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1.
Maturitas ; 145: 6-11, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541564

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Fractures are common and disabling health events, particularly later in life. The presence of clinically significant depressive symptoms has been associated with increased risk of fractures, and we designed the present study to clarify if this association is likely to be causal or due to the confounding effect of measures associated with both fractures and depression. METHOD: Cohort study of a community-derived sample of 4224 men aged 70 to 88 years at the start of the follow-up period of up to 17 years. Clinically significant symptoms of depression were defined as a recorded diagnosis of depressive episode in the Western Australian Data Linkage System (WADLS) or by a total score of 7 or greater on the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. Health contacts associated with fractures were retrieved from WADLS. Other measures included age, past history of fractures, education, smoking, frailty, poor vision, falls, medications, and the concentration of vitamin D, homocysteine, hsCRP and testosterone. Death was considered a competing risk for fractures. RESULTS: 911 (21.6%) participants had a bone fracture during follow-up. After adjustment for multiple potential confounders, past and current depression were associated with an increase in the risk of novel fractures; respective odds ratios were 1.41 (95%CI = 1.03, 1.93) and 1.64 (95%CI = 1.20, 2.25). Parsimonious competing risk regression showed that both past and current depression were associated with an increase in the risk of novel fractures: sub-hazard ratio = 1.29 (95%CI = 1.03, 1.63) and 1.27 (95%CI = 1.05, 1.55) respectively. Estimation of confounding due to unmeasured factors showed that a small additional effect could potentially dilute the association between depression and fractures. DISCUSSION: History of clinically significant symptoms of depression is associated with an increased risk of future fractures. This association may be due to multiple other associated risk factors, both measured and unmeasured, but nevertheless the presence of depression should alert clinicians to the need to develop a management plan that includes the management not only of depression but also of fracture risk.

2.
Am Heart J ; 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571477

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ROCKET AF demonstrated the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban compared with warfarin for the prevention of stroke and systemic embolism (SE) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). We examined baseline characteristics and outcomes in patients enrolled in Latin America compared with the rest of the world (ROW). METHODS: ROCKET AF enrolled 14,264 patients from 45 countries. Of these, 1878 (13.2%) were from 7 Latin American countries. The clinical characteristics and outcomes (adjusted by baseline characteristics) of these patients were compared with 12,293 patients from the ROW. Treatment outcomes of rivaroxaban compared with warfarin were also stratified by region. RESULTS: The annual rate of stroke/SE was similar in those from Latin American and ROW (p=0.63), but all-cause and vascular death were significantly higher than in ROW (HR 1.40, 95% CI 1.20-1.64; HR 1.38, 95% CI 1.14-1.68; p<0.001). Rates of major or non-major clinically relevant bleeding tended to be lower in Latin America (HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.80-1.0; p=0.05). Rates of stroke/SE were similar with rivaroxaban and warfarin in patients from Latin America and ROW (HR 0.83, 95% CI 0.54-1.29 vs. HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.75-1.07; interaction p=0.77). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with AF in Latin America had similar rates of stroke/SE, higher rates of vascular death, and lower rates of bleeding compared with patients in the ROW. The effect of rivaroxaban compared with warfarin in Latin America was similar to the ROW. Further studies analyzing patient- and country-specific determinants of these regional differences in Latin America are warranted.

3.
Lancet Neurol ; 20(2): 150-160, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347806

RESUMO

Poor quality diet and nutrition is strongly associated with risk of first stroke, and adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet has been reported to reduce the risk of first stroke. The association between diet quality and the risk of recurrent stroke is less certain and there is no reliable evidence that improving diet quality or dietary supplementation reduces recurrent stroke risk. Current evidence is largely based on epidemiological studies of diverse dietary approaches, ranging from nutritional supplements to specific foods, food groups, and dietary patterns, and is difficult to interpret. In the absence of reliable evidence from randomised clinical trials, the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) approach can be used to assess the potential causal role of diet quality and interventions in reducing recurrent stroke, and to provide guidance for clinical practice and directions for future research. Further work is needed to identify and develop the most promising dietary interventions for evaluation by large randomised clinical trials.


