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1.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 17560, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31772215

RESUMO

The sarcolemmal voltage gated sodium channel NaV1.4 conducts the key depolarizing current that drives the upstroke of the skeletal muscle action potential. It contains four voltage-sensing domains (VSDs) that regulate the opening of the pore domain and ensuing permeation of sodium ions. Mutations that lead to increased NaV1.4 currents are found in patients with myotonia or hyperkalaemic periodic paralysis (HyperPP). Myotonia is also caused by mutations in the CLCN1gene that result in loss-of-function of the skeletal muscle chloride channel ClC-1. Mutations affecting arginine residues in the fourth transmembrane helix (S4) of the NaV1.4 VSDs can result in a leak current through the VSD and hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HypoPP), but these have hitherto not been associated with myotonia. We report a patient with an Nav1.4 S4 arginine mutation, R222Q, presenting with severe myotonia without fulminant paralytic episodes. Other mutations affecting the same residue, R222W and R222G, have been found in patients with HypoPP. We show that R222Q channels have enhanced activation, consistent with myotonia, but also conduct a leak current. The patient carries a concomitant synonymous CLCN1 variant that likely worsens the myotonia and potentially contributes to the amelioration of muscle paralysis. Our data show phenotypic variability for different mutations affecting the same S4 arginine that have implications for clinical therapy.

2.
Hum Genet ; 138(11-12): 1313-1322, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31673819

RESUMO

Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) deficiency caused by mutations in the X-linked PDHA1 gene has a broad clinical presentation, and the pattern of X-chromosome inactivation has been proposed as a major factor contributing to its variable expressivity in heterozygous females. Here, we report the first set of monozygotic twin females with PDC deficiency, caused by a novel, de novo heterozygous missense mutation in exon 11 of PDHA1 (NM_000284.3: c.1100A>T). Both twins presented in infancy with a similar clinical phenotype including developmental delay, episodes of hypotonia or encephalopathy, epilepsy, and slowly progressive motor impairment due to pyramidal, extrapyramidal, and cerebellar involvement. However, they exhibited clear differences in disease severity that correlated well with residual PDC activities (approximately 60% and 20% of mean control values, respectively) and levels of immunoreactive E1α subunit in cultured skin fibroblasts. To address whether the observed clinical and biochemical differences could be explained by the pattern of X-chromosome inactivation, we undertook an androgen receptor assay in peripheral blood. In the less severely affected twin, a significant bias in the relative activity of the two X chromosomes with a ratio of approximately 75:25 was detected, while the ratio was close to 50:50 in the other twin. Although it may be difficult to extrapolate these results to other tissues, our observation provides further support to the hypothesis that the pattern of X-chromosome inactivation may influence the phenotypic expression of the same mutation in heterozygous females and broadens the clinical and genetic spectrum of PDC deficiency.

4.
Neuromuscul Disord ; 29(10): 747-757, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561939

RESUMO

Diagnosis of inherited myopathies can be a challenging and lengthy process due to broad genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity. In this study we applied focused exome sequencing to investigate a cohort of 100 complex adult myopathy cases who remained undiagnosed despite extensive investigation. We evaluated the frequency of genetic diagnoses, clinical and pathological factors most likely to be associated with a positive diagnosis, clinical pitfalls and new phenotypic insights that could help to guide future clinical practice. We identified pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants in 32/100 cases. TTN-related myopathy was the most common diagnosis (4/32 cases) but the majority of positive diagnoses related to a single gene each. Childhood onset of symptoms was more likely to be associated with a positive diagnosis. Atypical and new clinico-pathological phenotypes with diagnostic pitfalls were identified. These include the new emerging group of neuromyopathy genes (HSPB1, BICD2) and atypical biopsy findings: COL6A-related myopathy with mitochondrial features, DOK7 presenting as myopathy with minicores and DES-related myopathy without myofibrillar pathology. Our data demonstrates the diagnostic efficacy of broad NGS screening when combined with detailed clinico-pathological phenotyping in a complex neuromuscular cohort. Atypical clinico-pathological features may delay the diagnostic process if smaller targeted gene panels are used.

