isolamento & purificação , Plasmídeos/genética , Sulfametoxazol/farmacologia , Doenças dos Suínos/genética , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Trimetoprima/farmacologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
12.
PLoS One ; 13(3): e0193682, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29494671

RESUMO

Porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus, strain CV777, was initially characterized in 1978 as the causative agent of a disease first identified in the UK in 1971. This coronavirus has been widely distributed among laboratories and has been passaged both within pigs and in cell culture. To determine the variability between different stocks of the PEDV strain CV777, sequencing of the full-length genome (ca. 28kb) has been performed in 6 different laboratories, using different protocols. Not surprisingly, each of the different full genome sequences were distinct from each other and from the reference sequence (Accession number AF353511) but they are >99% identical. Unique and shared differences between sequences were identified. The coding region for the surface-exposed spike protein showed the highest proportion of variability including both point mutations and small deletions. The predicted expression of the ORF3 gene product was more dramatically affected in three different variants of this virus through either loss of the initiation codon or gain of a premature termination codon. The genome of one isolate had a substantially rearranged 5´-terminal sequence. This rearrangement was validated through the analysis of sub-genomic mRNAs from infected cells. It is clearly important to know the features of the specific sample of CV777 being used for experimental studies.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Evolução Molecular , Genoma Viral , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Filogenia , Mutação Puntual , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/isolamento & purificação , RNA Viral/química , RNA Viral/genética , Deleção de Sequência , Suínos
13.
Genome Announc ; 5(41)2017 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29025931

RESUMO

We identified porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) in stool samples from sick piglets in the Belgorod region of Russia. The complete coding genome sequence of 28,295 nucleotides (nt) of PEDV was generated. Compared to a prototype PEDV strain (DR13), an extreme number of mismatches in the S gene were revealed.

14.
Viruses ; 9(7)2017 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28684708

RESUMO

Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is an acute and highly contagious enteric disease of swine caused by the eponymous virus (PEDV) which belongs to the genus Alphacoronavirus within the Coronaviridae virus family. Following the disastrous outbreaks in Asia and the United States, PEDV has been detected also in Europe. In order to better understand the overall situation, the molecular epidemiology, and factors that might influence the most variable disease impact; 40 samples from swine feces were collected from different PED outbreaks in Germany and other European countries and sequenced by shot-gun next-generation sequencing. A total of 38 new PEDV complete coding sequences were generated. When compared on a global scale, all investigated sequences from Central and South-Eastern Europe formed a rather homogeneous PEDV S INDEL cluster, suggesting a recent re-introduction. However, in-detail analyses revealed two new clusters and putative ancestor strains. Based on the available background data, correlations between clusters and location, farm type or clinical presentation could not be established. Additionally, the impact of secondary infections was explored using the metagenomic data sets. While several coinfections were observed, no correlation was found with disease courses. However, in addition to the PEDV genomes, ten complete viral coding sequences from nine different data sets were reconstructed each representing new virus strains. In detail, three pasivirus A strains, two astroviruses, a porcine sapelovirus, a kobuvirus, a porcine torovirus, a posavirus, and an enterobacteria phage were almost fully sequenced.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Diarreia/veterinária , Surtos de Doenças , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/classificação , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/genética , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Animais , Análise por Conglomerados , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/virologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Fezes/virologia , Epidemiologia Molecular , Filogenia , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/isolamento & purificação , RNA Viral/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Suínos
15.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 10(7): e0004779, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27459154

RESUMO

There has been limited knowledge on spatio-temporal epidemiology of zoonotic arctic fox rabies among countries bordering the Arctic, in particular Greenland. Previous molecular epidemiological studies have suggested the occurrence of one particular arctic rabies virus (RABV) lineage (arctic-3), but have been limited by a low number of available samples preventing in-depth high resolution phylogenetic analysis of RABVs at that time. However, an improved knowledge of the evolution, at a molecular level, of the circulating RABVs and a better understanding of the historical perspective of the disease in Greenland is necessary for better direct control measures on the island. These issues have been addressed by investigating the spatio-temporal genetic diversity of arctic RABVs and their reservoir host, the arctic fox, in Greenland using both full and partial genome sequences. Using a unique set of 79 arctic RABV full genome sequences from Greenland, Canada, USA (Alaska) and Russia obtained between 1977 and 2014, a description of the historic context in relation to the genetic diversity of currently circulating RABV in Greenland and neighboring Canadian Northern territories has been provided. The phylogenetic analysis confirmed delineation into four major arctic RABV lineages (arctic 1-4) with viruses from Greenland exclusively grouping into the circumpolar arctic-3 lineage. High resolution analysis enabled distinction of seven geographically distinct subclades (3.I - 3.VII) with two subclades containing viruses from both Greenland and Canada. By combining analysis of full length RABV genome sequences and host derived sequences encoding mitochondrial proteins obtained simultaneously from brain tissues of 49 arctic foxes, the interaction of viruses and their hosts was explored in detail. Such an approach can serve as a blueprint for analysis of infectious disease dynamics and virus-host interdependencies. The results showed a fine-scale spatial population structure in Greenland arctic foxes based on mitochondrial sequences, but provided no evidence for independent isolated evolutionary development of RABV in different arctic fox lineages. These data are invaluable to support future initiatives for arctic fox rabies control and elimination in Greenland.