Assuntos
Dieta , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Dieta Mediterrânea , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
4.
Heart ; 2020 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33318082

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hypertension is the most important modifiable risk factor for stroke globally. We hypothesised that country-income level variations in knowledge, detection and treatment of hypertension may contribute to variations in the association of blood pressure with stroke. METHODS: We undertook a standardised case-control study in 32 countries (INTERSTROKE). Cases were patients with acute first stroke (n=13 462) who were matched by age, sex and site to controls (n=13 483). We evaluated the associations of knowledge, awareness and treatment of hypertension with risk of stroke and its subtypes and whether this varied by gross national income (GNI) of country. We estimated OR and population attributable risk (PAR) associated with treated and untreated hypertension. RESULTS: Hypertension was associated with a graded increase in OR by reducing GNI, ranging from OR 1.92 (99% CI 1.48 to 2.49) to OR 3.27 (2.72 to 3.93) for highest to lowest country-level GNI (p-heterogeneity<0.0001). Untreated hypertension was associated with a higher OR for stroke (OR 5.25; 4.53 to 6.10) than treated hypertension (OR 2.60; 2.32 to 2.91) and younger age of first stroke (61.4 vs 65.4 years; p<0.01). Untreated hypertension was associated with a greater risk of intracerebral haemorrhage (OR 6.95; 5.61 to 8.60) than ischaemic stroke (OR 4.76; 3.99 to 5.68). The PAR associated with untreated hypertension was higher in lower-income regions, PAR 36.3%, 26.3%, 19.8% to 10.4% by increasing GNI of countries. Lifetime non-measurement of blood pressure was associated with stroke (OR 1.80; 1.32 to 2.46). CONCLUSIONS: Deficits in knowledge, detection and treatment of hypertension contribute to higher risk of stroke, younger age of onset and larger proportion of intracerebral haemorrhage in lower-income countries.

5.
Am J Hypertens ; 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33197265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although low sodium intake (<2g/day) and high potassium intake (>3·5g/day) are proposed as public health interventions to reduce stroke risk, there is uncertainty about the benefit and feasibility of this combined recommendation on prevention of stroke and its subtypes. METHODS: We obtained random urine samples from 9,275 cases of acute first stroke and 9,726 matched controls (8,761 matched pairs for conditional analysis) from 27 countries and estimated the 24-hour sodium and potassium excretion, a surrogate for intake, using the Tanaka formula. Using multivariable conditional logistic regression, we determined the associations of estimated 24-hour urinary sodium and potassium excretion with stroke and its subtypes. RESULTS: The mean estimated 24-hour sodium and potassium urinary excretion was 3·29g/day and 1·57g/day, with 0·01% of participants having both low sodium (<2·0g/day) and high potassium excretion (>3·5g/day). There was a moderate positive correlation between sodium and potassium excretion (r=0·4435, P<0.001) and between sodium excretion and blood pressure (P<0.001). Compared with an estimated urinary sodium excretion of 2·8-3·5g/day (second quartile, reference), higher (>4·26g/day) (OR 1.81;95%CI,1.65-2.00) and lower (<2·8g/day) sodium excretion (OR 1.39;95%CI,1.26-1.53) were significantly associated with increased risk of stroke. The stroke risk associated with the highest quartile of sodium intake (sodium excretion >4·26g/day) was significantly greater (P<0.001) for intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) (OR 2.38;95%CI,1.93-2.92) than for ischemic stroke (OR 1.67;95%CI,1.50-1.87), and greater for large vessel and small vessel ischemic stroke than for cardioembolic ischemic stroke. Urinary potassium was inversely and linearly associated with risk of stroke, and stronger for ischemic stroke than ICH (P=0.026). In an analysis of combined sodium and potassium excretion, the combination of high potassium intake (>1·58g/day) and moderate sodium intake (2.8-3.5 g/day) was associated with the lowest risk of stroke. CONCLUSION: The association of sodium intake and stroke is J-shaped, with high sodium intake a stronger risk factor for intracerebral haemorrhage than ischemic stroke. Our data suggest that moderate sodium intake - rather than low sodium intake - combined with high potassium intake may be associated with the lowest risk of stroke and expected to be a more feasible combined dietary target.