5.
Lancet Neurol ; 18(9): 834-844, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397289

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inclusion body myositis is an idiopathic inflammatory myopathy and the most common myopathy affecting people older than 50 years. To date, there are no effective drug treatments. We aimed to assess the safety, efficacy, and tolerability of bimagrumab-a fully human monoclonal antibody-in individuals with inclusion body myositis. METHODS: We did a multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (RESILIENT) at 38 academic clinical sites in Australia, Europe, Japan, and the USA. Individuals (aged 36-85 years) were eligible for the study if they met modified 2010 Medical Research Council criteria for inclusion body myositis. We randomly assigned participants (1:1:1:1) using a blocked randomisation schedule (block size of four) to either bimagrumab (10 mg/kg, 3 mg/kg, or 1 mg/kg) or placebo matched in appearance to bimagrumab, administered as intravenous infusions every 4 weeks for at least 48 weeks. All study participants, the funder, investigators, site personnel, and people doing assessments were masked to treatment assignment. The primary outcome measure was 6-min walking distance (6MWD), which was assessed at week 52 in the primary analysis population and analysed by intention-to-treat principles. We used a multivariate normal repeated measures model to analyse data for 6MWD. Safety was assessed by recording adverse events and by electrocardiography, echocardiography, haematological testing, urinalysis, and blood chemistry. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01925209; this report represents the final analysis. FINDINGS: Between Sept 26, 2013, and Jan 6, 2016, 251 participants were enrolled to the study, of whom 63 were assigned to each bimagrumab group and 62 were allocated to the placebo group. At week 52, 6MWD change from baseline did not differ between any bimagrumab dose and placebo (least squares mean treatment difference for bimagrumab 10 mg/kg group, 17·6 m, SE 14·3, 99% CI -19·6 to 54·8; p=0·22; for 3 mg/kg group, 18·6 m, 14·2, -18·2 to 55·4; p=0·19; and for 1 mg/kg group, -1·3 m, 14·1, -38·0 to 35·4; p=0·93). 63 (100%) participants in each bimagrumab group and 61 (98%) of 62 in the placebo group had at least one adverse event. Falls were the most frequent adverse event (48 [76%] in the bimagrumab 10 mg/kg group, 55 [87%] in the 3 mg/kg group, 54 [86%] in the 1 mg/kg group, and 52 [84%] in the placebo group). The most frequently reported adverse events with bimagrumab were muscle spasms (32 [51%] in the bimagrumab 10 mg/kg group, 43 [68%] in the 3 mg/kg group, 25 [40%] in the 1 mg/kg group, and 13 [21%] in the placebo group) and diarrhoea (33 [52%], 28 [44%], 20 [32%], and 11 [18%], respectively). Adverse events leading to discontinuation were reported in four (6%) participants in each bimagrumab group compared with one (2%) participant in the placebo group. At least one serious adverse event was reported by 21 (33%) participants in the 10 mg/kg group, 11 (17%) in the 3 mg/kg group, 20 (32%) in the 1 mg/kg group, and 20 (32%) in the placebo group. No significant adverse cardiac effects were recorded on electrocardiography or echocardiography. Two deaths were reported during the study, one attributable to subendocardial myocardial infarction (secondary to gastrointestinal bleeding after an intentional overdose of concomitant sedatives and antidepressants) and one attributable to lung adenocarcinoma. Neither death was considered by the investigator to be related to bimagrumab. INTERPRETATION: Bimagrumab showed a good safety profile, relative to placebo, in individuals with inclusion body myositis but did not improve 6MWD. The strengths of our study are that, to the best of our knowledge, it is the largest randomised controlled trial done in people with inclusion body myositis, and it provides important natural history data over 12 months. FUNDING: Novartis Pharma.