Assuntos
Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Raposas/virologia , Variação Genética , Vírus da Raiva/genética , Vírus da Raiva/isolamento & purificação , Raiva/veterinária , Animais , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Regiões Árticas , Genoma Viral , Groenlândia , Filogenia , Raiva/virologia , Vírus da Raiva/classificação
17.
Virus Res ; 214: 19-25, 2016 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26795868

RESUMO

In order to detect phleboviruses' natural infection in sandflies, an entomological survey was carried out, from May to October in 2007 and 2008, in Arrábida region in the south of Portugal. The isolation of a new phlebovirus was achieved after inoculation of a sandfly pool homogenate in Vero E6 cells. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of the complete genome sequences from the Small, Medium and Large, segments obtained with Next Generation sequencing, we can assume that the new phlebovirus, provisionally named Arrabida virus, is closely related to Massilia, Granada and Punique viruses. This is the first isolation of a sandfly-borne phlebovirus from the Sandfly Naples Fever Virus group in Portugal. Further investigation is needed in order to assess the importance of this phlebovirus for Public Health.


Assuntos
Phlebovirus/genética , Animais , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Genoma Viral , Geografia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Phlebovirus/classificação , Phlebovirus/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Portugal , Psychodidae/virologia , RNA Viral , Recombinação Genética , Proteínas Virais/genética
18.
Vaccine ; 33(43): 5829-5837, 2015 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26387431

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vaccines are the most effective prophylactic public health tools. With the help of vaccines, prevention of infectious disease spread and, in concert with other measures, even eradication has become possible. Until now, licensing and quality control require the determination of consensus genome sequences of replication competent infectious agents contained in vaccines. Recent improvements in sequencing technologies now enable the sequencing of complete genomes and the genetic analysis of populations with high reliability and resolution. The latter is particularly important for RNA viruses, which consist of fluctuating heterogeneous populations rather than genetically stable entities. This information now has to be integrated into the existing regulatory framework, challenging both licensing authorities and vaccine producers to develop new quality control criteria. METHODS: Commercially available modified-live oral rabies vaccines and their precursor strains were deep-sequenced to assess strain identity and relations between strains based on population diversity. Strain relations were inferred based on the Manhattan distances calculated between the compositions of the viral populations of the strains. RESULTS: We provide a novel approach to assess viral strain relations with high resolution and reliability by deep sequencing with subsequent analysis of the overall genetic diversity within the viral populations. A comparison of our novel approach of inferring strain relations based on population data with consensus sequence analysis clearly shows that consensus sequence analysis of diverse viral populations can be misleading. Therefore, for quality control of viral vaccines deep sequencing analysis is to be preferred over consensus sequence analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The presented methodology allows for routine integration of deep sequencing data in vaccine quality control and licensing for highly reliable assessment of strain identity and stability.


Assuntos
Genética Populacional/métodos , Instabilidade Genômica , Vacinas Antirrábicas/genética , Vacinas Antirrábicas/normas , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Tecnologia Farmacêutica/métodos , Variação Genética , Humanos , Controle de Qualidade , RNA Viral/genética , Vírus da Raiva/genética , Vacinas Atenuadas/genética , Vacinas Atenuadas/normas
19.
BMC Vet Res ; 11: 142, 2015 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26135732

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over the last years, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has caused devastating enteric diseases in the US and several countries in Asia, while outbreaks in Europe have only been reported sporadically since the 1980s. At present, only insufficient information is available on currently circulating PEDV strains in Europe and their impact on the European swine industry. In this case report, we present epidemic outbreaks of porcine epidemic diarrhea in three farms in South-Western Germany. CASE PRESENTATION: Epidemic outbreaks of diarrhea affecting pigs of all age groups were reported in three farms, one fattening farm and two piglet producing farms, in South-Western Germany between May and November 2014. In the fattening farm yellowish, watery diarrhea without evidence of mucus or blood was associated with a massive reduction of feed consumption. Severity of clinical signs and mortality in young suckling pigs varied significantly between the two affected sow farms. While mortality in suckling piglets reached almost 70 % in one sow herd, no increase in suckling piglet mortality was observed in the second sow farm. In all three cases, PEDV was confirmed in feces and small intestines by RT-qPCR. Phylogenetic analyses based on full-length PEDV genomes revealed high identity among strains from all three herds. Moreover, the German strains showed very high nucleotide identity (99.4 %) with a variant of PEDV (OH851) that was isolated in the United States in January 2014. This strain with insertions and deletions in the S-gene (so called INDEL strains) was reported to show lower virulence. Slightly lower identities were found with other strains from the US and Asia. CONCLUSION: Phylogenetic information on the distribution of PEDV strains in Europe is severely lacking. In this case report we demonstrate that acute outbreaks of PEDV occurred in southern Germany in 2014. Current strains were clearly different from isolates found in the 1980s and were closely related to a PEDV variant found in the US in 2014. Moreover, the present case report indicates that variant strains of PEDV, containing insertions and deletions in the S gene, which were reported to be of lower virulence, might be able to cause high mortality in suckling piglets.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Fezes/virologia , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia
20.
Virus Res ; 210: 42-5, 2015 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26191622

RESUMO

A brain sample of a straw-coloured fruit bat (Eidolon helvum) from Ghana without evident signs of disease tested positive by generic Lyssavirus RT-PCR and direct antigen staining. Sequence analysis confirmed the presence of a Lagos bat virus belonging to phylogenetic lineage A. Virus neutralization tests using the isolate with sera from the same group of bats yielded neutralizing antibodies in 74% of 567 animals. No cross-neutralization was observed against a different Lagos bat virus (lineage B).


Assuntos
Quirópteros/virologia , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Lyssavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Rhabdoviridae/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Gana/epidemiologia , Lyssavirus/classificação , Infecções por Rhabdoviridae/transmissão , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
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