6.
Trials ; 21(1): 971, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239053

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Three large trials of fluoxetine for stroke recovery (FOCUS (fluoxetine or control under supervision), AFFINITY (the Assessment oF FluoxetINe In sTroke recovery) and EFFECTS (Efficacy oF Fluoxetine-a randomisEd Controlled Trial in Stroke)) have been collaboratively designed with the same basic protocol to facilitate an individual patient data analysis (IPDM). The statistical analysis plan for the three individual trials has already been reported in Trials, including a brief description of the IPDM. In this protocol, we describe in detail how we will perform the IPDM. METHODS/DESIGN: Data from EFFECTS and AFFINITY will be transferred securely to the FOCUS statistician, who will perform a one-stage IPDM and a two-stage IPDM. For the one-stage IPDM, data will be combined into a single data set and the same analyses performed as described for the individual trials. For the two-stage IPDM, the results for the three individual trials will be combined using fixed effects meta-analyses. The primary and secondary outcome domains for the IPDM are the same as for individual trials. We will also perform analyses according to several subgroups including country of recruitment, ethnicity and trial. We will also explore the effects of fluoxetine on our primary and secondary outcomes in subgroups defined by combinations of characteristics. We also describe additional research questions that will be addressed using the combined data set, and published subsequently, including predictors of important post-stroke problems such as seizures, low mood and bone fractures. DISCUSSION: An IPDM of our three large trials of fluoxetine for stroke recovery will allow us to provide the most precise estimates of any risks and benefits of fluoxetine vs placebo, to detect reliably a smaller overall effect size than those detectable by the individual trials, to better determine the effects of fluoxetine vs placebo in subgroups of patients and outcomes and to broaden the generalisability of the results. Also, we may identify differences in treatment effects between studies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: FOCUS: ISRCTN ISRCTN83290762 . Registered on 23 May 2012. EudraCT 2011-005616-29 . Registered on 3 February 2012. AFFINITY: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12611000774921 . Registered on 22 July 2011. EFFECTS: ISRCTN ISRCTN13020412 . Registered on 19 December 2014. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02683213 . Registered on 2 February 2016. EudraCT 2011-006130-16 . Registered on 8 August 2014.

7.
Eur Heart J Suppl ; 22(Suppl I): I13-I21, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33093818

RESUMO

The aims of this article are to review the evidence regarding the use of non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants (NOACs) for secondary stroke prevention as compared to vitamin K antagonists in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and in patients with embolic strokes of uncertain source (ESUS), and when to initiate or resume anticoagulation after an ischaemic stroke or intracranial haemorrhage. Four large trials compared NOACs with warfarin in patients with AF. In our meta-analyses, the rate of all stroke or systemic embolism (SE) was 4.94% with NOACs vs. 5.73% with warfarin. Among the patients with AF and previous transient ischaemic attack or ischaemic stroke, the rate of haemorrhagic stroke was halved with a NOAC vs. warfarin, and the rate of major bleeding was 5.7% with a NOAC vs. 6.4% with warfarin. There was no significant difference in mortality. In a trial comparing apixaban with aspirin in patients with AF, the rate of stroke or SE was 2.4% at 1 year with apixaban vs. 9.2% at 1 year with aspirin and the rates of major bleeding were 4.1% with apixaban vs. 2.9% with aspirin. Data from registries confirmed the results from the randomized trials. Initiation or resumption of anticoagulation after ischaemic stroke or cerebral haemorrhage depends on the size and severity of stroke and the risk of recurrent bleeding. Two large trials tested the hypothesis that NOACs are more effective than 100 mg aspirin in patients with ESUS. Neither trial showed a significant benefit of the NOAC over aspirin. In the meta-analysis, the rate all stroke or SE was 4.94% with NOACs vs. 5.73% with warfarin and the rate of haemorrhagic stroke was halved with a NOAC. The four NOACs had broadly similar efficacy for the major outcomes in secondary stroke prevention.