6.
Neurology ; 93(9): e895-e907, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391248

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the use of muscle MRI for the differential diagnosis and as a disease progression biomarker for 2 major forms of motor neuron disorders: spinal bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). METHODS: We applied quantitative 3-point Dixon and semiquantitative T1-weighted and short tau inversion recovery (STIR) imaging to bulbar and lower limb muscles and performed clinical and functional assessments in ALS (n = 21) and SBMA (n = 21), alongside healthy controls (n = 16). Acquired images were analyzed for the presence of fat infiltration or edema as well as specific patterns of muscle involvement. Quantitative MRI measurements were correlated with clinical measures of disease severity in ALS and SBMA. RESULTS: Quantitative imaging revealed significant fat infiltration in bulbar (p < 0.001) and limb muscles in SBMA compared to controls (thigh: p < 0.001; calf: p = 0.001), identifying a characteristic pattern of muscle involvement. In ALS, semiquantitative STIR imaging detected marked hyperintensities in lower limb muscles, distinguishing ALS from SBMA and controls. Finally, MRI measurements correlated significantly with clinical scales of disease severity in both ALS and SBMA. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that muscle MRI differentiates between SBMA and ALS and correlates with disease severity, supporting its use as a diagnostic tool and biomarker for disease progression. This highlights the clinical utility of muscle MRI in motor neuron disorders and contributes to establish objective outcome measures, which is crucial for the development of new drugs.

7.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 90(11): 1270-1275, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171583

RESUMO

Identifying effective disease-modifying therapies for neurological diseases remains an important challenge in drug discovery and development. Drug repurposing attempts to determine new indications for pre-existing compounds and represents a major opportunity to address this clinically unmet need. It is potentially more cost-effective and time-efficient than de novo drug development and has yielded notable successes in neurological disorders. However, across all medical disciplines, only 30% of repurposed drugs, and 10% of novel candidate molecules, gain market approval. One potentially significant contributor towards this limited success rate is an incomplete knowledge of the exposure-response relationships for the compounds of interest, and how these relate to the new indication, prior to commencing a new trial. We provide an overview of the current approach to early-stage drug repurposing and consider the issues contributing to inconclusive, or possibly falsely negative, Phase II and III trial outcomes in neurological diseases by highlighting examples that illustrate the limitations of empirical evidence generation without a strong scientific basis for the dose rationale. We conclude with a framework suggesting a translational, iterative approach, that integrates pharmacological, pharmaceutical and clinical expertise, towards preclinical and early clinical drug development. This ensures appropriate dosing regimen, route of administration and/or formulation are selected for the new indication before their evaluation in prospective clinical trials.

8.
Ann Neurol ; 86(2): 310-315, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187502

RESUMO

Distinct clinical syndromes have been associated with pathogenic MT-ATP6 variants. In this cohort study, we identified 125 individuals (60 families) including 88 clinically affected individuals and 37 asymptomatic carriers. Thirty-one individuals presented with Leigh syndrome and 7 with neuropathy ataxia retinitis pigmentosa. The remaining 50 patients presented with variable nonsyndromic features including ataxia, neuropathy, and learning disability. We confirmed maternal inheritance in 39 families and demonstrated that tissue segregation patterns and phenotypic threshold are variant dependent. Our findings suggest that MT-ATP6-related mitochondrial DNA disease is best conceptualized as a mitochondrial disease spectrum disorder and should be routinely included in genetic ataxia and neuropathy gene panels. ANN NEUROL 2019;86:310-315.

