Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 58
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Nano Lett ; 2020 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484679

RESUMO

Understanding the mechanism and ultimately directing nanocrystal (NC) superlattice assembly and attachment have important implications on future advances in this emerging field. Here, we use 4D-STEM to investigate a monolayer of PbS NCs at various stages of the transformation from a hexatic assembly to a nonconnected square-like superlattice over large fields of view. Maps of nanobeam electron diffraction patterns acquired with an electron microscope pixel array detector (EMPAD) offer unprecedented detail into the 3D crystallographic alignment of the polyhedral NCs. Our analysis reveals that superlattice transformation is dominated by translation of prealigned NCs strongly coupled along the <11n>AL direction and occurs stochastically and gradually throughout single grains. We validate the generality of the proposed mechanism by examining the structure of analogous PbSe NC assemblies using conventional transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction. The experimental results presented here provide new mechanistic insights into NC self-assembly and oriented attachment.

2.
Langmuir ; 2020 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32390432

RESUMO

We investigated the physicochemical and transport phenomena governing the self-assembly of colloidal nanoparticles at the interface of two immiscible fluids. By combining in situ grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) with a temporal resolution of 200 ms and electron microscopy measurements, we gained new insights into the coupled effects of solvent spreading, nanoparticle assembly, and recession of the vapor-liquid interface on the morphology of the self-assembled thin films. We focus on oleate-passivated PbSe nanoparticles dispersed across an ethylene glycol subphase as a model system and demonstrate how solvent parameters such as surface tension, nanoparticle solubility, aromaticity, and polarity influence the mesoscale morphology of the nanoparticle superlattice. We discovered that a nanoparticle precursor monolayer film spreads in front of the bulk solution and influences the fluid spreading across the subphase. Improved understanding of the impact of kinetic phenomena (i.e., solvent spreading and evaporation) on the superlattice morphology is important to describe the formation mechanism and ultimately enable the assembly of high-quality superlattices with long-range order.

3.
Nat Mater ; 19(1): 2-3, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31611670
4.
ACS Nano ; 13(10): 11460-11468, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502825

RESUMO

Periodic arrays of strongly coupled colloidal quantum dots (QDs) may enable unprecedented control of electronic band structure through manipulation of QD size, shape, composition, spacing, and assembly geometry. This includes the possibilities of precisely engineered bandgaps and charge carrier mobilities, as well as remarkable behaviors such as metal-insulator transitions, massless carriers, and topological states. However, experimental realization of these theoretically predicted electronic structures is presently limited by structural disorder. Here, we use aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy to precisely quantify the orientational disorder of epitaxially connected QD films. In spite of coherent atomic connectivity between nearest neighbor QDs, we find misalignment persists with a standard deviation of 1.9°, resulting in significant bending strain localized to the adjoining necks. We observe and quantify a range of out-of-plane particle orientations over thousands of QDs and correlate the in-plane and out-of-plane misalignments, finding QDs misoriented out-of-plane display a statistically greater misalignment with respect to their in-plane neighbors as well. Using the bond orientational order metric ψ4, we characterize the 4-fold symmetry and introduce a quantification of the local superlattice (SL) orientation. This enables direct comparison between local orientational order in the SL and atomic lattice (AL). We find significantly larger variations in the SL orientation and a statistically robust but locally highly variable correlation between the orientations of the two differently scaled lattices. Distinct AL and SL behaviors are observed about a grain boundary, with a sharp boundary in the AL orientations, but a more smooth transition in the SL, facilitated by lattice deformation between the neighboring grains. Coupling between the AL and SL is a fundamental driver of film growth, and these results suggest nontrivial underlying mechanics, implying that simplified models of epitaxial attachment may be insufficient to understand QD growth and disorder when oriented attachment and superlattice growth occur in concert.

5.
Science ; 363(6428): 731-735, 2019 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30765565

RESUMO

Structural transformations in molecules and solids have generally been studied in isolation, whereas intermediate systems have eluded characterization. We show that a pair of cadmium sulfide (CdS) cluster isomers provides an advantageous experimental platform to study isomerization in well-defined, atomically precise systems. The clusters coherently interconvert over an ~1-electron volt energy barrier with a 140-milli-electron volt shift in their excitonic energy gaps. There is a diffusionless, displacive reconfiguration of the inorganic core (solid-solid transformation) with first order (isomerization-like) transformation kinetics. Driven by a distortion of the ligand-binding motifs, the presence of hydroxyl species changes the surface energy via physisorption, which determines "phase" stability in this system. This reaction possesses essential characteristics of both solid-solid transformations and molecular isomerizations and bridges these disparate length scales.