8.
Stroke ; 51(12): 3770-3777, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33121384

RESUMO

The risks of stroke and dementia increase steeply with age, and both are preventable. At present, the best way to preserve cognitive function is to prevent stroke. Therapeutic nihilism based on age is common and unwarranted. We address recent advances in stroke prevention that could contribute greatly to prevention of stroke and dementia at a time when the aging of the population threatens to markedly increase the incidence of both. Issues discussed: (1) old patients benefit even more from lipid-lowering therapy than do younger patients; (2) patients with stiff arteries are at risk from a target systolic blood pressure <120 mm Hg; (3) the interaction of the intestinal microbiome, age, and renal function has important dietary implications for older adults; (4) anticoagulation with direct-acting oral anticoagulants should be prescribed more to old patients with atrial fibrillation; (5) B vitamins to lower homocysteine prevent stroke; and (6) most old patients in whom intervention is warranted for carotid stenosis would benefit more from endarterectomy than from stenting. An 80-year-old person has much to lose from a stroke and should not have effective therapy withheld on account of age. Lipid-lowering therapy, a more plant-based diet, appropriate anticoagulation or antiplatelet therapy, appropriate blood pressure control, B vitamins to lower homocysteine, and judicious intervention for carotid stenosis could do much to reduce the growing burden of stroke and dementia.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059368

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Serum testosterone concentrations decline with age, while serum sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations increase. OBJECTIVE: To analyse associations of baseline serum testosterone and SHBG concentrations, and calculated free testosterone (cFT) values, with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in men. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The UK Biobank prospective cohort study of community-dwelling men 40-69 years-old, followed for 11 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All-cause, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer-related mortality. Cox proportional hazards regression was performed, adjusting for age, waist circumference, medical conditions and other covariates. Models for testosterone included SHBG, and vice versa. RESULTS: In complete case analysis of 149,436 men with 10,053 deaths (1,925 CVD and 4,927 cancer-related), men with lower testosterone had higher mortality from any cause (lowest vs highest quintile, Q1 vs Q5, fully-adjusted hazard ratio [HR]=1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.06-1.22, overall trend P<0.001), and cancer (HR=1.20, CI=1.09-1.33, P<0.001), with no association for CVD deaths. Similar results were seen for cFT. Men with lower SHBG had lower mortality from any cause (Q1 vs Q5, HR=0.68, CI=0.63-0.73, P<0.001), CVD (HR=0.70, CI=0.59-0.83, P<0.001), and cancer (HR=0.80, CI=0.72-0.89, P<0.001). A multiply-imputed dataset (N=208,425, 15,914 deaths, 3,128 CVD and 7,468 cancer-related) and analysis excluding deaths within first two years (9,261, 1,734 and 4,534 events) yielded similar results. CONCLUSIONS: Lower serum testosterone is independently associated with higher all-cause and cancer-related, but not CVD-related, mortality in middle-aged to older men. Lower SHBG is independently associated with lower all-cause, CVD-related and cancer-related mortality. Confirmation and determination of causality requires mechanistic studies and prospective trials.

10.
Int J Stroke ; : 1747493020961926, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019888

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Effectiveness of early intensive aphasia rehabilitation after stroke is unknown. The Very Early Rehabilitation for SpEech trial (VERSE) aimed to determine whether intensive aphasia therapy, beginning within 14 days after stroke, improved communication recovery compared to usual care. METHODS: Prospective, randomized, single-blinded trial conducted at 17 acute-care hospitals across Australia/New Zealand from 2014 to 2018. Participants with aphasia following acute stroke were randomized to receive usual care (direct usual care aphasia therapy), or one of two higher intensity regimens (20 sessions of either non-prescribed (usual care-plus or prescribed (VERSE) direct aphasia therapy). The primary outcome was improvement of communication on the Western Aphasia Battery-Revised Aphasia Quotient (AQ) at 12 weeks after stroke. Our pre-planned intention to treat analysis combined high intensity groups for the primary outcome. FINDINGS: Among 13,654 acute stroke patients screened, 25% (3477) had aphasia, of whom 25% (866) were eligible and 246 randomized to usual care (n = 81; 33%), usual care-plus (n = 82; 33%) or VERSE (n = 83; 34%). At 12 weeks after stroke, the primary outcome was assessed in 217 participants (88%); 14 had died, 9 had withdrawn, and 6 were too unwell for assessment. Communication recovery was 50.3% (95% CI 45.7-54.8) in the high intensity group (n = 147) and 52.1% (95% CI 46.1-58.1) in the usual care group (n = 70; difference -1.8, 95% CI -8.7-5.0). There was no difference between groups in non-fatal or fatal adverse events (p = 0.72). INTERPRETATION: Early, intensive aphasia therapy did not improve communication recovery within 12 weeks post stroke compared to usual care.