10.
Hum Mol Genet ; 28(16): 2711-2719, 2019 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039582

RESUMO

Mitochondrial disorders are clinically and genetically heterogeneous and are associated with a variety of disease mechanisms. Defects of mitochondrial protein synthesis account for the largest subgroup of disorders manifesting with impaired respiratory chain capacity; yet, only a few have been linked to dysfunction in the protein components of the mitochondrial ribosomes. Here, we report a subject presenting with dyskinetic cerebral palsy and partial agenesis of the corpus callosum, while histochemical and biochemical analyses of skeletal muscle revealed signs of mitochondrial myopathy. Using exome sequencing, we identified a homozygous variant c.215C>T in MRPS25, which encodes for a structural component of the 28S small subunit of the mitochondrial ribosome (mS25). The variant segregated with the disease and substitutes a highly conserved proline residue with leucine (p.P72L) that, based on the high-resolution structure of the 28S ribosome, is predicted to compromise inter-protein contacts and destabilize the small subunit. Concordant with the in silico analysis, patient's fibroblasts showed decreased levels of MRPS25 and other components of the 28S subunit. Moreover, assembled 28S subunits were scarce in the fibroblasts with mutant mS25 leading to impaired mitochondrial translation and decreased levels of multiple respiratory chain subunits. Crucially, these abnormalities were rescued by transgenic expression of wild-type MRPS25 in the mutant fibroblasts. Collectively, our data demonstrate the pathogenicity of the p.P72L variant and identify MRPS25 mutations as a new cause of mitochondrial translation defect.

11.
Muscle Nerve ; 60(2): 161-168, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31107564

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Inclusion Body Myositis Functional Rating Scale (IBMRFS) is a 10-item clinician-rated ordinal scale developed for people with inclusion body myositis. METHODS: Single observations of the IBMFRS were collected from 132 patients. After Rasch analysis, modifications were made to the scale to optimize fit to the Rasch model while maintaining clinical validity and utility. RESULTS: The original IBMFRS did not fit the assumptions of the Rasch model because of multidimensionality of the scale. Items assessed local dependence, disordered step thresholds, and differential item functioning. Deconstructing the scale into upper limb (IBMFRS-UL) and lower limb (IBMFRS-LL) scales improved fit to the Rasch model. A 9-item scale with the swallowing item removed (IBMFRS-9) remained multidimensional but demonstrated the ability to discriminate patients along the severity continuum. IBMFRS-UL, IBMFRS-LL, and IBMFRS-9 scores were transformed to a 0-100 scale for comparability. DISCUSSION: This analysis has led to the development of 3 optimized versions of the IBMFRS. Muscle Nerve 60: 161-168, 2019.


Assuntos
Extremidade Inferior/fisiopatologia , Miosite de Corpos de Inclusão/fisiopatologia , Extremidade Superior/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
12.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(7): 996-1002, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138531

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) are a spectrum of rare autoimmune diseases characterised clinically by muscle weakness and heterogeneous systemic organ involvement. The strongest genetic risk is within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Since autoantibody presence defines specific clinical subgroups of IIM, we aimed to correlate serotype and genotype, to identify novel risk variants in the MHC region that co-occur with IIM autoantibodies. METHODS: We collected available autoantibody data in our cohort of 2582 Caucasian patients with IIM. High resolution human leucocyte antigen (HLA) alleles and corresponding amino acid sequences were imputed using SNP2HLA from existing genotyping data and tested for association with 12 autoantibody subgroups. RESULTS: We report associations with eight autoantibodies reaching our study-wide significance level of p<2.9×10-5. Associations with the 8.1 ancestral haplotype were found with anti-Jo-1 (HLA-B*08:01, p=2.28×10-53 and HLA-DRB1*03:01, p=3.25×10-9), anti-PM/Scl (HLA-DQB1*02:01, p=1.47×10-26) and anti-cN1A autoantibodies (HLA-DRB1*03:01, p=1.40×10-11). Associations independent of this haplotype were found with anti-Mi-2 (HLA-DRB1*07:01, p=4.92×10-13) and anti-HMGCR autoantibodies (HLA-DRB1*11, p=5.09×10-6). Amino acid positions may be more strongly associated than classical HLA associations; for example with anti-Jo-1 autoantibodies and position 74 of HLA-DRB1 (p=3.47×10-64) and position 9 of HLA-B (p=7.03×10-11). We report novel genetic associations with HLA-DQB1 anti-TIF1 autoantibodies and identify haplotypes that may differ between adult-onset and juvenile-onset patients with these autoantibodies. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide new insights regarding the functional consequences of genetic polymorphisms within the MHC. As autoantibodies in IIM correlate with specific clinical features of disease, understanding genetic risk underlying development of autoantibody profiles has implications for future research.