6.
ChemSusChem ; 11(11): 1781-1786, 2018 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29786966

RESUMO

We demonstrate a simple strategy to enhance the CO2 reduction reaction (CO2 RR) selectivity by applying a pulsed electrochemical potential to a polycrystalline copper electrode. By controlling the pulse duration, we show that the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is highly suppressed to a fraction of the original value (<5 % faradaic efficiency) and selectivity for the CO2 RR dramatically improves (>75 % CH4 and >50 % CO faradaic efficiency). We attribute the improved CO2 RR selectivity to a dynamically rearranging surface coverage of hydrogen and intermediate species during the pulsing. Our finding provides new insights into the interplay of transport and reaction processes as well as timescales of competing pathways to enable new opportunities to tune CO2 RR selectivity by adjusting the pulse profile. Additionally, the pulsed potential method we describe can be easily applied to other catalysts materials to improve their CO2 RR selectivity.

7.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(10): 3652-3662, 2018 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29376343

RESUMO

Magic-sized clusters (MSCs) are renowned for their identical size and closed-shell stability that inhibit conventional nanoparticle (NP) growth processes. Though MSCs have been of increasing interest, understanding the reaction pathways toward their nucleation and stabilization is an outstanding issue. In this work, we demonstrate that high concentration synthesis (1000 mM) promotes a well-defined reaction pathway to form high-purity MSCs (>99.9%). The MSCs are resistant to typical growth and dissolution processes. On the basis of insights from in situ X-ray scattering analysis, we attribute this stability to the accompanying production of a large (>100 nm grain size), hexagonal organic-inorganic mesophase that arrests growth of the MSCs and prevents NP growth. At intermediate concentrations (500 mM), the MSC mesophase forms, but is unstable, resulting in NP growth at the expense of the assemblies. These results provide an alternate explanation for the high stability of MSCs. Whereas the conventional mantra has been that the stability of MSCs derives from the precise arrangement of the inorganic structures (i.e., closed-shell atomic packing), we demonstrate that anisotropic clusters can also be stabilized by self-forming fibrous mesophase assemblies. At lower concentration (<200 mM or >16 acid-to-metal), MSCs are further destabilized and NPs formation dominates that of MSCs. Overall, the high concentration approach intensifies and showcases inherent concentration-dependent surfactant phase behavior that is not accessible in conventional (i.e., dilute) conditions. This work provides not only a robust method to synthesize, stabilize, and study identical MSC products but also uncovers an underappreciated stabilizing interaction between surfactants and clusters.

8.
Microsc Microanal ; 23(6): 1150-1158, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29224582

RESUMO

Electron tomography has become a valuable and widely used tool for studying the three-dimensional nanostructure of materials and biological specimens. However, the incomplete tilt range provided by conventional sample holders limits the fidelity and quantitative interpretability of tomographic images by leaving a "missing wedge" of unknown information in Fourier space. Imaging over a complete range of angles eliminates missing wedge artifacts and dramatically improves tomogram quality. Full-range tomography is usually accomplished using needle-shaped samples milled from bulk material with focused ion beams, but versatile specimen preparation methods for nanoparticles and other fine powders are lacking. In this work, we present a new preparation technique in which powder specimens are supported on carbon nanofibers that extend beyond the end of a tungsten needle. Using this approach, we produced tomograms of platinum fuel cell catalysts and gold-decorated strontium titanate photocatalyst specimens. Without the missing wedge, these tomograms are free from elongation artifacts, supporting straightforward automatic segmentation and quantitative analysis of key materials properties such as void size and connectivity, and surface area and curvature. This approach may be generalized to other samples that can be dispersed in liquids, such as biological structures, creating new opportunities for high-quality electron tomography across disciplines.