11.
N Engl J Med ; 383(19): 1838-1847, 2020 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865380

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence from a recent trial has shown that the antiinflammatory effects of colchicine reduce the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with recent myocardial infarction, but evidence of such a risk reduction in patients with chronic coronary disease is limited. METHODS: In a randomized, controlled, double-blind trial, we assigned patients with chronic coronary disease to receive 0.5 mg of colchicine once daily or matching placebo. The primary end point was a composite of cardiovascular death, spontaneous (nonprocedural) myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or ischemia-driven coronary revascularization. The key secondary end point was a composite of cardiovascular death, spontaneous myocardial infarction, or ischemic stroke. RESULTS: A total of 5522 patients underwent randomization; 2762 were assigned to the colchicine group and 2760 to the placebo group. The median duration of follow-up was 28.6 months. A primary end-point event occurred in 187 patients (6.8%) in the colchicine group and in 264 patients (9.6%) in the placebo group (incidence, 2.5 vs. 3.6 events per 100 person-years; hazard ratio, 0.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.57 to 0.83; P<0.001). A key secondary end-point event occurred in 115 patients (4.2%) in the colchicine group and in 157 patients (5.7%) in the placebo group (incidence, 1.5 vs. 2.1 events per 100 person-years; hazard ratio, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.57 to 0.92; P = 0.007). The incidence rates of spontaneous myocardial infarction or ischemia-driven coronary revascularization (composite end point), cardiovascular death or spontaneous myocardial infarction (composite end point), ischemia-driven coronary revascularization, and spontaneous myocardial infarction were also significantly lower with colchicine than with placebo. The incidence of death from noncardiovascular causes was higher in the colchicine group than in the placebo group (incidence, 0.7 vs. 0.5 events per 100 person-years; hazard ratio, 1.51; 95% CI, 0.99 to 2.31). CONCLUSIONS: In a randomized trial involving patients with chronic coronary disease, the risk of cardiovascular events was significantly lower among those who received 0.5 mg of colchicine once daily than among those who received placebo. (Funded by the National Health Medical Research Council of Australia and others; LoDoCo2 Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry number, ACTRN12614000093684.).

12.
Diving Hyperb Med ; 50(3): 300-302, 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957135

RESUMO

A 75 year-old male developed features of an acute stroke following bubble contrast echocardiography, which was shown on emergent computed tomography scanning to be a result of cerebral arterial gas embolism (CAGE) to the left middle cerebral artery. Ischaemic stroke symptoms have previously been reported as a rare complication of bubble contrast echocardiography. Radiologically proven CAGE from bubble contrast echocardiography had not been reported at the time this case occurred. Immediate provision of 100% oxygen and administration of hyperbaric oxygen are recommended treatments for CAGE and were associated with a substantial recovery for this patient.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , Embolia Aérea , Forame Oval Patente , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Idoso , Ecocardiografia , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana , Embolia Aérea/diagnóstico por imagem , Embolia Aérea/etiologia , Embolia Aérea/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia
13.
Neurorehabil Neural Repair ; 34(9): 844-855, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940147