13.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 90(8): 895-906, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30995999

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Hereditary sensory neuropathy type 1 (HSN1) is a rare, slowly progressive neuropathy causing profound sensory deficits and often severe motor loss. L-serine supplementation is a possible candidate therapy but the lack of responsive outcome measures is a barrier for undertaking clinical trials in HSN1. We performed a 12-month natural history study to characterise the phenotype of HSN1 and to identify responsive outcome measures. METHODS: Assessments included Charcot-Marie-Tooth Neuropathy Score version 2 (CMTNSv2), CMTNSv2-Rasch modified, nerve conduction studies, quantitative sensory testing, intraepidermal nerve fibre density (thigh), computerised myometry (lower limbs), plasma 1-deoxysphingolipid levels, calf-level intramuscular fat accumulation by MRI and patient-based questionnaires (Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory and 36-Short Form Health Survey version 2 [SF-36v2]). RESULTS: 35 patients with HSN1 were recruited. There was marked heterogeneity in the phenotype mainly due to differences between the sexes: males generally more severely affected. The outcome measures that significantly changed over 1 year and correlated with CMTNSv2, SF-36v2-physical component and disease duration were MRI determined calf intramuscular fat accumulation (mean change in overall calf fat fraction 2.36%, 95% CI 1.16 to 3.55, p=0.0004), pressure pain threshold on the hand (mean change 40 kPa, 95% CI 0.7 to 80, p=0.046) and myometric measurements of ankle plantar flexion (median change -0.5 Nm, IQR -9.5 to 0, p=0.0007), ankle inversion (mean change -0.89 Nm, 95% CI -1.66 to -0.12, p=0.03) and eversion (mean change -1.61 Nm, 95% CI -2.72 to -0.51, p=0.006). Intramuscular calf fat fraction was the most responsive outcome measure. CONCLUSION: MRI determined calf muscle fat fraction shows validity and high responsiveness over 12 months and will be useful in HSN1 clinical trials.

14.
Neurology ; 92(15): e1773-e1785, 2019 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30850441

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this phase 2 trial was to ascertain the feasibility and effect of community-based aerobic exercise training for people with 2 of the more common neuromuscular diseases: Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT) and inclusion body myositis (IBM). METHODS: A randomized single-blinded crossover trial design was used to compare a 12-week aerobic training program using recombinant exercise bicycles compared to a control period. The training occurred 3 times per week in community gyms local to the participants. Support was available from trained gym staff and a research physiotherapist. The 2 disease groups were analyzed separately. The primary outcome measure was peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) during a maximal exercise test, with secondary measures of muscle strength, function, and patient-reported measures. RESULTS: Data from 23 people with CMT and 17 people with IBM were included in the analysis. Both disease groups had high levels of participation and demonstrated improvements in VO2 peak, with a moderate effect size in the CMT participants (Cohen d = 0.53) and a strong effect size in the IBM group (Cohen d = 1.72). No major changes were observed in the secondary outcome measures. Qualitative interviews revealed that participants valued the support of gym instructors and the research physiotherapists in overcoming challenges to participation. CONCLUSION: Twelve weeks of aerobic training in community gyms was feasible, safe, and improved aerobic capacity in people with CMT and IBM. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class II evidence that for patients with CMT type 1A and IBM, an aerobic training program increases aerobic capacity.

15.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 3539, 2019 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30837566

RESUMO

Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) results from a CAG repeat expansion within the androgen receptor gene (AR). It is unclear why motor neurons selectively degenerate and there are currently no treatments for this debilitating disease. To uncover the causative genes and pathways involved in motor neuron dysfunction, we undertook transcriptomic profiling of primary embryonic motor neurons from SBMA mice. We show that transcriptional dysregulation occurs early during development in SBMA motor neurons. One gene found to be dysregulated, Chmp7, was also altered in vivo in spinal cord before symptom onset in SBMA mice, and crucially in motor neuron precursor cells derived from SBMA patient stem cells, suggesting that Chmp7 may play a causal role in disease pathogenesis by disrupting the endosome-lysosome system. Furthermore, genes were enriched in SBMA motor neurons in several key pathways including p53, DNA repair, WNT and mitochondrial function. SBMA embryonic motor neurons also displayed dysfunctional mitochondria along with DNA damage, possibly resulting from DNA repair gene dysregulation and/or mitochondrial dysfunction. This indicates that a coordinated dysregulation of multiple pathways leads to development of SBMA. Importantly, our findings suggest that the identified pathways and genes, in particular Chmp7, may serve as potential therapeutic targets in SBMA.