9.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 8(12): 2623-2628, 2017 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28530835

RESUMO

The formation of epitaxially connected quantum dot solids involves a complex interplay of interfacial assembly, surface chemistry, and irreversible-directed attachment. We describe the basic mechanism in the context of a coherent phase transition with distinct nucleation and propagation steps. The proposed mechanism explains how defects in the preassembled structure influence nucleation and how basic geometric relationships govern the transformation from hexagonal assemblies of isolated dots to interconnected solids with square symmetry. We anticipate that new mechanistic insights will guide future advances in the formation of high-fidelity quantum dot solids with enhanced grain size, interconnectivity, and control over polymorph structures.

10.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(15): 13500-13507, 2017 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28368112

RESUMO

Epitaxially connected assemblies of nanocrystals (NCs) present an interesting new class of nanomaterial in which confinement of charge carriers is intermediate between that of a quantum dot and a quantum well. Despite impressive advances in the formation of high-fidelity assemblies, predicted collective properties have not yet emerged. A critical knowledge gap toward realizing these properties is the current lack of understanding of and control over the formation of epitaxial interdot bonds connecting the NCs within the assemblies. In this work we demonstrate successive ionic layer absorption and reaction (SILAR) to enhance the interdot bonding within the NC assembly. SILAR treatment improved the fraction of interdot bonds from 82% to 91% and increased their width from 3.1 to 4.0 nm. Absorption spectra and charge transport measurements indicate that the effect of postassembly growth on quantum confinement in this system depends on the composition of the SILAR shell material. Increased NC film conductance following SILAR processing indicates that building and strengthening interdot bonds lead to increased electronic coupling and doping in the assemblies. The postassembly film growth detailed here presents an opportunity to repair structural defects and to tailor the balance of quantum confinement and interdot coupling in epitaxially connected NC assemblies.

11.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 53(19): 2866-2869, 2017 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28218315

RESUMO

Optoelectronic properties of nanoparticles are intimately coupled to the complex physiochemical interplay between the inorganic core and the organic ligand shell. Magic-sized clusters, which are predominately surface atoms, provide a promising avenue to clarify these critical surface interactions. Whereas these interactions impact the surface of both nanoparticles and magic-sized clusters, we show here that only clusters manifest a shift in the excitonic peak by up to 0.4 eV upon solvent or ligand treatment. These results highlight the utility of the clusters as a probe of ligand-surface interactions.

12.
Nano Lett ; 16(9): 5714-8, 2016 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27540863

RESUMO

Epitaxially connected superlattices of self-assembled colloidal quantum dots present a promising route toward exquisite control of electronic structure through precise hierarchical structuring across multiple length scales. Here, we uncover propagation of disorder as an essential feature in these systems, which intimately connects order at the atomic, superlattice, and grain scales. Accessing theoretically predicted exotic electronic states and highly tunable minibands will therefore require detailed understanding of the subtle interplay between local and long-range structure. To that end, we developed analytical methods to quantitatively characterize the propagating disorder in terms of a real paracrystal model and directly observe the dramatic impact of angstrom scale translational disorder on structural correlations at hundreds of nanometers. Using this framework, we discover improved order accompanies increasing sample thickness and identify the substantial effect of small fractions of missing epitaxial bonds on statistical disorder. These results have significant experimental and theoretical implications for the elusive goals of long-range carrier delocalization and true miniband formation.

13.
Nat Mater ; 15(5): 557-63, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26901512

RESUMO

Epitaxial attachment of quantum dots into ordered superlattices enables the synthesis of quasi-two-dimensional materials that theoretically exhibit features such as Dirac cones and topological states, and have major potential for unprecedented optoelectronic devices. Initial studies found that disorder in these structures causes localization of electrons within a few lattice constants, and highlight the critical need for precise structural characterization and systematic assessment of the effects of disorder on transport. Here we fabricated superlattices with the quantum dots registered to within a single atomic bond length (limited by the polydispersity of the quantum dot building blocks), but missing a fraction (20%) of the epitaxial connections. Calculations of the electronic structure including the measured disorder account for the electron localization inferred from transport measurements. The calculations also show that improvement of the epitaxial connections will lead to completely delocalized electrons and may enable the observation of the remarkable properties predicted for these materials.