RESUMO

Background and Aims. White blood cell (WBC) and neutrophil counts (NC) are common markers of inflammation and neurological stroke damage and could be expected to predict poststroke outcomes. Objective. The aim of this study was to explore the prognostic value of early poststroke WBC and NC to predict cognition, mood, and disability outcomes at 3 and 12 months poststroke. Methods. Routine clinical analyses WBC and NC were collected at 3 time points in the first 4 days of hospitalization from 156 acute stroke patients. Correlations using hierarchical or ordinal regressions were explored between acute WBC and NC and functional recovery, depression, and cognition at 3 and 12 months poststroke, after covarying for age and baseline stroke severity. Results. We found significant increases in NC between <12 hours and 24 to 48 hours time points (P = .05). Hierarchical regressions, covaried for age and baseline stroke severity, found that 24 to 48 hours WBC (P = .05) and NC (P = .04) significantly predicted 3-month cognition scores. Similarly, 24 to 48 hours WBC (P = .05) and NC (P = .02) predicted cognition scores at 12 months. Increases in WBC and NC were predictive of increased cognition scores at both 3 and 12 months (positive recovery) though there were no significant associations between WBC and NC and disability or depression scores. Conclusions. Routine acute stroke clinical laboratory tests such as WBC and NC taken between 24 and 48 hours poststroke are predictive of cognition poststroke. It is interpreted that higher rapid immunological activation in the acute phase is an indicator for the trajectory of positive stroke recovery.

14.
Front Neurol ; 11: 692, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32849183

RESUMO

Currently the longitudinal proteomic profile of post-ischemic stroke recovery is relatively unknown with few well-accepted biomarkers or understanding of the biological systems that underpin recovery. We aimed to characterize plasma derived biological pathways associated with recovery during the first year post event using a discovery proteomics workflow coupled with a topological pathway systems biology approach. Blood samples (n = 180, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid plasma) were collected from a subgroup of 60 first episode stroke survivors from the Australian START study at 3 timepoints: 3-7 days (T1), 3-months (T2) and 12-months (T3) post-stroke. Samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry using label-free quantification (data available at ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD015006). Differential expression analysis revealed that 29 proteins between T1 and T2, and 33 proteins between T1 and T3 were significantly different, with 18 proteins commonly differentially expressed across the two time periods. Pathway analysis was conducted using Gene Graph Enrichment Analysis on both the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes and Reactome databases. Pathway analysis revealed that the significantly differentiated proteins between T1 and T2 were consistently found to belong to the complement pathway. Further correlational analyses utilized to examine the changes in regulatory effects of proteins over time identified significant inhibitory regulation of clusterin on complement component 9. Longitudinal post-stroke blood proteomics profiles suggest that the alternative pathway of complement activation remains in a state of higher activation from 3-7 days to 3 months post-stroke, while simultaneously being regulated by clusterin and vitronectin. These findings also suggest that post-stroke induced sterile inflammation and immunosuppression could inhibit recovery within the 3-month window post-stroke.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32761187

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Telomeres are essential DNA-protein complexes whose attrition results in cellular dysfunction and senescence. Leucocyte telomere length (LTL) correlates with tissue telomere length, representing a biomarker for biological age. However its predictive value for mortality risk, and for cardiovascular vs cancer deaths, in older adults remains uncertain. METHODS: We studied 3,608 community-dwelling men aged 77.0±3.6 years. LTL was measured using multiplex quantitative PCR, expressed as amount of telomeric DNA relative to single-copy control gene (T/S ratio). Deaths from any cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer were ascertained using data linkage. Curve fitting used restricted cubic splines and Cox regression analyses adjusted for age, cardiometabolic risk factors and prevalent disease. RESULTS: There was a U-shaped association of LTL with all-cause mortality. Men with T/S ratio in the middle quartiles had lower mortality (quartiles, Q2 vs Q1, hazard ratio HR=0.86, 95% confidence interval CI=0.77-0.97, p=0.012, Q3 vs Q1 HR=0.88, CI=0.79-0.99, p=0.032). There was no association of LTL with CVD mortality. There was a U-shaped association of LTL with cancer mortality. Men with LTL in the middle quartiles had lower risk of cancer death (Q2 vs Q1, HR=0.73, CI=0.59-0.90, p=0.004, Q3 vs Q1, HR=0.75, CI=0.61-0.92, p=0.007). CONCLUSIONS: In older men both shorter and longer LTL are associated with all-cause mortality. A similar U-shaped association was seen with cancer deaths, with no association found for cardiovascular deaths. Further research is warranted to explore the prognostic utility of LTL in ageing.