16.
Neurology ; 92(13): e1405-e1415, 2019 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30824560

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify the genetic and physiologic basis for recessive myasthenic congenital myopathy in 2 families, suggestive of a channelopathy involving the sodium channel gene, SCN4A. METHODS: A combination of whole exome sequencing and targeted mutation analysis, followed by voltage-clamp studies of mutant sodium channels expressed in fibroblasts (HEK cells) and Xenopus oocytes. RESULTS: Missense mutations of the same residue in the skeletal muscle sodium channel, R1460 of NaV1.4, were identified in a family and a single patient of Finnish origin (p.R1460Q) and a proband in the United States (p.R1460W). Congenital hypotonia, breathing difficulties, bulbar weakness, and fatigability had recessive inheritance (homozygous p.R1460W or compound heterozygous p.R1460Q and p.R1059X), whereas carriers were either asymptomatic (p.R1460W) or had myotonia (p.R1460Q). Sodium currents conducted by mutant channels showed unusual mixed defects with both loss-of-function (reduced amplitude, hyperpolarized shift of inactivation) and gain-of-function (slower entry and faster recovery from inactivation) changes. CONCLUSIONS: Novel mutations in families with myasthenic congenital myopathy have been identified at p.R1460 of the sodium channel. Recessive inheritance, with experimentally established loss-of-function, is a consistent feature of sodium channel based myasthenia, whereas the mixed gain of function for p.R1460 may also cause susceptibility to myotonia.

17.
Mitochondrion ; 47: 294-297, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30743023

RESUMO

Adult-onset Leigh syndrome is a rare but important manifestation of mitochondrial disease. We report a 17 year old female who presented with subacute encephalopathy, brainstem and extrapyramidal signs, raised CSF lactate, and symmetrical hyperintensities in the basal ganglia on T2-weighted cerebral MRI. The presence of cytochrome c oxidase deficient fibres in muscle tissue prompted sequencing of the entire mitochondrial genome which revealed the novel stop codon mutation m.6579G>A; p.Gly226X in MT-CO1. Here we present the case and review the clinicopathological and molecular spectrum of previously reported MT-CO1 truncating mutations.

19.
Brain ; 141(12): 3308-3318, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30423015

RESUMO

Hypokalaemic periodic paralysis is a rare genetic neuromuscular disease characterized by episodes of skeletal muscle paralysis associated with low serum potassium. Muscle fibre inexcitability during attacks of paralysis is due to an aberrant depolarizing leak current through mutant voltage sensing domains of either the sarcolemmal voltage-gated calcium or sodium channel. We report a child with hypokalaemic periodic paralysis and CNS involvement, including seizures, but without mutations in the known periodic paralysis genes. We identified a novel heterozygous de novo missense mutation in the ATP1A2 gene encoding the α2 subunit of the Na+/K+-ATPase that is abundantly expressed in skeletal muscle and in brain astrocytes. Pump activity is crucial for Na+ and K+ homeostasis following sustained muscle or neuronal activity and its dysfunction is linked to the CNS disorders hemiplegic migraine and alternating hemiplegia of childhood, but muscle dysfunction has not been reported. Electrophysiological measurements of mutant pump activity in Xenopus oocytes revealed lower turnover rates in physiological extracellular K+ and an anomalous inward leak current in hypokalaemic conditions, predicted to lead to muscle depolarization. Our data provide important evidence supporting a leak current as the major pathomechanism underlying hypokalaemic periodic paralysis and indicate ATP1A2 as a new hypokalaemic periodic paralysis gene.

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