14.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 7(4): 642-6, 2016 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26807665

RESUMO

Surface states of colloidal nanocrystals are typically created when organic surfactants are removed. We report a chemical process that reduces surface traps and tunes the interparticle coupling in PbS nanocrystal thin films after the surfactant ligands have been stripped off. This process produces PbS/PbI2 core/shell nanocrystal thin films via a combined ammonium sulfide and iodine treatment. These all-inorganic nanocrystal thin films are air-stable and exhibit bright emission with optimum photoluminescence quantum yield close to that of pristine PbS nanocrystals passivated by oleate ligands. Interparticle coupling of post-treatment nanocrystal thin films is continuously tunable by varying the iodine treatment process. Optical studies reveal that this method can produce PbS nanocrystal thin films superior in both coupling and surface quality to nanocrystals linked by small molecules such as ethanedithiol or 3-mercaptopropionic acid.


Assuntos
Iodo/química , Chumbo/química , Nanopartículas , Sulfetos/química , Coloides , Luminescência , Espectroscopia Fotoeletrônica , Propriedades de Superfície
15.
Nano Lett ; 16(2): 967-72, 2016 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26536402

RESUMO

Much of the promise of nanomaterials derives from their size-dependent, and hence tunable, properties. Impressive advances have been made in the synthesis of nanoscale building blocks with precisely tailored size, shape and composition. Significant attention is now turning toward creating thin film structures in which size-dependent properties can be spatially programmed with high fidelity. Nonequilibrium processing techniques present exciting opportunities to create nanostructured thin films with unprecedented spatial control over their optical and electronic properties. Here, we demonstrate single scan laser spike annealing (ssLSA) on CdSe nanocrystal (NC) thin films as an experimental test bed to illustrate how the size-dependent photoluminescence (PL) emission can be tuned throughout the visible range and in spatially defined profiles during a single annealing step. Through control of the annealing temperature and time, we discovered that NC fusion is a kinetically limited process with a constant activation energy in over 2 orders of magnitude of NC growth rate. To underscore the broader technological implications of this work, we demonstrate the scalability of LSA to process large area NC films with periodically modulated PL emission, resulting in tunable emission properties of a large area film. New insights into the processing-structure-property relationships presented here offer significant advances in our fundamental understanding of kinetics of nanomaterials as well as technological implications for the production of nanomaterial films.


Assuntos
Compostos de Cádmio/química , Lasers , Nanopartículas/química , Compostos de Selênio/química , Cinética , Luz , Luminescência , Pontos Quânticos/química , Propriedades de Superfície
16.
J Am Chem Soc ; 137(50): 15843-51, 2015 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26592380

RESUMO

Realizing the promise of nanoparticle-based technologies demands more efficient, robust synthesis methods (i.e., process intensification) that consistently produce large quantities of high-quality nanoparticles (NPs). We explored NP synthesis via the heat-up method in a regime of previously unexplored high concentrations near the solubility limit of the precursors. We discovered that in this highly concentrated and viscous regime the NP synthesis parameters are less sensitive to experimental variability and thereby provide a robust, scalable, and size-focusing NP synthesis. Specifically, we synthesize high-quality metal sulfide NPs (<7% relative standard deviation for Cu2-xS and CdS), and demonstrate a 10-1000-fold increase in Cu2-xS NP production (>200 g) relative to the current field of large-scale (0.1-5 g yields) and laboratory-scale (<0.1 g) efforts. Compared to conventional synthesis methods (hot injection with dilute precursor concentration) characterized by rapid growth and low yield, our highly concentrated NP system supplies remarkably controlled growth rates and a 10-fold increase in NP volumetric production capacity (86 g/L). The controlled growth, high yield, and robust nature of highly concentrated solutions can facilitate large-scale nanomanufacturing of NPs by relaxing the synthesis requirements to achieve monodisperse products. Mechanistically, our investigation of the thermal and rheological properties and growth rates reveals that this high concentration regime has reduced mass diffusion (a 5-fold increase in solution viscosity), is stable to thermal perturbations (∼64% increase in heat capacity), and is resistant to Ostwald ripening.