16.
Clin Trials ; 17(5): 576-580, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650688

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Central adjudication of outcomes is common for randomised trials and should control for differential misclassification. However, few studies have estimated the cost of the adjudication process. METHODS: We estimated the cost of adjudicating the primary outcome in nine randomised stroke trials (25,436 participants). The costs included adjudicators' time, direct payments to adjudicators, and co-ordinating centre costs (e.g. uploading cranial scans and general set-up costs). The number of events corrected after adjudication was our measure of benefit. We calculated cost per corrected event for each trial and in total. RESULTS: The primary outcome in all nine trials was either stroke or a composite that included stroke. In total, the adjudication process associated with this primary outcome cost in excess of £100,000 for a third of the trials (3/9). Mean cost per event corrected by adjudication was £2295.10 (SD: £1482.42). CONCLUSIONS: Central adjudication is a time-consuming and potentially costly process. These costs need to be considered when designing a trial and should be evaluated alongside the potential benefits adjudication brings to determine whether they outweigh this expense.

17.
JAMA Neurol ; 2020 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628266

RESUMO

Importance: The concept of embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS) unifies a subgroup of cryptogenic strokes based on neuroimaging, a defined minimum set of diagnostic tests, and exclusion of certain causes. Despite an annual stroke recurrence rate of 5%, little is known about the etiology underlying recurrent stroke after ESUS. Objective: To identify the stroke subtype of recurrent ischemic strokes after ESUS, to explore the interaction with treatment assignment in each category, and to examine the consistency of cerebral location of qualifying ESUS and recurrent ischemic stroke. Design, Setting, and Participants: The NAVIGATE-ESUS trial was a randomized clinical trial conducted from December 23, 2014, to October 5, 2017. The trial compared the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban and aspirin in patients with recent ESUS (n = 7213). Ischemic stroke was validated in 309 of the 7213 patients by adjudicators blinded to treatment assignment and classified by local investigators into the categories ESUS or non-ESUS (ie, cardioembolic, atherosclerotic, lacunar, other determined cause, or insufficient testing). Five patients with recurrent strokes that could not be defined as ischemic or hemorrhagic in absence of neuroimaging or autopsy were excluded. Data for this secondary post hoc analysis were analyzed from March to June 2019. Interventions: Patients were randomly assigned to receive rivaroxaban, 15 mg/d, or aspirin, 100 mg/d. Main Outcomes and Measures: Association of recurrent ESUS with stroke characteristics. Results: A total of 309 patients (205 men [66%]; mean [SD] age, 68 [10] years) had ischemic stroke identified during the median follow-up of 11 (interquartile range [IQR], 12) months (annualized rate, 4.6%). Diagnostic testing was insufficient for etiological classification in 39 patients (13%). Of 270 classifiable ischemic strokes, 156 (58%) were ESUS and 114 (42%) were non-ESUS (37 [32%] cardioembolic, 26 [23%] atherosclerotic, 35 [31%] lacunar, and 16 [14%] other determined cause). Atrial fibrillation was found in 27 patients (9%) with recurrent ischemic stroke and was associated with higher morbidity (median change in modified Rankin scale score 2 [IQR, 3] vs 0 (IQR, 1]) and mortality (15% vs 1%) than other causes. Risk of recurrence did not differ significantly by subtype between treatment groups. For both the qualifying and recurrent strokes, location of infarct was more often in the left (46% and 54%, respectively) than right hemisphere (40% and 37%, respectively) or brainstem or cerebellum (14% and 9%, respectively). Conclusions and Relevance: In this secondary analysis of randomized clinical trial data, most recurrent strokes after ESUS were embolic and of undetermined source. Recurrences associated with atrial fibrillation were a minority but were more often disabling and fatal. More extensive investigation to identify the embolic source is important toward an effective antithrombotic strategy. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02313909.

20.
Trials ; 21(1): 388, 2020 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32381037

RESUMO

Following publication of the original article [1], we were notified that one of the corresponding author's affiliations was omitted.

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