17.
Nano Lett ; 15(9): 6254-60, 2015 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26280872

RESUMO

We grew large single three-dimensional supercrystals from colloidal Pt nanocubes (NCs) suspended in hexane. A synchrotron-based two circle diffractometer was used to obtain an unprecedented level of detail from full sets of small/wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS) patterns. Automatic indexing and simulations of X-ray patterns enabled detailed reconstruction of NC translation and shape orientation within the supercrystals from atomic to mesometric levels. The supercrystal has an obtuse rhombohedral (Rh) superlattice with space group R3m and a trigonal cell angle of 106.2°. Individual NCs orient themselves in a manner of atomic Pt[111] parallel to superlattice Rh[111]. We analyzed the superlattice structure in context of three spatial relationships of proximate NCs including face-to-face, edge-to-edge, and corner-to-corner configurations. Detailed analysis of supercrystal structure reveals nearly direct corner-to-corner contacts and a tight interlocking NC structure. We employed the correlations between strain and lattice distortion and established the first structural correlating mechanism between five superlattice polymorphs to elucidate the superlattice transformations and associated developing pathways. Together, the experimental and modeling results provide comprehensive structural information toward controlling design and efficient materials-processing for large fabrication of nanobased functional materials with tailored structures and desired properties.


Assuntos
Nanoestruturas/química , Nanoestruturas/ultraestrutura , Platina/química , Cristalografia/métodos , Modelos Moleculares , Espalhamento a Baixo Ângulo , Difração de Raios X
18.
ACS Nano ; 9(4): 4096-102, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25787088

RESUMO

As nanocrystal (NC) synthesis techniques and device architectures advance, it becomes increasingly apparent that new ways of connecting NCs with each other and their external environment are required to realize their considerable potential. Enhancing inter-NC coupling by thermal annealing has been a long-standing challenge. Conventional thermal annealing approaches are limited by the challenge of annealing the NC at sufficiently high temperatures to remove surface-bound ligands while at the same time limiting the thermal budget to prevent large-scale aggregation. Here we investigate nonequilibrium laser annealing of NC thin films that enables separation of the kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of nanocrystal fusion. We show that laser annealing of NC assemblies on nano- to microsecond time scales can transform initially isolated NCs in a thin film into an interconnected structure in which proximate dots "just touch". We investigate both pulsed laser annealing and laser spike annealing and show that both annealing methods can produce "confined-but-connected" nanocrystal films. We develop a thermal transport model to rationalize the differences in resulting film morphologies. Finally we show that the insights gained from study of nanocrystal mono- and bilayers can be extended to three-dimensional NC films. The basic processing-structure-property relationships established in this work provide guidance to future advances in creating functional thin films in which constituent NCs can purposefully interact.


Assuntos
Lasers , Chumbo/química , Nanopartículas/química , Compostos de Selênio/química , Temperatura Alta , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular
19.
Langmuir ; 31(6): 2028-35, 2015 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25616130

RESUMO

X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements have been employed to determine structural and bonding changes, as a function of the lithium content/state of charge, of germanium nanowires used as the active anode material within lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Our data, collected throughout the course of battery cycling (operando), indicate that lithium incorporation within the nanostructured germanium occurs heterogeneously, preferentially into amorphous regions over crystalline domains. Maintenance of the molecular structural integrity within the germanium nanowire is dependent on the depth of discharge. Discharging to a shallower cutoff voltage preserves partial crystallinity for several cycles.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Germânio/química , Lítio/química , Nanofios/química , Análise Espectral , Difração de Raios X , Eletrodos
20.
Sci Rep ; 4: 6731, 2014 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25339169

RESUMO

Binary nanocrystal superlattices present unique opportunities to create novel interconnected nanostructures by partial fusion of specific components of the superlattice. Here, we demonstrate the binary AB6 superlattice of PbSe and Fe2O3 nanocrystals as a model system to transform the central hexamer of PbSe nanocrystals into a single fused particle. We present detailed structural analysis of the superlattices by combining high-resolution X-ray scattering and electron microscopy. Molecular dynamics simulations show optimum separation of nanocrystals in agreement with the experiment and provide insights into the molecular configuration of surface ligands. We describe the concept of nanocrystal superlattices as a versatile 'nanoreactor' to create and study novel materials based on precisely defined size, composition and structure of nanocrystals into a mesostructured cluster. We demonstrate 'controlled fusion' of nanocrystals in the clusters in reactions initiated by thermal treatment and pulsed laser annealing.


Assuntos
Compostos Férricos/química , Chumbo/química , Nanopartículas/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Compostos de Selênio/química , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA